• Washability characteristics of low-volatile bituminous coal from the Bering River field, Alaska

      Rao, P.D. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1969)
      Two samples of low-volatile bituminous coal from Bering River Coal Field were sized to 0.525" x 3, 3 x 6, 6 x 10, 10 x 20, and 20 x 35 mesh and their washability characteristics studied at specific gravities ranging from 1.29 to 1.55. The results showed that the coals can be up-graded to an ash content as low as 2% with conventional cyclone heavy media process. A product containing less than 1% ash can be obtained from these coals with surprisingly high yields, ranging from 50 to 95% depending on the ash content desired in the washed coal, and the characteristics of the raw coal. The experimental work proves the technical feasibility of preparation of the coal form metallurgical use and as low ash carbon raw material. Further Pilot Plant testing would be required in the fields of preparation and utilization in order to design the final plant for ascertaining the economic feasibility.
    • Water Balance of a Small Lake in a Permafrost Region

      Hartman, Charles W.; Carlson, Robert F. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1973-09)
    • A Water Distribution System for Cold Regions: The Single Main Recirculation Method: An Historical Review, Field Evaluation, and Suggested Design Procedures

      Murphy, R. Sage; Hartman, Charles W. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1969-03)
      Students and residents of the Arctic are familiar with the many problems peculiar to the geographical area. This monograph will consider an adequate, safe, and reliable water distribution system. Water supply, together with housing, transportation, and waste disposal, are demanded when a remote area becomes established as a permanent settlement. As long as the population of the North was widely distributed in small mining camps, villages, and individual cabins, water distribution systems were not necessary, as shallow wells and nearby streams adequately served most needs. With the rapidly increasing settlement of the vast lands of the North, the population is being centered in communities rather than distributed over large areas. The world population explosion will undoubtedly contribute to increasing immigration into Arctic and sub-Arctic areas. These changes have already created a need for modern water distribution systems, a need which will become more critical with time.
    • Water quality from rainwater catchments throughout Alaska: looking at contaminants in catchment materials

      Hart, Corianne Irene (2003-12)
      A field study which focused on linking materials used in rainwater catchments to the quality of water they produce was conducted throughout Alaska in the summer of 2003. The importance of this project stems from the fact that many families throughout Alaska depend on rainwater catchment systems to provide water for washing, cleaning, cooking and/or drinking purposes. After a core group of participants were identified, samples were periodically collected from participants' water taps and were analyzed for a suite of contaminants that included metals (e.g., Pb and Zn), organics (e.g., volatile organic compounds) and bacteria. Based on variables, such as construction materials, the frequency of rainfall, the amount of water collected and the duration of storage, we evaluated the effectiveness of various catchments for providing safe drinking water. This fieldwork, coupled with a companion document addressing best management practices for rainwater catchments, provides valuable information for owners of small systems seeking to use rainwater catchments in Alaska. The conclusions of the study were that zinc concentrations of water collected at the tap were affected by roof and tank material, lead concentrations of water collected at the tap were affected by roof material, and copper concentrations of water collected at the tap were affected by pipe material.
    • Water Quality in Alaskan Campgrounds

      Murphy, R. Sage (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1973-01)
      This report presents an evaluation of water quality in Alaskan Campgrounds using laboratory determinations and on-site evaluations. In general, ground water quality was found to be excellent and surface water quality unacceptable for human consumption and total body contact recreation. The most pressing need was found to be the provision of an approved drinking water supply for each campground. The· environmental health aspects of campgrounds were found to be largely neglected. Many of the sewage systems are inadequate resulting in pollution of the ground and surface water. Solid waste was found to be stored and disposed of by unacceptable methods. Finally, many campgrounds are located in swampy areas or located in areas subject to annual flooding.
    • Water Quality in the Great Land, Alaska's Challenge: Proceedings

      Huntsinger, Ronald G. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1987-10)
      Administering water quality programs -- Surface water issues -- Groundwater issues -- Sediments and resource development
    • Water security in the rural North: responding to change, engineering perspectives, and community focused solutions

