• A Mechanical Evaluation Of Alaskan White Spruce

      Syta, Dean Edward; Curtis, Kevin; Gasbarro, Tony; Raad, Luffi (1993)
      This project serves to demonstrate the usefulness of Alaskan White Spruce as a construction material. This is done through the development of allowable strength values for design purposes. Such values allow engineers to design structures using Alaskan White Spruce, increasing the usefulness of the wood species.<p> The mechanical properties of Alaskan White Spruce are investigated. Summaries of the mechanical properties and of subsequently developed allowable structural design values are given. Included are discussions of the Alaskan White Spruce species, general wood behavior, mechanical testing of wood, statistical data analysis, and allowable property development. Results are compared against the work of other researchers. Appendices of test data are given.<p> Test results and subsequent data analysis indicate Alaskan White Spruce possesses strength similar to Douglas-Fir/Larch lumber and higher strength than Spruce/Pine/Fir type lumbers. This indicates that Alaskan White Spruce may have considerable worth as a construction material. <p>
    • A Methodology For Intelligent Honeypot Deployment And Active Engagement Of Attackers

      Hecker, Christopher R.; Nance, Kara; Hay, Brian (2012)
      The internet has brought about tremendous changes in the way we see the world, allowing us to communicate at the speed of light, and dramatically changing the face of business forever. Organizations are able to share their business strategies and sensitive or proprietary information across the globe in order to create a sense of cohesiveness. This ability to share information across the vastness of the internet also allows attackers to exploit these different avenues to steal intellectual property or gather information vital to the national security of an entire nation. As technology advances to include more devices accessing an organization's network and as more business is handled via the internet, attackers' opportunities increase daily. Honeypots were created in response to this cyber warfare. Honeypots provide a technique to gather information about attackers performing reconnaissance on a network or device without the voluminous logs obtained by the majority of intrusion detection systems. This research effort provides a methodology to dynamically generate context-appropriate honeynets. Administrators are able to modify the system to conform to the target environment and gather the information passively or through increasing degrees of active scanning. The information obtained during the process of scanning the environment aids the administrator in creating a network topology and understanding the flux of devices in the network. This research continues the effort to defend an organization's networks against the onslaught of attackers.
    • A Sounding Rocket Attitude Determination Algorithm Suitable For Implementation Using Low Cost Sensors

      Charlton, Mark Christopher; Hawkins, Joseph G. (2003)
      The development of low-cost sensors has generated a corresponding movement to integrate them into many different applications. One such application is determining the rotational attitude of an object. Since many of these low-cost sensors are less accurate than their more expensive counterparts, their noisy measurements must be filtered to obtain optimum results. This work describes the development, testing, and evaluation of four filtering algorithms for the nonlinear sounding rocket attitude determination problem. Sun sensor, magnetometer, and rate sensor measurements are simulated. A quatenion formulation is used to avoid singularity problems associated with Euler angles and other three-parameter approaches. Prior to filtering, Gauss-Newton error minimization is used to reduce the six reference vector components to four quaternion components that minimize a quadratic error function. Two of the algorithms are based on the traditional extended Kalman filter (EKF) and two are based on the recently developed unscented Kalman filter (UKF). One of each incorporates rate measurements, while the others rely on differencing quaternions. All incorporate a simplified process model for state propagation allowing the algorithms to be applied to rockets with different physical characteristics, or even to other platforms. Simulated data are used to develop and test the algorithms, and each successfully estimates the attitude motion of the rocket, to varying degrees of accuracy. The UKF-based filter that incorporates rate sensor measurements demonstrates a clear performance advantage over both EKFs and the UKF without rate measurements. This is due to its superior mean and covariance propagation characteristics and the fact that differencing generates noisier rates than measuring. For one sample case, the "pointing accuracy" of the rocket spin axis is improved by approximately 39 percent over the EKF that uses rate measurements and by 40 percent over the UKF without rates. The performance of this UKF-based algorithm is evaluated under other-than-nominal conditions and proves robust with respect to data dropouts, motion other than predicted and over a wide range of sensor accuracies. This UKF-based algorithm provides a viable low cost alternative to the expensive attitude determination systems currently employed on sounding rockets.
    • Adaptation of engineering education in emerging technological revolution: a review

