• Saline Conversion and Ice Structures from Artificially Grown Sea Ice

      Peyton, H. R.; Johnson, P. R.; Behlke, C. E. (University of Alaska, Arctic Environmental Engineering Laboratory and University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1967-09)
      The environment of cold regions is generally viewed as inhospitable, primarily due to application of ideal processes and techniques suitable to temperate zones. The work herein is a step toward solving two environmental problems. The first involves the supply of inexpensive, potable water in Arctic regions, the lack of which is a severe detriment to development. Although water does exist in the Arctic, it is neither available in potable form during many months of the year nor does it occur in sufficient quantity near the point of use. Principally, this lack is caused by the aridness of the Arctic and the shallowness of fresh water sources which, for all practical purposes, do not exist but freeze completely each winter season. The remaining liquid water source is the sea. Arctic problems are then similar to other arid regions where the conversion of sea water to potable water or the transmission of potable water to desired locations is necessary. Cold temperatures generally preclude transmission except over very short distances. Desalination by freezing sea water is a much reported process and has been included among the desalination processes under study worldwide. The advantage of this method in the Arctic is the cold winter-time temperature for freezing and the existence of adequate solar energy in the summer for melting self purified ice. Power requirements are greatly reduced using these natural phenomena. The second aspect of this study concerns the use of artificially grown sea ice as a structural material, thinking primarily in terms of coastal facilities such as docks, jetties, islands, platforms, etc. At sufficiently high latitudes, the summer ablation can be controlled to the point where major structures can be maintained intact during the summer. The unit cost of material is quite low because of low energy requirements. The results of this study show that each of these sea water uses have considerable promise. Desalination to potable level was accomplished. Ice growth rates were obtained which indicate that ice structures of substantial size can be built.