      Penn, Henry J. F.; Schnabel, William E.; Loring, Philip A.; Gerlach, S. Craig; Dotson, Aaron A.; Barnes, David L. (2016-08)
      This project explores the capacity of rural communities to manage their water resources in a changing climate, environment and society. Using water resources as a lens through which to evaluate the effects of social and environmental changes on Alaska’s rural communities, and working from conversations with key community members including city planners and infrastructure operators, this research develops theoretical frameworks for increasing community capacity. The prospect of developing community capacity, and more specifically water resources management capacity, in order to respond to societal and climatic change is a present concern for rural communities, and is becoming increasingly so in today’s fiscally challenged environment. Many rural water managers in Alaska are challenged by aging systems designed and built over 20 years ago, and are now operating well beyond their design life. While the configuration of existing systems varies across Alaska, a common suite of problems exists; regular breakdowns, failure to achieve regulatory standards, wide variability of raw water quality, low payment rates, and historically high electricity and fuel prices. These systems are also operating during a period of historically high deficit between community needs and available grant funding at both a State and Federal level. Existing theoretical frameworks for exploring the impacts of change on regional water security (i.e. resilience and vulnerability) are informative heuristics for triage of impacts at the individual community level. Presently, however, there is little consideration given to water security solutions that do not involve the construction of a new system. This research proposes that the focus upon “new system solutions” limits available solutions for improving security at both the local and regional levels. Further this research seeks to understand the extent to which “new utility solutions” create additional capacity at both the community and regional level to respond to change. At the core of this work are informal interviews and participant observation research in 11 coastal communities in Bristol Bay and Northwest Arctic regions of Alaska.
    • Water-in-air droplet formation in plasma bonded microchannels fabricated by Shrinky-Dink® lithography

      Bender, Christopher J. Jr. (2011-08)
      This thesis presents the first work on water-in-air droplet microfluidics. Polymeric microchannels were prototyped to illustrate water droplet formation in air by the T-junction meditated design. The first part of the thesis is on the proof of using unfiltered air as the process gas for plasma-assisted bonding of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannels. A series of bilayered PDMS prototypes were plasma bonded under various plasma treatment parameters to determine the optimal settings for high-strength bonding. Pressure rupture tests were conducted to measure the bonding interface strength, which were shown to be as high as 135 psi. The second part of the thesis illustrates the formation and dispersion of water droplets in a continuous air flow in microchannels, and discusses the mechanisms of how droplets are formed. The Shrinky Dinks lithography and plasma-assisted bonding were used to prototype leakage-free microcbannels for testing droplet production. Droplets are formed under the competition between the fluid viscosity and surface tension forces. The channel dimensions and the fluid flow rates dictate the mechanism of droplet formation. The major finding is that the droplet length increases and droplet velocity decreases with increasing water flow rates, but some droplets were not formed at the T-Junction. These findings are discussed.
    • Water/Wastewater Evaluation for an Arctic Alaskan Industrial Camp

      Tilsworth, Timothy (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1973-04)
      Discovery of a huge oil field at Prudhoe Bay in the late 1960's resulted in a great deal of industrial activity on the North Slope of arctic Alaska. This flurry of industrial activity was accompanied by environmental concern across the nation. The fact that Alaska was "the last frontier” placed it high on the list for ecological scrutiny.
    • Wearing Surface Testing and Screening: Yukon River Bridge

      Hulsey, J. L.; Ward, Richard; Anderson, Elliott (2015-09)
      There is a demand and a need for cheaper and alternative surface coverings in environments with high temperature fluctuations. Our design for an alternative surface covering involves a basic twopart component epoxy with the addition of a solvent. The purpose of the solvent is to disrupt the reaction that forms the ordered chains to form a more disordered crystalline structure. The solvent in the finished product is 3% by volume of isopropyl alcohol. This mixture of epoxy and solvent has higher impact strength than epoxy alone, as well as a much lower brittle transition temperature of 27°C compared with 10°C for epoxy. An environmental chamber, tensile tester, Charpy impact tester, and 4- point bending test were used to determine these conclusions. The final product can be tailored with different aggregates to fit a specific need, such as decking surface material to coat the wooden planks on the Yukon River Bridge.
    • Wearing Surface Testing: Yukon River Bridge

      Hulsey, J.L.; Wardell, Ty; Brandon, Patrick (Alaska University Transportation Center, Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities, 2012)
    • Wind energy: is there an economy of scale in Alaska?