      Agbaraji, Casmir I. (2000-05)
      The future of engineering education has been a subject of concern in past years. There is no doubt that changes are needed to keep abreast with the new tools of technology and business, and to attract students. The planning of curricula should be governed by the definition of an engineer as the creator for public goods and by the demands of the industry. The tools that were available for engineering education in the past, those that are being presently used, and the techniques that dominate in the twenty-first century are analyzed. The problems associated with the new engineering education are discussed. The areas of engineering education that need improvement are highlighted. The current role of engineers in organization is analyzed. Engineering education will be challenged as never before, to shape the nature and quality of life in the twenty-first century. Engineering education will be at the forefront to meet these challenges.
    • Adsorption of Cu (II) and Cd (II) by chininous polymers

      Zhang, Hong (2006-12)
      Heavy metal contamination has emerged as a major health problem worldwide. Biosorption, using biological waste products as sorbents, may provide a cost effective treatment strategy. The current study investigated several types of biomass, generated from waste crab shells, as bio-sorbents to remove cadmium and copper in a batch reaction system. Isotherm studies suggested that uptake increased with increasing number of amine groups, i.e. increasing degree of deacetylation (DDA) as measured by hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR) as well as Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy. Potentiometric titration was shown not to be a valid method in measuring the DDA for medium DDA range. pH was proven to be a main factor affecting the adsorption because of the considerable competition of protons for the binding sites at low pH. Cu²+ had higher affinity than Cd²⁺ to the chitinous polymer. Metal adsorption was elevated by high ionic strength because of more adsorption sites becoming accessible as a result of significant expansion of the network under high ionic strength. Sulfate as salt, added in the solution, greatly stimulated the adsorption of metal ions by reducing the repulsion force between the charged surface and the metal cations.
    • Aerodynamic heating of the student rocket project-5 sounding rocket

      Mudunuri, Venkata; Goering, Douglas; Das, Debendra K.; Hawkins, Joseph (2005-05)
      This thesis deals with the calculation of the flow properties and heat transfer around the rocket nose cone for Student Rocket Project-5 (SRP-5). Governing differential equations are presented for this purpose, giving the fundamental relations between the skin temperature and flight history. The determination of all the required parameters in the equations is discussed, and the Runge-Kutta numerical method of integration is used to obtain the solution. A model to implement the above equations to predict skin temperature for the given trajectory was built in SIMULINK®. Individual sub-systems of the SIMULINK® model are used to calculate local tree-stream values, Reynolds number, heat absorption capacity and skin friction coefficient. The SIMULINK® model was used to predict the variation of the skin temperature for the SRP-5 flight trajectory. The simulation results also show comparisons of the different subsystem outputs with data provided by the contractor for the NASA Sounding Rocket Contract (NSROC).
    • Agricultural limestone demand requirements and supply production in Alaska, a thesis

      Sanusi, A.C. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1983)
      The need for agricultural limestone to neutralize acidic soils and enhance plant growth in the Agricultural Project Areas of the state has prompted this research project on limestone demand requirements and production in Alaska. Based on the possible maximum agricultural lands (500,000 acres) available for production within the next 10 years <1983-1992) and the average agricultural limestone requirements of 2 tons per acre, the maximum requirements of 1,000,000 tons or an average of 100,000 tons per year over the period have been determined. This study identifies limestone deposits in the State of Alaska and suggests three suitable outcrops for use as agricultural limestone. It further describes economic methods of mining, crushing and transporting the finished product from anyone of the selected outcrops to the agricultural areas and thereby arriving at the delivered cost per ton for each of three alternatives of $77.68, $78.00 and $91.24 respectively and $81.26 per ton when production is from one outcrop supplying all three agricultural areas. A simulation of cost benefit to Alaskan farmers under various scenarios is also presented. The evaluation of agricultural limestone production from native Alaskan limestone has shown that locally produced limestone is more economic for and attractive to Alaskan farmers than imported limestone costing $200 per ton.
    • Air Convection Embankment Experimental Feature Design

