• Hybrid Electric Power Systems In Remote Arctic Villages: Economic And Environmental Analysis For Monitoring, Optimization, And Control

      Agrawal, Ashish N.; Wies, Richard (2006)
      The need for energy-efficient and reliable electric power in remote arctic communities of Alaska is a driving force for research in this work. Increasing oil prices, high transportation costs for fuels, and new environmental standards have forced many utilities to explore hybrid energy systems in an attempt to reduce the cost of electricity (COE). This research involves the development of a stand-alone hybrid power system model using MATLABRTM SimulinkRTM for synthesizing the power system data and performing the economic and environmental analysis of remote arctic power systems. The hybrid model consists of diesel electric generators (DEGs), a battery bank, a photovoltaic (PV) array, and wind turbine generators (WTGs). The economic part of the model is used to study the sensitivity analysis of fuel cost and the investment rate on the COE, the life cycle cost (LCC) of the system, and the payback time of the system. The environmental part of the model calculates the level of various pollutants including carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and the particulate matter (PM10). The environmental analyses part of the model also calculates the avoided cost of various pollutants. The developed model was used to study the economics and environmental impacts of a stand-alone DEG system installed at the University of Alaska Fairbanks Energy Center, the wind-diesel-battery hybrid power system installed at Wales Village, Alaska, and the PV-diesel-battery hybrid power system installed at Lime Village, Alaska. The model was also used to predict the performance of a designed PV-wind-diesel-battery system for Kongiganak Village. The results obtained from the SimulinkRTM model were in close agreement with those predicted by the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables (HOMER) software developed at National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).
    • Modeling and optimization of hybrid electric power systems for remote locations in extreme northern climates

      Agrawal, Ashish N. (2003-08)
      This thesis presents a long-term performance model of a hybrid electrical power system for remote locations in various parts of the world. The model incorporates the performance of different components of the hybrid power system in extreme northern climates. The hybrid model presented uses the graphical user interface available in MATLAB Simulink. Two variations of the hybrid model were developed. One model consists of a photo voltaic (PV) array with a diesel-battery system and the other model consists of a wind turbine with a diesel-battery system. The main performance criterion by which the system was evaluated is the percentage of fuel savings relative to the diesel only case. The results show the significant savings in fuel consumption due to the penetration of the battery bank, the photovoltaic module and the wind turbines in the diesel-only system, while increasing the overall efficiency of the system. This simulation tool will help designers to determine the best hybrid mix of diesel generation, battery storage, photovoltaics, and wind generation for optimal performance of the system in remote villages like those found in Alaska and other developing countries. Examples are presented based on actual systems in the remote Alaskan communities of Lime Village (PV with a diesel-battery) and Wales Village (wind with a diesel-battery).