• Community Response Strategies for Environmental Problems of Water Supply and Wastewater Disposal in Fairbanks, Alaska

      Smith, Daniel W.; Pearson, Roger W. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1975-06)
      This report examines the history of the response strategies of the Fairbanks, Alaska, community to problems of water supply and wastewater disposal. Fairbanks is significant since it is the largest settlement in the northern subarctic and arctic regions of North America. Today, the City of Fairbanks and the surrounding urban area have a combined population of over 40,000.
    • Comparative economic evaluation of the options for transporting the Alaska North Slope stranded gas

      Eke, Chineme R.; Chukwu, Godwin A.; Patil, Shirish L.; Reynolds, Douglas; Dandekar, Abhijit Y.; Khataniar, Santanu (2006-08)
      The most effective economic parameter often considered in feasibility analysis is the Return On Investment (ROI). Any Alaskan gas pipeline project is expected to have a high return on investment to be considered economic. A Comparative Economic (CE) model was used in this study to analyze the gas pipeline project options. These options are: The Alaskan Canadian (AlCan) Highway stand alone gas pipeline project, the AlCan Highway gas pipeline with an instate spurline to southern Alaska, the All-Alaskan Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Project, the All- Alaskan LNG project with a spur line to southern Alaska, and the Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) project. The CE model makes use of the Crystal Ball and some input parameters like cost, taxes, tariffs and price to determine the economic feasibility of each option based on the ROI, payout period and total revenue accrued from each project. It was shown from the analysis that the AlCan Highway stand-alone pipeline project had the highest return on investment of 33%. This was followed by the AlCan Highway gas pipeline with an instate spurline to southern Alaska with return on investment of 32.6%. The all-Alaskan LNG projects proved feasible but with less return on investment compared to other options.
    • Comparison and verification of the performance of a Stateflow model on a C166 microcontroller board

      Grandham, Jyothsna (2005-05)
      The IMPROVE data library is a collection of continuous and intermittent physiological observations of 59 patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), recorded for one complete day at the Kuopio University Hospital. These data consisted of patient data stored as annotation and record files. The IMPROVE data library also provided the information regarding four disorders (Hypovolaemia, Cardiac Failure, Hypervolaemia and Oxygen-Content related problems) in terms of the patient data. An available model designed in Stateflow generated the risk levels for the patients. The goal of this thesis is to analyze the risk levels generated from the simulation and compare them with the physician's diagnosis. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the performance of the Stateflow model that interprets the risk level of the four disorders, for a particular patient at any instant of time and later implement it on an Infineon C 166 microcontroller board. The various limitations encountered during the implementation on the microcontroller board are discussed in the thesis. To demonstrate the rapid prototyping capabilities of using the microcontroller board a speed-comparison analysis of implementing the Stateflow model on various computers was performed.
    • A comparison of northern research basins and their landscape characteristics

      Kitover, Danielle C. (2005-05)
      In 2004, a Northern Research Basins (NRB) workshop was coordinated to synthesize water balance research of experimental watersheds. This study examined 10 of those basins more closely. Their landscape features were of special interest as past research has attributed one or more of these characteristics to watershed hydrology. However, the key question posed by this study was how such landscape features influence the water balance of northern basins. Water balance characteristics of a basin may be quantified using the runoff ratio (Q/P) and the ET ratio (ET/P). This study linked those parameters to landscape attributes using both conceptual methods and statistical analysis. The hypothesis was that landscape characteristics of the research basins examined in this study will exhibit identifiable trends in the annual water balance of those research basins. Landscape features are divided into two modes. The first was qualitative characteristics considering permafrost extent, major vegetation type, and soil texture. The second was quantitative characteristics, inferred from a series of terrain indices extracted from DEMs. This research demonstrated that although most features included in this study play some role in the hydrology of northern basins, some were more prominent than others. Overall, the water balance of northern basins is effected by the components of latitude, climate, and topography.
    • COMPARISON OF POLYSTYRENE EXPANDED AND EXTRUDED FOAM INSULATION IN ROADWAY AND AIRPORT EMBANKMENTS

