• Ice, bedload transport, and channel morphology on the upper Kuparuk River

      Oatley, Jeffrey Albert (2002-12)
      The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of bottom ice on sedimentation processes at a study site on the Upper Kuparuk River, in Northern Alaska. The approach taken was to use the Meyer-Peter and Mueller (1948) and Parker (1990) equations to determine bedload rating curves at four cross sections within the study reach, and to apply these rating curves to the ten year flow history of the study site to determine the total potential bedload transport that was suppressed during snowmelt runoff. In conjunction with this analysis, a tracer rock study was performed at the study site. During the first two years of the project, the field study yielded little bedload transport information, as there were no competent flows during this time. However, the storm of record occurred in August 02 2002, which provided an opportunity to observe the geomorphic response to a major event, to estimate an average bedload transport rate based on the virtual velocity of the recovered tracer rocks, and to compare the predictive methods to the tracer data based calculations. The results suggest that the potential bedload transport (500 m³) over the ten-year flow history is comparable to the amount of transport that occorred during the extreme event of August 2002 (870 m³), and that the suppression of bedload transport, due to an ice covered bed surfaces, likely affects the morphology and sediment supply of the river.
    • Identification and Laboratory Assessment of Best Practices to Protect DOT Equipment from the Corrosive Effect of Chemical Deicers

      Shi, Xianming; Li, Yongxin; Jungwirth, Scott; Fang, Yida; Seeley, Nicholas; Jackson, Emily (Alaska University Transportation Center, 2013)
    • The impact of a fluctuating freezing front on ice formation in freezing soil

      Dillon, Matthew Ryan (2012-12)
      Frost heave is typically associated with the formation of segregation ice in fine-grained soil. Coarse-grained soil is generally considered to be non-frost susceptible. Field observa-tions and laboratory experiments show that coarse-grained soil can be extremely ice-rich in specific conditions. Previous studies have shown that oscillation of the frozen-unfrozen boundary can lead to the formation of ice by a mechanism different from the segregation ice mechanism. Conditions related to the formation of ice in coarse-grained soil were in-vestigated using modern laboratory techniques. Fourteen tests were conducted on five soil types. The thickness of soil subjected to freeze-thaw cycles was varied and controlled by the magnitude and duration of applied soil temperatures. The thickness of the ice formed increased when the sample drainage was limited or prevented during cooling. Under spe-cific conditions, the formation of a discrete ice layer was observed in coarse-grained soils. Seven samples were scanned with the pCT scanner at the completion of the warming and cooling tests. The sub-samples scanned were analyzed in 2D cross-sections, and charac-terized as 3D reconstructions. Frost heave induced by the formation of ice was observed in both fine- and coarse-grained soils, including soils that were found to be traditionally non-frost susceptible.
    • Impact of Cold Climates on Vehicle Emissions: The Cold Start Air Toxics Pulse

      Jobson, Tom; Huangfu, Yibo (Center for Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Cold Climates, 2016-09)
      This project measured cold start emissions from four vehicles in winter using fast response instrumentation to accurately measure the time variation of the cold start emission pulse. Seventeen successful tests were conducted over a temperature range of -4°C to 10°C in winter 2015 at the Washington State University campus. Vehicle cold starts are thought to be a significant source of air toxic compounds in cold winter environments due to the rapid increase in mass emission rates with decreasing temperature. We used a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer for high time resolution measurement of the emissions the air toxic compounds benzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, in addition to toluene and C2-alkylbenzenes. Measured molar emission ratios relative to toluene in the cold start pulse were compared with cold start emission profiles for E10 fueled vehicles used in the EPA MOVES2014 model. We found that the measured acetaldehyde-to-toluene emission ratio was about a factor of 8 greater than the emission ratio used in MOVES2014. Measured formaldehyde-to-toluene emission ratios were a factor of 5 greater. Our study suggests that emission of the air toxics acetaldehyde and, likely, formaldehyde is significantly underestimated in wintertime by the MOVES2014 model.
    • Impact of Embedded Carbon Fiber Heating Panel on the Structural/Mechanical Performance of Roadway Pavement