      Goering, Douglas J. (1997-12)
      Prior research work (Goering and Kumar, 1996; and Goering, 1996) has indicated that Air Convection Embankments are a promising technique for limiting the thaw settlement damage that often occurs when roadway embankments are constructed in regions of warm permafrost. These studies lead to the proposal of a full-scale experimental Air Convection Embankment (ACE) to be constructed through the Federal Experimental Features in Construction Program. A work plan for including an ACE in the Parks/Chena Ridge Interchange project (Federal Project No. I-0A4-5(7), State of Alaska Project No. 63538) was forwarded and approved in 1994. This project report discusses the design and construction of the Parks/Chena Ridge ACE expermimental feature which occurred during 1996 and 1997.
    • Air-Flow Dindows - an Evaluation of Their Potential for use in Arctic and Sub-Arctic Environments

      Lemon, Frank L. (1986-06)
      Air-flow windows, developed in Scandinavia, are being considered for application in arctic and sub-arctic environments. Air-flow windows consist of a double or triple-glazed outer sash and a single glazed inner sash. Room air is returned to the building heating, ventilating and air-conditioning system through the window every cavity existing between the inner and outer sashes, thus warming the inner pane of glass. Air-flow windows have the potential of improving room comfort and reducint building heat losses, particularly if the outdoor air requirement is greater than or at least can be matched to the air extracted through the windows. A sample air-flow window was tested in a guarded hot box at various air flow rates at cold side temperatures ranging from -50(degrees)F to +10(degrees)F. Based on the test results, U-values were calculated for winter night time conditions. The economics of this window system are discussed. The energy balance of an air-flow window is established.
    • Air-to-Air Heat Recovery Devices for Small Buildings

      Zarling, John P. (1981-01)
      With the escalation of fuel costs, many people are turning to tighter, better insulated buildings as a means of achieving energy conservation. This is especially true in northern climates, where heating seasons are long and severe. Installing efficient well sealed vapor barriers and weather stripping and caulking around doors and windows reduces cold air infiltration but can lead to damaging moisture buildup, as well as unpleasant and even unhealthy accumulations of odors and gases. To provide the necessary ventilation air to maintain air quality in homes while holding down energy costs, air-to-air heat exchangers have been proposed for residential and other simple structures normally not served by an active or forced ventilation system. Four basic types of air-to-air heat exchangers are suited for small scale use: rotary, coil-loop, heat pipe, and plate. The operating principles of each of these units are presented and their individual advantages and disadvantages are discusses. A test program has been initiated to evaluate the performance of a few commercial units as well as several units designed and/or built at the University of Alaska. Preliminary results from several of these tests are presented along with a critique on their design.
    • Air-to-Air Heat Recovery Devices for Small Buildings

      Zarling, John P. (1982-05)
      With the escalation of fuel costs, many people are turning to tighter, better insulated buildings as a means of achieving energy conservation. This is especially true in norther climates, where heating seasons are long and severe. Installing efficient well sealed vapor barriers and weather stripping and caulking around doors and windows reduces cold air infiltration but can lead to damaging moisture buildup, as well as unpleasant and even unhealthy accumulations of odors and gases. To provide the necessary ventilation air to maintain air quality in homes while holding down energy costs, air-to-air heat exchangers have been proposed for residential and other simple structures normally not served by an active or forced ventilation system. Four basic types of air-to-air heat exchangers are suited for small scale use: rotary, coil-loop, heat pipe, and plate. The operating principles of each of these units are presented and their individual advantages and disadvantages are discussed. A test program has been initiated to evaluate the performance of a few commercial units as well as several units designed and/or built at the University of Alaska. Preliminary results from several of these tests are presented along with a critique on their design.
    • Alaska Arctic coastal plain gravel pad hydrology: impacts to dismantlement removal and restoration operations ; a study on the human - hydrology relationship in Arctic environments

