• Hydrological Interpretation of Basin Morphology

      Fox, John D. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1978-08)
      Hydrologic processes in a particular basin are governed by three groups of factors: input regimes of mass and energy, the nature of mass and energy transfer and transformation, and the biophysical characteristics of the basin. This third group provides the structural or morphological framework in which hydrologic processes are taking place and, as such, contributes significantly to the uniqueness of specific basin response.
    • Hydrometeorological Literature Review for the Delta-Clearwater Creek Area

      Fox, John D. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1978-06)
      Phase One of this study consists of a search for existing hydrometeorological data or other information relevant to environmental baseline studies of the Delta-Clearwater Creek agricultural development project. A general summary of this literature search is presented below; a detailed annotated bibliography immediately follows the summary. Phase Two consists initially of a preliminary analysis, based on existing information, of the local water budget, the groundwater regime, and the potential for transport of agricultural chemicals into the water system. Finally, evaluation and comments on the adequacy or sufficiency of existing data and recommendation for future work are made. Selected charts, diagrams, or tables of data have been included in the text where such information is relevant, but not voluminous.
    • Snowmelt -frozen soil characteristics for a subarctic setting

      Kane, Douglas L.; Seifert, Richard D.; Fox, John D.; Taylor, George S. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1978-01)
      The pathways of soil water in cold climates are influenced, in addition to the normal forces, by the presence of permafrost and the temperature gradients in the soil system, whereas the infiltration of surface water into the soil system is a function of moisture levels, soil type and condition of the soil (whether it is frozen or not). Snowfall, with subsequent surface storage over a period of several months, typifies Alaskan winters. This snowfall often accounts for 50 per cent or more of the annual precipitation, with ablation occurring over a time span of 2 to 3 weeks in the spring. The melt period represents an event when large quantities of water may enter the soil system; the possibilities exist for recharging the groundwater system, or else generating surface runoff. The objective of this study was to determine the magnitude of potential groundwater recharge from snowmelt. Instrumentation was installed and monitored over two winter seasons to quantify the accumulation and ablation of the snowpack. Thermal and moisture data were collected to characterize the snow pack and soil conditions prior to, during, and following the ablation. Lysimeters were installed at various depths to intercept soil water. The volume of potential areal recharge for 1976 was 3.5 cm and for 1977 was 3.0 cm, which represented about 35 per cent of the maximum snowpack content. It is concluded that permafrost-free areas can contribute significantly to groundwater recharge during snowmelt ablation.