      Yang, Zhaohui “Joey”; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Song, Gangbing; Singla, Mithun; Patil, Divendra (Alaska University Transportation Center, University of Houston, 2012)
    • Impact Of Freeze -Thaw On Liquefaction Potential And Dynamic Properties Of Mabel Creek Silt

      Zhang, Yu (2009)
      In the early winter of 2002 (November), the Alaska Denali earthquake (Mw=-7.9) caused significant damage in partially frozen fine-grained soil and extensive liquefaction was observed in glacial fine-grained saturated soil surface deposits near Tok, Alaska. It illustrated that there was a need to evaluate the seismic response and liquefaction potential of fine-grain soil in cold regions; however, until now most of the research on the liquefaction phenomenon and seismic response were mainly about soil in non-cold regions. The seismic response and liquefaction potential of soils in cold regions, especially those of fine-grained nature, has not been studied thoroughly and therefore is not well-understood. This document presents a laboratory study on liquefaction potential and cyclic response of fine-grained soil in cold regions. As the main features of the soil in the ground of cold regions, temperature change at below freezing temperatures or near-freezing temperatures, and the seasonal climate change were evaluated on liquefaction potential, dynamic properties, and post-cyclic-loading settlement of fine-grained soils. Increasing temperatures from near freezing to the completely thawed temperature (i.e., 24�C, 5�C, 1�C, and 0.5�C) were used to thaw the frozen Mabel Creek silt to simulate temperature change on it, or the Mabel Creek silt experienced several freezing and thawing alternating processes (i.e., 1, 2, and 4 freeze-thaw cycles) to simulate seasonal climate change. Triaxial strain-controlled cyclic tests were conducted to evaluate liquefaction potential, dynamic properties, and post-cyclic-loading settlement. Based on this limited laboratory effort, results show that in most cases, temperature rise and freeze-thaw cycles can impact: (a) liquefaction potential, (b) dynamic properties and (c) post-cyclic-loading settlement of fine-grained soils. However, there was one case exception and this is decribed in the following sentence. When a fine-grained soil was conditioned in a partially frozen state, the possibility and threat of liquefaction significantly increased.
    • Impact of Groundwater Flow on Permafrost Degradation and Transportation Infrastructure Stability

      Darrow, Margaret M.; Daanen, Ronald P.; Zottola, Jason T.; Fortier, Daniel; de Grandpre, Isabelle; Veuille, Sabin; Sliger, Michel (Alaska University Transportation Center, Transport Canada, 2013)
    • The Impact of Snowfall on Airport Operations and Delays

      Lee, Jukwan; Yan, Jia (2019-03-31)
      Flight delays or cancelations due to snowfall are a costly inconvenience, not only to airports but also to airlines, passengers and society as a whole. However, no quantitative research has ever been done to provide an analytical explanation about the issue. Though being a reliable alternative to melt snow on the runway and mitigate flight delays, the Heated Pavement System is not adopted in any US airports because of concerns over the initial investments and maintenance costs being higher than the economic loss from delays during unpredictable snowfall days. Combining weather and domestic flight data in Boston and Los Angeles regions, we analyze the benefits and costs associated with installing the Heated Pavement System. Using two advanced econometric methods, the Difference in Difference in Difference (DDD) and the nearest neighbor matching, we first develop a Delay Analysis model to evaluate the exact effect of snowfall on flight delays, and then we calculate the delay costs. Based on the empirical findings, we conduct cost-benefit analysis of installing HPS at the three airports in Boston area. Our results indicate that HPS is feasible for airports with a great number of flights and passengers, such as Boston Logan airport.
    • Impacts of Climate Variability and Change on Flood Frequency Analysis for Transportation Design

      Tidwell, Amy (Alaska University Transportation Center, Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities, 2010)
    • Implementation of CALINE4