      Ellanna, Dayne; Lewellyn, Levi; Hulsey, J. Leroy; Perkins, Robert; Whitaker, Keith (2015)
      The purpose of this project is to show the cost relationship per kilowatt hour (kWh) between small scale (< 25kWh), medium scale (> 25 kWh and < 100 kWh), and large scale (> 100kWh) wind turbines. Our analysis will compare the cost per kWh and identify the economy of scale between our custom small scale models to commercial models. The commercial models used for this project were installed by Golden Valley Electric Association (GVEA) at their Healy, Alaska wind farm. We requested their wind data, capital investment breakdown, and their operations and maintenance costs. This data will be compared to the costs and wind data associated with our custom built wind turbine. Wind energy is dependent on one major variable, the wind. Regardless of the wind turbine size, wind speed, frequency, and duration will affect the efficiency of every wind turbine. Commercial wind farms are new to Alaska. The first major wind power project in Alaska was in 1997 in Kotzebue. This wind farm, of 17 wind turbines, represents the first megawatt of wind power in Alaska. Installation and maintenance of these systems is more expensive in Alaska due to the states' remoteness. Small scale systems used in this study are custom built because small scale commercial systems are not "hardy" enough to withstand Alaska's harsh weather systems. Both medium and large scale systems, for this study, are commercially constructed systems that have been designed to withstand these harsh conditions.
    • Winter Highway Construction

      Bennet, F. Lawrence (1986-10)
      This report focuses on the feasibility of extending the highway construction season further into the winter season than is currently practiced in Alaska. It reviews the literature of research and project experience in accomplishing several elements of succssful highway construction in the winter. It summarizes the cold weather sections of highway construction specification s from 18 states, provinces, and foreign countries. It reports on personal interviews and survey questionnaires with 24 Alaskan contractors who have been engaged in building highway elements in the winter. The report concludes that additional inter highway construction should be permitted in Alaska and urges the Department of Transportation and Public Facilities (DOT&PF) to revise its specifications, on a trial basis, for selected projects in order to permit construction of embankments and asphaltic concrete pavements at below-freezing temperatures. Further research on "cold" concrete, additive materials in embansments and construction productivity is suggested
    • Winter Precipitation Depths Across The North Slope Of Alaska Simulated From The Weather Research And Forcasting Model And Snowtran-3D

      Byam, Sarah Jean; Cherry, Jessica E.; Toniolo, Horacio; Kane, Douglas (2012)
      Accurately predicting snow distribution and blowing snow conditions in the Arctic is critical to the design of ice road construction and maintenance as well as for predicting water supplies and runoff during snowmelt, estimating the cost of snow removal, and forecasting tundra travel conditions. A current atmospheric model used by both the operational weather prediction and research communities is the Weather Research and Forecasting model. However, the built-in snow schemes in the model neglect redistribution of snow via wind, one of the key processes in snow pack evolution. This study will involve three parts: (1) diagnostic of the differences in the current snow schemes of the model, (2) evaluation of the model's snow schemes as compared to observational data, and (3) asynchronous coupling of the SnowTran-3D to model predictions using a simple algorithm. The approach provides a simple method for the prediction of snow distribution, improving the realism of current snow distribution models, and will be easily employable for both operational and research applications.
    • Winter soil water dynamics: Completion report

