• Data mining for mine-mill ore grade reconciliation at Erdenet Mining Corporation

      Sarantsatsral, Narmandakh (2016-11)
      This project investigates the relationship between the mined ore and the produced copper at the Erdenet Mining Corporation (EMC) surface copper mine in Mongolia. Four and half years of data (from 2011-2015) was obtained from the open pit mine and mineral processing plant of EMC. The mine-mill data was collected on a shift basis. The data was examined carefully using process knowledge and exploratory data analysis techniques to detect and eliminate errors. Ultimately, two years of data (2013-2014) was selected for further analysis. As is common in all mines, the material flow between the mine and mill is complicated by numerous stockpiles. The copper grade going into a stockpile may not be directly related to the copper grade exiting a stockpile. Therefore, data mining techniques applied to detect the relationship between mined ore and milled copper had to overcome the complications introduced by the presence of stockpiles. Multiple data sets were created by aggregating the original dataset by different periods. For example, in one case, data was aggregated by three shifts, to convert the data from shift-basis to daily-basis. Aggregation is an ideal way to absorb variations in material flow (tonnage and grade) between mine and mill. Data was aggregated by 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 shifts ("aggregated widths" or AW). Correlation analysis was then conducted on each version of the data to determine if a relationship existed between mine data and mill data. Correlation was computed for various period lengths, but not exceeding 28 days. Therefore, in a given year, several correlation plots were produced at each aggregated width. The number of times the correlation coefficient exceeded 0.8 in a year was measured. Results showed that correlation improved with aggregation width. The highest correlations occurred at AW of 7 or 8. This suggests that the stockpiles aggregate material for 2-3 days. Correlation analysis also included examining a time shift ("lag") between mine data and mill data. This is useful to detect whether material takes a certain amount of time before it is processed and produced as copper. However, results indicated that once the data was aggregated, a time lag greater than 0 only worsened correlation.
    • Datalogger Evaluation

      Zarling, John P.; Kinney, Thomas C.; McGilvary, Randy; Briggs, Rick (1986-01)
    • Davix: a toolset for data analysis and visualization

      Gellhouse, Amanda L.; Nance, Kara; Hay, Brian; Genetti, Jon (2014-04)
    • Deadfall Syncline coal, quality and reserves

      Callahan, J.E.; Rao, P.D.; Walsh, D.E. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1992)
      PRESENT INVESTIGATION The purpose of the 1991 drilling program was twofold: 1. To evaluate the coal reserves in a previously identified thick coal in an area of low structural dips and dip-slope topography near the axial plunge of the west extension of the Deadfall Syncline, primarily for surface mining, and to determine the feasibility of mining additional beds in conjunction with the thick coal. (For the purposes of this investigation, this coal is designated K3 as explained below), 2. To examine a continuous and unbroken stratigraphic interval of the Corwin formation in the northeastern part of the Deadfall Syncline as an initial step toward evaluation of the whole basin. This was accomplished by drilling overlapping holes aligned generally parallel to the dip direction, and spaced in accordance with the magnitude of dip and depth capacity of the drill. About 720 feet of stratigraphic section were covered in this way. A total of fourteen exploratory holes were drilled, ranging from 116 to 426 feet in depth (Figure 2). The drill was a Mobil B-60 mounted on a Nodwell tracked vehicle. Circulation was provided by a large compressor mounted on another Nodwell. Most of the footage was drilled with an air hammer, which provided a significant improvement in drilling rates over conventional rotary drilling. Lithology of cuttings from all holes was logged continuously, and composite grab samples from each 5 or 10 foot interval were taken. Coal cuttings were collected on a (relatively) clean plastic sheet, and promptly double bagged in plastic to minimize loss of bed moisture. Cores were taken from the K3 coal at 3 drill hole locations, and the underlying K4 coal was also cored at one of these 3 holes. A comparison of core length to geophysical logs indicates essentially 100% recovery for all cores. All samples, including rock cuttings, were shipped to the Mineral Industry Research Laboratory (MIRL), University of Alaska Fairbanks, for analyses and/or storage. All holes were logged with a Gearhart-Owen GeoLogger using natural garmna and gammagamma density tools. The log response with these tools for coals is distinct and unambiguous, particularly that of the density log, and the resolution is sufficient to estimate bed thickness to within 3 to 4 inches (Figures 8 and 9).
    • Decline curve analysis and enhanced shale oil recovery based on Eagle Ford Shale data