      Johnson, R.A.; Anderson, M.; Lilly, E.; Hok, C. (1988-11)
      To help gauge the environmental impacts of proposed highway projects, computer models are commonly used to predict both CO emissions and the resultant concentrations of CO in the atmosphere. This study has focused on an assessment of MOBILE3 as a mobile source emissions model and CALINE4 as a line source dispersion model in Alaska. We have used limited data obtained in Fairbanks o evaluate CALINE4 here. We have modified MOBILE3 to allow it to predict emissions at ambient temperatures below 0(degrees)F and have incorporated available meteorological data for Fairbanks to evaluate CALINE4. We find the use of these models does allow one to approximate trends over time in CO levels in Fairbanks, but a lack of more detailed data precludes our being able to make global statements about the abilities of the models to predict peaks and detailed spatial trends. However, the results to data indicate that these models have the potential to accurately predict CO levels in Alaska. In particular, results from a 37-hour calibration run made near an intersection indicates that CALINE4, using emissions generated by MOBILE3, can predict peak one-hour and eight-hour values within a factor of two of measured values. Conservative peak value predictions occur when the intersection option is used with the wind blowing from the intersection toward the receptor. However, the nonmodeled CO contributions may be significant if only major roads near a receptor are modeled. For worst case predictions, the limited data analyzed corroborates prior work linking worst case scenarios with cold stable meteorological conditions. In particular, a G stability case and wind speed around 0.5 m/s are appropriate. We also suggest the receptor be located downwind from an intersection. For the input emissions, we suggest the use of MOBILE3 using an average vehicle speed of 20 mph and a temperature around -20(degrees)F for Fairbanks and 10(degrees)F for Anchorage. For ambient CO levels, we suggest the user consult with local environmental agency personnel.
    • Implementation of various bed load transport equations at monitoring sites along the Sagavanirktok River

      Laurio, Jenah C.; Toniolo, Horacio; Barnes, Dave; Stuefer, Svetlana (2019-05)
      In May 2015, the Sagavanirktok River in Alaska flooded, spilling over the Dalton Highway and destroying several sections of the road near the community of Deadhorse. The Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities made repairs to the road and funded the University of Alaska Fairbanks, Water and Environmental Research Center (WERC), to conduct a multiyear study of hydro-sedimentological conditions on the Sagavanirktok River. Personnel from the WERC installed four monitoring stations for research purposes. The first monitoring station (DSS1) is located near Deadhorse at Milepost (MP) 405 of the Dalton Highway, the second (DSS2) is located below the Ivishak River (MP 368), the third (DSS3) is located in Happy Valley (MP 335), and the fourth (DSS4) is located at MP 318. Near each monitoring station, large pits were excavated to trap bed sediment as it moves downstream. Researchers involved in the Sagavanirktok River study have been collecting bathymetry measurements from the sediment pits since fall of 2015. The following document discusses a research project that focused on bed load transport along the Sagavanirktok River at monitoring sites DSS1, DSS2, and DSS3. Monitoring site DSS4 was not included in this study due to difficulties retrieving sediment data caused by high water levels. Sediment transport volumes measured from the test pits were compared with volume estimations calculated using Acronym (a computer program), and applying the bed load equations of Meyer-Peter and Muller, Wong and Parker, Ashida and Michue, Fernandez Luque and Van Beek, Engelund and Fredsoe, the Parker fit to Einstein’s relation, Lajeunesse et al., and Wilson, with a critical Shields value ( t #) of 0.06 and 0.03. The study results showed that in all cases the bed load transport volumes measured at sites DSS2 and DSS3 were far smaller than those calculated using the bed load transport equations. For monitoring site DSS1, a few of the bed load transport equations estimated volumes were close to those measured. The Acronym program was used only for sites DSS2 and DSS3 due to difficulties creating the grain size distribution curve at DSS1. Data show that the volumes calculated by Acronym are greater than those measured at both sites. The bed load transport equations used for the project were not applicable to the Sagavanirktok River.
    • Implementing path coloring algorithms on planar graphs

      Bross, Daniel Aven; Chappell, Glenn; Lawlor, Orion; Hartman, Chris (2017-08)
      A path coloring of a graph partitions its vertex set into color classes such that each class induces a disjoint union of paths. In this project we implement several algorithms to compute path colorings of graphs embedded in the plane. We present two algorithms to path color plane graphs with 3 colors based on a proof by Poh in 1990. First we describe a naive algorithm that directly follows Poh's procedure, then we give a modified algorithm that runs in linear time. Independent results of Hartman and Skrekovski describe a procedure that takes a plane graph G and a list of 3 colors for each vertex, and computes a path coloring of G such that each vertex receives a color from its list. We present a linear time implementation based on Hartman and Skrekovski's proofs. A C++ implementation is provided for all three algorithms, utilizing the Boost Graph Library. Instructions are given on how to use the implementation to construct colorings for plane graphs represented by Boost data structures.
    • Implications of pore-scale distribution of frozen water for the production of hydrocarbon reservoirs located in permafrost