      Miller, Ori; Barnes, David L.; Stuefer, Svetlana L.; Shur, Yuri (2019-08)
      To guard against thawing permafrost and associated thaw subsidence, the oil facilities in the Arctic are constructed on gravel pads placed on top of the existing arctic tundra, however the impacts of this infrastructure to the sensitive hydrology are not fully understood. Production in some of the older fields is on the decline; however oil exploration in the Arctic Coastal Plain is resulting in the discovery and development of new reserves. In the coming years, old sites will need to be decommissioned as production transitions to new sites. New facilities will also need to be designed and constructed. Oil companies in Alaska have historically conducted operations under leases issued through the Alaska Department of Natural Resources. The leases stipulate that once resource extraction operations are completed, the facilities must be decommissioned and the sites restored, however they are often vague in their requirements and are variable in their specifics from lease to lease. As the oil companies transition to the new sites, decisions must be made regarding what should be done with vacated gravel pads. The construction of gravel pads essentially destroys underlying arctic tundra. In undisturbed areas in the Arctic, the tundra itself creates an insulating layer that limits the seasonal thaw depth to around 0.5 m. Removal of this layer causes thaw depths to greatly increase impacting the stability of the ground and the hydrology of the surrounding area. Because of this impact, other possible restoration techniques are being considered, such as vegetating and leaving the pads in place. Water movement is one of the major driving factors in the arctic contributing to permafrost degradation. Groundwater carries with it heat, which is transferred to the soil as the groundwater moves. Therefore, hydrology plays a major role in the stability of the arctic environment. This is especially relevant in areas where gravel pads exist. Gravel pads are anthropogenic structures that have significant water storage potential. Because of the unique conditions in the Arctic, pore-water flow through these gravel pads is not yet well understood. The purpose of this study is to develop a more complete scientific understanding of the driving forces behind pad pore-water movement. This study expands on fieldwork from a prior hydrological field study conducted by others. The prior study is expanded through this work by developing an associated groundwater model to the gravel pad from the field study to examine the flow through it and the controlling factors for this flow. The study site used for this project is located in Prudhoe Bay and is the pad constructed for the very first production well in Prudhoe Bay in 1968. This study demonstrates that it is the topography of the silt layer beneath the gravel pads that is the most significant factor controlling pad pore-water movement. The results from the modeling study will assist engineers and environmental scientists in better understanding the groundwater flow. This understanding will aid in the decommissioning and restoration process and help inform decision making in regards to the future of the existing pads. The results may also be used to inform the development of new infrastructure such that any new pads which are built may be constructed with their relationship to the local hydrology more in mind.
    • Alaska coal-a bibliography

      Triplehorn, J. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1982)
      Coal has been mined and used in Alaska for more than a century, and still is the principal source of energy for power generation for the interior Alaska region. Recent events that have caused increases in the cost of energy have spurred new world-wide interest in greater use of lower cost coal in place of oil. In the past few years, there has been increased interest in Alaska coal by private investors, evidenced by stepped-up exploration activity. Interest from the Pacific Rim nations is shown by the signing of contracts between Korean buyers and the Usibelli Coal Mine; and the entrance of Korean capital into exploring the Bering River Field. Japan is continuing pilot plant testing of Beluga coal. All of this indicates a rapidly growing interest in Alaska's coal and it seemed appropriate to have a comprehensive bibliography of Alaskan coals available to help the emerging coal mining industry in Alaska. Since a literature search is the first task of every company that wants to enter the Alaskan coal. mining industry, the time seemed appropriate to compile a comprehensive bibliography of Alaskan coal to eliminate duplication of effort and guarantee the industry the most comprehensive source of information. Julia Triplehorn is uniquely qualified for this task. She is a reference librarian by profession, with background in both geology and library science, and long experience in bibliographic searches on numerous other subjects. She has done an admirable job in searching all available sources, and has added an inclusive index that took time, dedication, and patience--a job well done. The School of Mineral Industry, Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, is pleased to make this bibliography available to industry and all those involved in research working toward the development of Alaskan resources.
    • Alaska Marine Highway Systems Analysis

      Metz, Paul; Taylor, Mark; Brigham, Tom; Larocque, Shephane; Pierce, Jana; Arledge, Ashleigh; Calvin, Jim; Harrington, Erin; Miller, Scott; Lingwood, Bob; et al. (Alaska University Transportation Center, 2011)
    • Alaska mining and water quality