      Delaihdem, Dieudonne K.; Dandekar, Abhijit; Ahmadi, Mohabbat; Hanks, Catherine (2013-12)
      Transient and fracture dominated flow regimes in tight permeability shale reservoirs with hydraulically fractured horizontal wells impose many unconventional challenges. These include execution of appropriate shale decline curve analysis and the optimization of hydrocarbons recovery. Additionally, short production profiles available are inadequate for accurate production decline analysis. This research assessed the effectiveness of Arps' decline curve analysis and recently established methods--power law exponential analysis, logistic growth analysis, Duong's method and the author's approach--to predict future production of horizontal wells in the Eagle Ford Shale. Simulation models investigated history matching, enhanced shale oil recovery, and drainage area beyond stimulated reservoir volume. Traditional Arps' hyperbolic method sufficiently analyzed past production rates, but inaccurately forecasted cumulative productions. The recent decline models show slight variations in their past performance evaluations and forecasting future production trends. The technique proposed and used in this work enhanced the successful application of Arps' hyperbolic decline from 32.5% to 80%. Simulation results indicate 4.0% primary oil recovery factor and 5.8% enhanced shale oil recovery factor using CO��� miscible injection. Based on pressure observed outside of the stimulated reservoir volume, limited to the range of data used in this study, drainage area outside stimulated reservoir volume is not significant.
    • Design and analysis of a low-cost passive radio frequency identification tag

      Palokodety, Bhavani Shankar (2007-12)
      Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a means of remotely identifying objects through radio frequency communication. An RFID system provides a means to capture information inexpensively and accurately. This system allows real-time accessibility and delivery of object information, which helps track assets and shipments globally. A transponder integrated circuit (IC) is used for storing and retrieving information about a remote object. A passive RFID tag consists of an antenna and a radio frequency compatible transponder IC labeled, or attached, onto products for unique identification. This thesis deals with passive RFID tag antenna design and analysis of the read range performance of the tag on objects of different dielectric materials. Given the limits of the operating power of the transponder IC and the RFID reader transmitting power, the design issues are the read range of the tag, size of the tag, and impedance matching the tag antenna to the transponder IC. Also in this thesis a step-by-step process used to design a passive RFID tag is presented. Finally, the fundamental constraints of the design, and their associated tradeoffs, as well as measurements and analysis of the designed passive UHF RFID tag, are given.
    • Design and construction of a low earth orbit satellite ground station

      Darnel, Eric (2000-12)
      This thesis describes the design and construction of a satellite ground station constructed in support of the Citizen Explorer Program. The University of Alaska Fairbanks was chosen to participate in this program due to its latitude that gives it excellent access to polar-orbiting satellites. The advantage that higher latitudes have in accessing low earth orbiting satellites is examined. It is demonstrated that Fairbanks, Alaska, has roughly twice the access to polar orbiting satellites than the mid-latitudes of the contiguous US. Link budgets for the communication system were developed, which led to the construction of helical antennas to communicate with the satellite. Data are presented that demonstrate the antennas, as well as the rest of the satellite tracking system, functioned acceptably. The satellite ground station will provide internet access to the spacecraft. The procedure used to test this approach and its results are given, as well as recommendations for future work.
    • Design and feasibility of spatially aggregated transform based on compression of hyperspectral images

      Geiger, Gregory; McNeely, Jason; Wies, Richard; Raskovic, Dejan (2013-08)
      Remote sensing through the use of hyperspectral image sensors is becoming more prevalent. These hyperspectral images consist of large amounts of data, much of which is redundant and must be compressed. The purpose of this thesis was -to investigate and optimize a Karhunen--Loe��ve transform (KLT) based algorithm to compress hyperspectral images. The thesis focused on combining a multi-level Karhunen--Loe��ve transform with spatial aggregation in the form of K-means and JPEG2000 to improve compression performance as compared to similar lossy to lossless compression methods. The developed algorithm is dubbed Spatially Aggregated Multilevel Clustering (SAMLC) KLT. Performance optimizations consisted of finding the best structure for the multi-level Karhunen--Loe��ve transform, number of aggregated groups in the K-means step, as well as general overhead reduction. A host processor independent hardware implementation of the k-means aggregation was also implemented in an FPGA as proof of concept for portable applications. The results of this study concluded that the SAMLC algorithm is competitive with similar methods and has superior lossy compression performance. Additionally, the K-means hardware implementation proved successful. The gains achieved are important for hyperspectral imagery to be able to store or transmit large hyperspectral images in typical remote sensing applications in an efficient manner.
    • Design And Implementation Of A Meteor Tracking Retrofit System For The Hf Radar At Kodiak Island, Alaska