      Venepalli, Kiran Kumar (2011-08)
      Frozen reservoirs are unique with the extra element of ice residing in them along with the conventional components of a reservoir. The sub-zero temperatures of these reservoirs make them complicated to explore. This study investigates reduction in relative permeability to oil with decrease in temperature and proposes a best-production technique for reservoirs occurring in sub zero conditions. Core flood experiments were performed on two clean Berea sandstone cores under permafrost conditions to determine the sensitivity of the relative permeability to oil (kro) over a temperature range of 23°C to -10°C and for connate water salinities ranging from 0 to 6467 ppm. Both cores showed maximum reduction in relative permeability to oil when saturated with deionized water; they showed minimum reduction when saturated with 6467 ppm of saline water. Theoretically, the radius of ice formed in the center of the pore can be determined using the Kozeny-Carman Equation by assuming the pores and pore throats as a cube with 'N' identical parallel pipes embedded in it. With obtained values of kro as input to the Kozeny-Carman Equation at -10°C, the radius of ice dropped from 0.145 [upsilon]rn to 0.069 [upsilon]rn when flooding, water salinity is increased to 6467 ppm. This analysis quantifies the reductions in relative permeability solely due to different formation salinities. Other parameters like fluid saturations and pore structure effects also are discussed. Fluids like deionized water, saline water, and antifreeze (a mixture of 60% ethylene or propylene glycol with 40% water) were tested to find the best flooding agent for frozen reservoirs. At 0°C, 9% greater recovery was observed with antifreeze than with saline water. Antifreeze showed 48% recovery even at -10°C, at which temperature the rest of the fluids failed to increase production.
    • Improved Membrane Filtration For Water And Wastewater Using Air Sparging And Backflushing

      Psoch, Christian (2005)
      The goal of this research was to investigate methods and techniques that enhance mass transfer through the membranes. Two general types of fluids were investigated: synthetic wastewater treated in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) and natural and simulated river water. For both fluids, a wide range of solid concentrations (up to 18 g/L) were tested. The membranes investigated were all tubular modules at pilot scale between 0.75 and 1.20 m length, with tubular diameters of 5.5--6.3 mm, 0.2 mum pore size, and membrane surface areas of 0.036--0.1 m2. For flux enhancement, two techniques were applied: air sparging (AS), and backflushing (BF). Both techniques were compared with the sponge ball cleaning method. The experimental temperature ranged between 10 and 30�C, cross-flow velocities (CFV) ranged between 0.5 and 5.2 m/s, and transmembrane pressure (TMP) ranged between 30 and 350 kPa. Research results showed, that AS was able to enhance the conventional flux over weeks to months up to factor of 4.5 for river water and a factor of 3 for wastewater. At modest CFV of 1.5--2 m/s, AS was as successful as BF. If higher CFV (up to 5.2 m/s) were supplied for BF, this technique could enhance the wastewater flux by factor 4.5. The supply of AS and BF combined was superior to the single application even at moderate CFV. The major finding of this research was that cake thickness on the membrane surface was decreased by AS, contrary to research by other authors. AS can be used as substitute aeration in MBRs, without impairing the degradation performance. The combination of AS and BF generated the least filter cake, but the lowest fouling was observed for AS. An empirical equation was proposed to calculate the viscosity in a sidestream MBR depending on reactor temperature and mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS).
    • Improvement of the Fairbanks Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide Transport Model -- A Program for Calibration, Verification and Implementation