      Connor, Billy (2019-04)
      The differences in performance of expanded polystyrene rigid foam insulation (EPS) and extruded polystyrene rigid foam insulation (XPS) has been debated since the 1980’s. Esch’s 1986 study showed that the R-value of EPS degraded more than XPS when installed in roadway embankments. Pouliot and Savard (2003) noted similar results. This study adds 15 additional samples from three additional installations to the dataset. Using the combined data from these sites, ratios of R-values of EPS/XPS were developed which can be used to estimate equivalent thicknesses of the two products. R-value multipliers were also developed which allow thicknesses of the products to be computed based on the long-term performance of the insulation used in roadway and airport embankments. The data appear to be consistent between Esch, Pouliot and Savard and this study. There is no consensus as to how the data or ratios are to be applied if at all. However, the study does provide two approaches. A multiplier can be applied to each product which provides a long-term equivalent thickness for each product. Alternatively, a multiplier can be applied to the R-value of each product which yields a thickness that yields a long-term R-value of in-service applications.
    • Comparison of resistance-based strain gauges and fiber bragg gratings in the presence of electromagnetic interference emitted from an electric motor

      Keller, Douglas Jr.; Peterson, Rorik; Fochesatto, Javier; Chen, Cheng-fu (2018-12)
      This thesis reports a performance analysis of resistance based strain gauges and fiber optic fiber Bragg gratings in an environment contaminated by high levels of electromagnetic interference. The obtained results are directly applicable to the development of aerospace vehicles propelled by electrical motors. An area of importance in this relatively new technology is characterizing the mechanical loadings coming off a propulsion device in a stationary setup. This characterization is usually accomplished through the utilization of load cells. The majority of the load cells used in such an application are based on measurements acquired through resistance strain gauges. However, electric motors are known to radiate electromagnetic interference (EMI), which in the case of brushless DC motors is pulsing, alternating, square waves. This EMI severely degrades the signal produced by the resistance strain gauge. This degradation is due to the gauge's metallic construction, acting as an antenna for the EMI. To evaluate the performance of alternative strain measuring methods, a load cell implementing both the resistance strain gauge and fiber Bragg grating sensor, the latter of which is immune to EMI, was designed as a test article. The load cell was calibrated and demonstrated a thrust load sensitivity of 1.93 ±0.04 lbf through the strain gauge system and 0.56 ±0.56 lbf through the fiber Bragg grating system. The device was subjected to both mechanical loading and EMI to quantify the effect of the EMI on the resistance strain gauge. Testing of the device included operating a brushless DC motor, with a coupled flywheel, attached to the load cell at a range of angular velocities from 500 to 2400 RPM. During laboratory testing the resistance strain gauge signal exhibited an important amount of signal spikes and electrical noise, introduced by the EMI contamination; the fiber Bragg grating did not. The spikes increased linearly with the speed of the motor. The electrical noise required bandpass filtering to extract the mechanical signal, which was obtained without noise in the fiber Bragg grating signal. The resistance strain gauge signal, at a maximum, had a signal to noise ratio of 0.0443; the fiber Bragg grating signal, at a minimum, had a signal to noise ratio of 2.0114. These results demonstrated the fiber Bragg grating is more applicable in an EMI contaminated environment.
    • Comparison of support structure generation techniques for 3d printing

      Tupek, Ann; Lawlor, Orion; Chappell, Glenn; Hartman, Chris (2016)
      As the old patents from the late 1980's and early 1990's expire, additive fabrication and rapid prototyping has seen a boom in recent years. Often called 3D printing, in the additive fabrication process material is deposited on previous layers. The problem of supporting overhangs in 3D printing is not one encountered in the traditional method of subtractive fabrication. This paper examines and compares three methods of generating support structures for these overhangs: a scaffolding structure, simple pillars, and the supports automatically generated by the open source slicing tool Slic3r. Our results show that both the scaffolding structure and simple pillars use less material than Slic3r's supports. Additionally, the scaffolding structure and simple pillars print in a comparable amount of time as Slic3r's supports and all the models have a similar visual print quality. This conservation of material without a reduction in print quality make our method of scaffolding support structures preferable to the supports automatically generated by Slic3r.
    • Competitive State-of-the-Art Structural Engineering