      Parris, Richard Todd; Bristow, William (2003)
      The HF radar at Kodiak Island, Alaska, is part of the SuperDARN network of radars, and was originally designed to detect echoes from ionospheric field-aligned density irregularities. A new digital receiver has been implemented on the radar to allow provide the capabilities required for increased range resolution detection of meteor echoes. A meteor detection algorithm has also been implemented to detect meteor echoes with a range resolution of 4.5 km. The algorithm measures the velocity, range, and altitude of the echoes. This data can be used to derive information about the meteor region winds. The design and implementation of the receiver, the design and implementation of the meteor detection algorithm, and some meteor region wind data derived from the new system are presented. <p>
    • Design and implementation of a microcontroller-based closed-loop tuning-controller for a tunable dye laser

      Peshave, Manasi (2004-05)
      This thesis presents the design, implementation and testing of a microcontroller-based closed-loop tuning-controller (CLTC) for a tunable dye laser. The specific goal is to precisely control and maintain the tuning of a tunable dye laser. This laser is used as a transmitter in a resonance lidar system that operates at 589nm and measures the mesospheric sodium layer. During operation, the operating frequency (or tuning) of the laser drifts due to environmental changes and the resonance signal (and measurement quality) is reduced. The controller uses the current signal from a sodium Hollow Cathode Lamp (HCL) to sense changes in the laser tuning. The CL TC incorporates both analog and digital circuitry. The amplifiers in the analog circuit have both sufficient slew rate (>5 V/us) and gain-bandwidth product (45x10⁶ Hz) to accurately capture the HCL signal. A high pass filter in the analog circuit removes the floating bias of the HCL and provides a stable signal to the digital circuit. The digital circuit is based on a Motorola 68HC12 microcontroller. The microcontroller monitors the signal from the HCL as it scans the laser wavelength and tunes the laser to the wavelength that maximizes the amplitude of the HCL signal. The CL TC can scan the laser at the resolution determined by the mechanical hardware of the laser system (0.14 pm), which is a factor of six times greater than resolution provided by the manufacturer software (1 pm). Our tests show that the CL TC can both tune the laser to and maintain the laser at the resonance frequency. The microprocessor software can be readily changed to accommodate changes in the optical sensor and the scanning methodology.
    • Design and implementation of a motor controller for a permanent magnet synchronous machine

      Mitchell, Jerias (2000-08)
      This thesis describes the design and implementation of a motor controller for use with a prototype Axial-Gap Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machine (AGPMSM). The goal of this work is to design a controller to drive an AGPMSM "smart wheel" that will be used in a semiautonomous vehicle. Controllers in this application are typically vector or scalar controllers using a form of Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) sinusoidal control. These types of controllers allow an AC machine to behave as a DC machine, which greatly simplifies the control algorithms and eliminates the need to operate the machine as an induction motor to achieve the desired speed. The advantage of the vector controller over the scalar controller is the ability to run the motor beyond its rated speed. In this design only scalar control is implemented. The controller/motor is semiautonomous in that it only requires an external speed command. The closed loop controller will attempt to maintain that speed, even as the load on the motor changes. The complete design will be described, starting with a functional description and then an overview of the hardware and software design. Some experimental data will be presented to demonstrate a functioning prototype.
    • Design and implementation of a plasma probe to measure relative plasma density in the e-region of the ionosphere for the hex-2 sounding rocket mission

      Nair, Sujith V. (2007-12)
      This thesis presents the design and implementation of a Plasma Probe that measures the relative plasma density in the E-region of the ionosphere during an active aurora. The instrument was designed for the Horizontal E-Region Experiment (HEX-2) conducted by the Geophysical Institute (University of Alaska Fairbanks) to investigate the spatial relationship of vertical winds associated with auroral structures. The Plasma Probe was successfully launched into space on a three-stage Black Brant X rocket from Poker Flat Research Range (PFRR) on February 14, 2007. The instrument design exploits the rocket's near horizontal trajectory to measure the relative density of the positively charged thermal ions and detect the presence of high-energy secondary auroral electrons by employing four segmented, gold-plated collectors wrapped around the rocket skin.
    • Design and implementation of an embedded controller for a vehicle navigation unit