      Carlson, Robert F.; Hok, Charlotte (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1980-10)
      In the early 70s, state, local and federal officials in Fairbanks, Alaska, became concerned with the rising incidence of high carbon monoxide episodes. Because of that concern, the Alaska Department of Highways (forerunner of the Department of Transportation and Public Facilities) and the Fairbanks North Star Borough requested that the Institute of Water Resources undertake a study to develop a computer model capability for understanding the transport of carbon monoxide and other pollutants within the Fairbanks airshed. The work was completed in June of 1976. Two publications (Carlson and Fox, 1976; Norton and Carlson, 1976) describe the initial development, documentation and implementation of the computer model. The model, ACOSP (Atmospheric Carbon monOxide Simulation Program), describes the two-dimensional behavior of pollutants in the atmosphere via solution of the convection-diffusion equation using the finite element method of numerical analysis.
    • Improving CubeSat downlink capacity with active phased array antennas

      Klein, Jonathan; Hawkins, Joe; Thorsen, Denise; Raskovic, Dejan (2017-08)
      Power budgets on small satellites are restricted by the limited surface area for solar panels. This limits the power available for radio communications, which constrains the downlink budget. The limited transmit power translates to low downlink data rates on small satellites. Antenna gain from directive antennas may be a power efficient way of improving the downlink budget, thereby increasing the downlink rate of small satellites. This project focuses on the design and development of a prototype low-power, electrically-steered S-band phased array RF front-end suitable for a CubeSat that could efficiently increase the EIRP, permitting higher data rates. A prototype of the array has been constructed and tested in an anechoic chamber. The four element array provides a minimum gain of 2.5 dB and average gain of 5 dB compared to a single patch antenna element with a 5W power envelope across a range of up to 60 degrees from broadside of the array.
    • Improving Passing Lane Safety and Efficiency for Alaska’s Rural Non‐divided Highways

      Dyre, Brian P.; Abdel-Rahim, Ahmed (Alaska University Transportation Center, Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities, 2014)
    • Improving Performance, Knowledge, and Methods to Provide Quality Service and Products

      Connor, Billy; Bennett, Larry (2015-12)
      The objectives of this study were to educate staff about the impact of research in Alaska, enhance communication and coordination amongst stakeholders, and formulate a long-term research and implementation research plan for pavement and materials. Education begins with an overview of pavement design, construction and maintenance in Alaska since the 1900’s through a series of webinars. Interviews with five state materials engineers were used to explore best practices. Finally, a workshop focused on developing a coordinated research program and improve implementation activities. The workshop provided a series of recommendations to The Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities which will enhance the value of the departments research program.
    • Improving ultimate recovery in the Granite Point field Tyonek C sands

      Nenahlo, Thomas L.; Dandekar, Abhijit; Patil, Shirish; Ning, Samson (2018-12)
      The objective of this research is to determine how the ultimate recovery of the Granite Point field can be improved. An understanding of the depositional setting, structure, stratigraphy, reservoir rock properties, reservoir fluids, aquifer, and development history of the Granite Point field was compiled. This was then leveraged to provide recommendations on how the ultimate recovery can be improved. The Granite Point field Tyonek C sands are located on an anticline structure at 8,000' to 11,000' SSTVD within the offshore Cook Inlet basin. These sands were deposited in a fluvial environment with the source material provided by the Alaska Range to the northwest. Due to uplifting, the Tyonek C sands are of relatively low porosity for their depth. The sands thin, become more numerous, and are of generally lower porosity from southwest to northeast. Oil quality is excellent and displacement efficiency of the reservoir rock with water flood exceeds 50% at breakthrough. Although displacement efficiency is high, the relative permeability to water is extremely low. The fracture gradient of the reservoir rock is on the order of magnitude of 1.0 psi/ft. Many initiatives were undertaken throughout the history of the Granite Point field to improve the rate and resource recovery, all of which were met with negligible success with the exception being the introduction of horizontal wells that were first drilled in the early 1990's. The underlying reason for the lack of success of these other initiatives is the low effective permeability to oil and the extremely low effective permeability to water. Secondary recovery with water injection was successful in the early stage of development, and can be in the future, but only when applied between wells that are connected by a sand of acceptable porosity. The results of this research indicate that to improve the ultimate recovery of the Granite Point field a thorough quantification of aquifer and injection water movement must first be understood, then horizontal wells can be placed in appropriate locations to improve the offtake and leverage the weak aquifer drive to provide pressure support.