      Zemansky, Gil M.; Tilsworth, Timothy; Cook, Donald J. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1976-06)
      The Institute of Water Resources has sought financial assistance for some time in an attempt to initiate research relative to the impact of mining on water quality. Attempts were made as early as 1971 by Dr. Timothy Tilsworth and later by Dr. Donald Cook and Dr. Sage Murphy. These investigators anticipated growth in placer gold mining and the development of natural resources in Alaska during a period of national and environmental concern. The subsequent energy "crisis," the major increase in the price of gold on the world market, and dwindling nonrenewable resource supplies have resulted in large-scale mineral exploration in Alaska. This exploration, coupled with development of the trans-Alaska oil pipeline, has attracted considerable capital for potential investment and development in Alaska. Expected industrial growth has already started and major new projects are "just around the corner." Yet, as of 1976, no major research effort has occurred to determine the extent of or potential for water quality impacts from mining operations in Alaska. Recently a series of interdisciplinary research projects have been completed in Canada; however, the application of Canadian data to Alaskan problems is uncertain. Although, state and federal government agencies have been advised and are aware of this potential problem and lack of baseline data they have not sought out new information or rational solutions. Even now, with deadlines of Public Law 92-500 at hand, some regulatory agencies give the impression of attempting to ignore the situation. Interim limitations are proposed and permits are issued with no discernible rationale or basis. Data have not been obtained relative to the Alaskan mining operations and thus are not available for use in seeking solutions compatible with mining and environmental protection. Numbers appear to have been arbitrarily assigned to permits and water quality standards. When permits are issued, self-monitoring requirements are negligible or nonexistent. Nor have regulatory agencies demonstrated the ability or inclination to monitor mining operations or enforce permits and water quality standards. It was hoped that the project would bring together miners, environmentalists, and regulators in a cooperative effort to identify the problems and seek solutions. The investigators recognized the political sensitivity of the subject matter but proceeded optimistically. Relatively good cooperation, though not total, occurred early in the project. In April 1976, a symposium was held to exchange ideas and determine the state-of-the-art. Although the symposium had good attendance and an exchange of information occurred, the symposium itself was somewhat of a disappointment. With few exceptions, the participants aligned on one side or the other in preconceived fixed positions. Some even chose not to attend and were therefore able to avoid the issues. Little hard data was presented. Optimistically, some of the miners, environmentalists, and regulators are prepared to resolve their differences. This report, hopefully, will be of benefit to them. It is our experience that miners and environmentalists share a love of the land that is uniquely Alaska. We feel that technology is available for application to this problem for those who care about doing the job right in the "last frontier." Whether or not it will be effectively applied to protect Alaska's water resources is a question which remains unanswered.
    • Alaska Mining and Water Quality: Proceedings of the Symposium

      University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1979-04
      Very little information on Alaska mining activities and resulting environmental changes has been available. The objectives of this research were to: 1) review the literature pertinent to water quality deterioration resulting from mining activities, and 2) conduct a symposium, "Alaska Mining and Water Quality," in Fairbanks, Alaska. Alaska Mining and Water Quality (IWR Report 74) was published in June 1976. The report covers effluent limitations and water quality standards, physical parameters, chemical/biological parameters, and effects of Alaska mining on water quality. Over 300 references are cited, and a description of settling pond theory is appended. The literature review Focused primarily on mining activities in Canada and the contiguous portion of the United States. The main emphasis of the literature review was directed at gold mining and coal mining operations; however, other mining activities relevant to Alaska were examined. The April 9, 1976, symposium was meant to achieve: 1) information dissemination, 2) increased and more effective communication, 3) env1ronmental awareness, and 4) identification of environmental problems and potential solutions associated with mining activities in Alaska. Although there was good attendance and an exchange of information, the other objectives of the symposium were not attained. With few exceptions, both speakers and participants were aligned in extreme positions, and they presented little actual data to support their conclusions. The purpose of this publication is to present differing viewpoints on important and controversial issues in Alaskan water resources with the hope that effective solutions can be achieved through consideration of all facets of the problems.
    • Alaska Road Weather Project | Technical Performance Assessment Report | Fairbanks Field Demonstration 2013-2014

      Chapman, Mike; Linden, Seth; Burghardt, Crystal (Alaska University Transportation Center, Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities, 2014)
    • Alaska University Transportation Center 2007 Annual Report

      Alaska University Transportation Center; University of Alaska Fairbanks (Alaska University Transportation Center, 2007)
    • Alaska University Transportation Center 2008 Annual Report

      Alaska University Transportation Center; University of Alaska Fairbanks (Alaska University Transportation Center, 2008)