      Satavalekar, Bipin P. (2002-08)
      This thesis describes the design and implementation of an embedded controller that is used for the Vehicle Navigation Unit (VNU) prototypes that are being developed at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF). The goal of the VNU project is to develop a system that will measure relative position and provide wireless communication between four identical vehicles without the use of GPS signals. Each VNU consists of an antenna and phase detector array, embedded controller, radio modem magnetometer, and a diagnostic computer. The main focus of this thesis is the design and implementation of the embedded controller hardware and software that integrates all the VNU components into an operational system. The embedded controller utilizes the Motorola MC68HC711E9 microcontroller and the Zilog Z85230 Serial Communication Controller that receives and transmits the data serially. The relative distance and bearing between VNUs is estimated by measuring the angle of arrival and received signal strength of the radio frequency packets transmitted by each VNU. The magnetometer is used to monitor the horizontal orientation of the VNU and to serve as a fixed referencefor comparing the relative bearing between vehicles. These raw measurements are archived into a diagnostic computer, which estimates the relative position between the VNUs and provides a graphical representation. These VNU prototypes are designed for ideal environments and are intended to provide a test bed for evaluating signal processing and hardware strategies for mitigating multipath effects. The complete VNU design is presented, started with a functional block diagram of the hardware and software, and concluding with operational tests that demonstrate the performance of the fully integrated prototype.
    • Design and implementation of application-specific medium access control protocol for scalable smart home embedded systems

      Dushime, Bertrand; Raskovic, Dejan; Mayer, Charles; McNeely, Jason (2016-05)
      By incorporating electrical devices, appliances and house features in a system that is controlled and monitored either remotely or on-site, smart home technologies have recently gained an increasing popularity. There are several smart home systems already available, ranging from simple on-site home monitoring to self-learning and Wi-Fi enabled systems. However, current systems do not fully make use of recent technological advancement and synergy among a variable number of sensors for improved data collection. For a synergistic system to be provident it needs to be modular and scalable to match exact user needs (type of applications and adequate number of sensors for each application). With an increased number of sensors intelligently placed to optimize the data collection, a wireless network is indispensable for a flexible and inexpensive installation. Such a network requires an efficient medium access control protocol to sustain a reliable system, provide flexibility in design and to achieve lower power consumption. This thesis brings to light practical ways to improve current smart home systems. As the main contribution of this work, we introduce a novel application-specific medium access control protocol able to support suggested improvements. In addition, a smart home prototype system is implemented to evaluate the protocol performance and prove concepts of recommended advances. This thesis covers the design of the proposed novel medium access protocol and the software/hardware implementation of the prototype system focusing on the monitoring and data analysis side, while providing inputs for the control side of the system. The smart home system prototype is Wi-Fi and Web connected, designed and implemented to emphasize system usability and energy efficiency.
    • Design and implementation of novel radar modulations for the SuperDARN radar at Kodiak Island, Alaska

      Balaji, Mrinal S. (2007-05)
      The Kodiak SuperDARN (Super Dual Auroral Radar Network), located on Kodiak Island, Alaska, is a coherent-backscatter radar sensitive to Bragg scatter from ionospheric irregularities. SuperDARN transmitters send out a sequence of seven pulses that aid in the formation of complex autocorrelation functions (ACFs). These ACFs allow for estimating the power, velocity and the spectral widths of the scattering plasma waves. However, the multipulse sequence used currently has some characteristics that are not ideal for the intended purpose. In addition, the analysis technique for estimating the properties of the ACF assumes that there is only a single velocity component present in each range cell at one time. In this study, the aperiodic radar technique designed by Dr. John D. Sahr and Dr. Sathyadev. V. Uppala was investigated to design an optimized transmission sequence that would have no repeated lags, a minimum number of inherently missing lags and no loss of lags due to Tx-on/Rx-off conflicts. With the designed transmission sequence, efficient analysis of data is possible through the use of a standard spectral estimator, the modified covariance technique. The design enhances the ability of the radar to discriminate targets in the same range bin.
    • Design and implementation of photodiode-based receiver systems for a 1574 nm eye-safe lidar

      Yue, Jia (2004-08)
      In this thesis we present the design, implementation and testing of a photodiode-based receiver systems for a 1574 nm eye-safe lidar. The specific goal of this thesis was to precisely and accurately convert and amplify nW optical signals into robust mV voltage signals. The receiver system incorporates both analog and digital circuitry and a software-based digital processing system. Four analog circuits were constructed and tested using both PIN diodes and APDs, and two high-speed commercial op amps. A single high-speed digital processing system was tested with each of the analog circuits. The analog circuitry was found to be the fundamental limitation on the performance of the system with the receiver bandwidth limited to -6 MHz for the PIN-based systems and -14 MHz for the APD-based systems. Inherent oscillations in the analog circuits were successfully removed using digital filtering techniques in the software-based digital processing systems. Furthermore, the APD-based systems had less rms noise than the PIN-based systems. The lidar receiver system could support measurements with a maximum resolution of 10 m and a range of up to 40 km.
    • Design and simulation of flight computer using VHDL for ARIM-1 sounding rocket payload