      Baffrey, Dylan; Anderson, Elliott; Estas, Kathryn (2017-05-15)
      The University of Alaska Fairbanks College of Engineering and Mines has a legacy with the Steel Bridge Competition. Each year, since starting nearly three decades ago, the university has pushed the limits of the competition through vigorous ingenuity and teamwork. Having a small team, where funding is hard to come by and manufacturing is all done in-house, the team would seem to be at a disadvantage. However, the team has used their obstacles as challenges to overcome rather than to deter them. Through various community outreach activities, volunteering, and professional networking the Steel Bridge team gets involved with Fairbanks and raises enough funds for materials and travel to the Pacific Northwest and then onto National Conferences. Through in-house fabrication, the Steel Bridge Team learns hands on welding and design testing, and the value of transparency between design and construction. The team also focuses on building itself, developing the people around them into better, well-rounded, well-spoken and hardworking engineers of Alaska’s future.
    • Competitive State-of-the-Art Structural Engineering

      Hjortstorp, Daniel P. (2015-04-20)
      The annual Steel Bridge competition was created over two decades ago to foster excellence and ingenuity among civil engineering undergraduate and graduate students across the nation. The steel bridge competition is one of many great opportunities to get involved in extracurricular activities associated with the civil engineering field. The University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) has a long history of strong performance. We are nationally known for placing well in both the regional and national competition. Students design and manufacture 1/10 scale bridges with which they compete in a regional competition and if successful a national competition. The Pacific Northwest (PNW) Regional conference is usually held mid-April each year. Much preparation and work led up to this high point of the year. The steel bridge competition teaches students valuable skills that few other engineers have the chance or ability to learn, making steel bridge team members extremely valuable employees to their future employers. Together, students tackle and overcome tremendously technical work under conditions such as extreme sleep deprivation and strenuous class loads. As a team we overcame severe financial trials, technical challenges, and tight deadlines. The 2015 competition was held at the Idaho State University in Pocatello, Idaho. The UAF Steel Bridge team swept the competition by winning seven out of seven categories and will compete for the national title on May 23rd in Kansas City. In addition to designing and building a steel bridge, members of the team also fulfilled hundreds of hours of community service and public speaking. They also support and comprise the core of the UAF Associated General Contractors (AGC) and the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) student organizations. Steel bridge members sacrifice time with loved and dear ones as well as sleep and time allotted for homework in order to conquer one common goal; to design and manufacture the best bridge in the Pacific Northwest!!!
    • Compilation of the data on the land withdrawals in Alaska

      Metz, P.A.; Pearson, R.W.; Lynch, D.F. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1978)
      Major decisions an the use and disposition of land in Alaska are being made by the State and Federal governments. These decisions will affect the utilization of all our land resources including minerals. Since minerals are an essential component of our existance, the availability and access to minerals is an important issue. There are approximately 2600 land orders and acts classifying land in Alaska that restrict the utilization of our minerals resources. As of April 1977, approximately twenty-six percent of Alaska, or 100,875,391 acres was open to mineral entry and location under the Federal Mining Laws and the State Mining and Mineral leasing Laws.
    • A comprehensive analysis of the oil fields of the North Slope of Alaska: their use as analogs, recent exploration, and forecasted royalty and production tax revenue

      Michie, Joshua J.; Patil, Shirish; Dandekar, Abhijit; Khataniar, Santanu; Sonwalker, Vikas (2018)
      Revenues from petroleum production supply most of the revenue for unrestricted general funds for the State of Alaska. As such, variations in the price of oil, decline from existing production and new developments greatly affect the money available for the state to spend on everything from roads to education. This study reviewed all producing oil fields on the North Slope, characterized their reservoir performance and forecasted future production. This was coupled with analysis of recent exploration discoveries and ongoing project developments to forecast future North Slope production and create potential royalty and production tax revenue forecasts. After 40 years of production, Prudhoe Bay remains the dominant field on the North Slope, accounting for 45% of current production. Relatively large changes in the non-anchor field pools are only able to change North Slope production by a couple of percent due to the nature of their size compared to Prudhoe Bay, Kuparuk and Alpine. New developments however, are able to materially contribute to changes in North Slope production if they are large enough. With continued activity in the many fields, creating an accurate forecast is challenging, however, without new developments, the Trans Alaska Pipeline will need to make changes to accommodate low flow rates. Currently identified new developments have the potential to extend current production rates 10-20 years. Some of these announced developments and discoveries have announced productivity rates that are not realistic compared to analog well performance, and will likely require many more wells to achieve the announced rates and volumes.
    • Comprehensive Investigation Into Historical Pipeline Construction Costs And Engineering Economic Analysis Of Alaska In-State Gas Pipeline