      Kane, D. L. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1975-12)
      The movement of soil moisture through cold regions soils is an active process that continues throughout the year. It represents one mechanism of heat transport in subsurface soil, conduction being the main mode of heat flow. In frozen soils, this moisture may undergo phase change resulting in two significant events: 1. deformation of the near-surface layer, and 2. liberation or uptake of heat at the point of phase change. Where deformation (induced by either frost heaving or thaw consolidation) occurs in man-made embankments, it is readily apparent at the surface. Restoration of the deformed surface requires large sums of money.
    • Wireless communication protocol architectures for nanosensor networks

      Zhang, Zhongping (2004-05)
      Recent developments in micro fabrication and nanotechnology will enable the inexpensive manufacturing of massive numbers of tiny computing elements with sensors. New programming paradigms are required to obtain organized and coherent behavior from the cooperation of large numbers of sensor nodes. The individual nodes are identical, randomly placed and unreliable. They communicate with a small local neighborhood via wireless broadcast. In such environments, where individual nodes have limited resources, aggregating the node into groups is useful for specialization, increased robustness, and efficient resource allocation. In this paper, an application-specific self-organization protocol stack is developed. The clustering process is divided into phases. The first phase is to know the neighbor nodes. The second phase is to set up the cluster and routing. A 'find maximum clique algorithm' is used to set up clusters. A back off method is used to set up the hop field and routing. Group leaders set up a TDMA schedule for steady state operation. This schedule ensures that there is no conflict among in the same cluster and between clusters. Direct-sequence spread spectrum (DS-SS) is used to avoid inter-group conflict. The limited power resource is a challenge in nanosensor networks. This paper uses two different ways to analyze energy consumed in nanosensor networks, energy cost field and bit flow method. Sensor node deployment, cluster size, and propagation condition effect are discussed in this paper by those two methods respectively.
    • A wireless early warning sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) detection device

      Rider, Patrick Jason (2006-12)
      The sudden and unexplained death of an infant younger than one year, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), is currently the leading cause of death for infants in the United States. This thesis gives the design for a prototype of an early warning SIDS detection device. The prototype monitors three parameters; temperature, motion, and level of oxygen saturation in blood. Data of these parameters is transmitted wirelessly to a remote location for data analysis. Hardware limitations result in delaying the integration of all three sensor signals for a later period. Greater improvements in the hardware will allow for both a decrease in error and combined integration of all three sensor signals. Future work to this project will also include additional sensors, miniaturization of the product, and live testing.
    • Work Plan for Special Design Features & Crack Sealing Maintenance for Parks Highway

      Liu, Juanyu; McHattie, Robert (Alaska University Transportation Center, Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities, 2013)
    • Zeolite deposits of possible economic significance on the northern Alaska Peninsula

      Madonna, J.A. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1982)
      Clinoptilolite, mordenite, haulandite and laumontite have been identified in possible economic concentrations on the Alaska Peninsula. Most important are 1) a haulandite bearing water-laid tuff on Agate Island, 2) a thick sequence of terrestrial volcanics containing mordenite and clinoptilolite located between Squirrel Point and Tommy Creek, 3) water-laid tuffs containing high concentrations of clinoptilolite near Dennis Creek and 4) a haulandite bearing siltstone at Chinitna Bay. Zeolite formation in the Iliamna Lake area was produced in "open" systems of fresh water lakes and ground water systems which have transformed vitric volcanic material into zeolites. Burial diagenesis is responsible for alteration of early formed, low temperature-pressure zeolites into high temperature-pressure varieties. The formation of laumontite in a tuffaceous sandstone at Chinitna Bay was the result of low grade burial metamorphism. The mode of formation of haulandite in a welded tuff and siltstone unit, also located at Chinitna Bay, appears to have resulted from diagensis alteration of terrestrial sediments. Transportation of zeolite ore from Iliamna Lake would be by lake to Pile Bay Village then by road to Iliamna Bay and, finally, by ship to the consumer. In the Chinitna Bay area ore can be loaded directly onto ships for transportation to the consumer.