      Chowdhury, Anirban (2000-12)
      Atmospheric Refractive Index Measurement-1 (ARIM-1) is a sounding rocket payload designed to collect information regarding atmospheric turbulence. ARIM-1 is designed to make high-resolution (4 samples per centimeter) differential temperature measurements of the atmosphere to determine the structure of atmospheric turbulence and hence it's refractive index. The rocket's flight computer schedules and manages data acquisition from various payload sub-systems and transmits this acquired data to the ground station. The goal of this work is to develop a custom design for this flight computer using Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL). This thesis presents simulation and hardware requirements for the flight computer generated from a professional Computer Aided Design package used for VHDL design implementation. This thesis proposes a new architecture for the flight computer that can be implemented with Programmable Logic Devices using VHDL.
    • Design of a fast telemetry encoder for sounding rockets

      Hatfield, Gaelen C. (2005-12)
      This thesis describes the design, development, implementation and testing of the FOXIE-03 (Frame Oriented eXpandable Integrated-circuit Encoder, Designed in 2003) Telemetry System. This system was developed for the University of Alaska Fairbanks Alaska Space Grant Program (UAF / ASGP) to serve as a sounding rocket data encoder for current and future Alaska Student Rocket Project (ASRP) missions. The encoder provides compatibility with the IRIG106-01 telemetry standard and NASA telemetry downlink systems. The encoder provides a full complement of analog and digital inputs. The encoder also provides a cross-platform USB interface for easy configuration. The first flight of the FOXIE-03 system is expected to be aboard the U AF ISIS (Ionospheric Science and Inertial Sensing) Mission which will be launched from Poker Flat Research Range in early 2007. The FOXIE-03 Telemetry system was delivered in a year's time. Extensive testing is ongoing and will lead to its acceptance as space flight certified hardware for the Alaska Space Grant Program.
    • Design of a flexible and low-power ionospheric sounder

      Morris, Alex; Bristow, William; Hawkins, Joseph; Sonwalkar, Vikas (2014-05)
      Characterizing the structure of the ionosphere has practical applications for telecommunications and scientific applications for studies of the near-earth space environment. Among several methods for measuring parameters of the ionosphere is ionospheric sounding, a radar technique that determines the electron content of the ionosphere as a function of height. Various research, military, and commercial institutions operate hundreds of ground-based ionosondes throughout the globe, and new ionosondes continue to be deployed in increasingly remote and distant locations. This thesis presents the design of an ionospheric sounder that reduces the power, size, and cost compared to existing systems. Key improvements include the use of an open-source software-defined radio platform and channel-aware dynamic sounding scheduling.
    • Design of a multichannel outdoor data logger for precise temperature measurements

      Dolgikh, Kirill; Raskovic, Dejan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Thorsen, Denise (2018-12)
      In this thesis, we present the prototype of a multichannel data logger (the Logger) for precise temperature measurements. Its intended application is to take soil (permafrost) temperature measurements with a thermistor probe or thermistor string. However, its hardware and firmware architectures are quite flexible, so it can be used in other applications. The Logger has 16 channels. In addition to the internal memory, it supports microSD-cards of up to 2 GB, which allows it to store up to 41.9 million measurements for each channel. The Logger's estimated battery life is 8 years when making measurements once per hour. It has a radio transmitter, which will allow it to download data wirelessly and potentially participate in a wireless sensor network once the appropriate firmware is developed. Currently, only the communication protocol with the radio is implemented, while the radio-to-radio protocol is under development. The Logger is small - only 6 x 1 x 1 inches and the final product will be even smaller. Components are rated down to -40° C and the Logger successfully passed testing at -30° C. After the extensive testing to ensure performance it has been shown that the Logger outperforms the Campbell Scientific, Inc. CR1000 logger and exceeds the design requirements. Measured temperature resolution of the Logger is below 2.5 mK in the entire temperature range. The Logger's equivalent temperature accuracy, which was determined using a known resistive input, is below 10 mK within -25° C to 40° C and below 20 mK elsewhere. The developed calibration technique provides the equivalent accuracy below 0.3 mK within -40° C to 40° C. To provide an accuracy of ±0.01° C when making temperature measurements with thermistors, the Logger should be calibrated against a thermometer that has been calibrated as a secondary standard, which will be done in the future.