      Rui, Zhenhua; Metz, Paul; Chen, Gang; Zhou, Xiyu; Reynolds, Douglas (2011)
      This study analyzes historical cost data of 412 pipelines and 220 compressor stations. On the basis of this analysis, the study also evaluates the feasibility of an Alaska in-state gas pipeline using Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Analysis of pipeline construction costs shows that component costs, shares of cost components, and learning rates for material and labor costs vary by diameter, length, volume, year, and location. Overall average learning rates for pipeline material and labor costs are 6.1% and 12.4%, respectively. Overall average cost shares for pipeline material, labor, miscellaneous, and right of way (ROW) are 31%, 40%, 23%, and 7%, respectively. Regression models are developed to estimate pipeline component costs for different lengths, cross-sectional areas, and locations. An analysis of inaccuracy in pipeline cost estimation demonstrates that the cost estimation of pipeline cost components is biased except for in the case of total costs. Overall overrun rates for pipeline material, labor, miscellaneous, ROW, and total costs are 4.9%, 22.4%, -0.9%, 9.1%, and 6.5%, respectively, and project size, capacity, diameter, location, and year of completion have different degrees of impacts on cost overruns of pipeline cost components. Analysis of compressor station costs shows that component costs, shares of cost components, and learning rates for material and labor costs vary in terms of capacity, year, and location. Average learning rates for compressor station material and labor costs are 12.1% and 7.48%, respectively. Overall average cost shares of material, labor, miscellaneous, and ROW are 50.6%, 27.2%, 21.5%, and 0.8%, respectively. Regression models are developed to estimate compressor station component costs in different capacities and locations. An investigation into inaccuracies in compressor station cost estimation demonstrates that the cost estimation for compressor stations is biased except for in the case of material costs. Overall average overrun rates for compressor station material, labor, miscellaneous, land, and total costs are 3%, 60%, 2%, -14%, and 11%, respectively, and cost overruns for cost components are influenced by location and year of completion to different degrees. Monte Carlo models are developed and simulated to evaluate the feasibility of an Alaska in-state gas pipeline by assigning triangular distribution of the values of economic parameters. Simulated results show that the construction of an Alaska in-state natural gas pipeline is feasible at three scenarios: 500 million cubic feet per day (mmcfd), 750 mmcfd, and 1000 mmcfd.
    • A Computer Model of the Tidal Phenomena in Cook Inlet, Alaska

      Carlson, Robert F.; Behlke, Charles E. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1972-03)
    • A computer processable storage and retrieval program for Alaska mineral information

      Heiner, L.E.; Porter, Eve (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1972)
      The Mineral Industry Research Laboratory has developed a storage and retrieval file for Alaska mineral information to facilitate resource studies. The basis for the computer-processable file is the Division of ecological Survey Mineral Kardex system which contains an entry for every mineral property in Alaska that has either been recorded in the literature or has been claimed under the mineral staking laws. Use of the file has greatly increased the research capability of the laboratory to compile resource-oriented reports such as M.I.R.L. Report No. 16, IIFinal Report - Mineral Resources of Northern Alaska," M.I.R.L. Report No. 18, JlKnown and Potential Ore Reserves, Seward Peninsula, Alaska", and M.J.R.L Report No. 27, "Copper Mineral Occurrences in the Wrangell Mountain - Prince William Sound Area, Alaska" and S.E. Alaska Mineral Commodity Maps. The programs have been given the name MINFILE. MINFILEJ refers to a program that stores mineral information on magnetic tape. MINFILE2 is a Retreival program, MINFILE3 is a program to correct and make additions to the file. MINFILE4 and MINFILE5 are utility programs used for maintenance of the system.
    • Conceptual design of a test bed for miner rescue

      Munny, Rowshon Ara Mannan; Hatfield, Michael; Wies, Richard; Bossert, Katrina (2019-08)
      In the mining industry, miners are constantly exposed to various safety and health hazards associated with often unpredictable conditions. When an accident occurs, it is difficult for the rescue team to come up with a proper plan for the rescue mission without having adequate knowledge of the situation. One possible approach to managing these hazards is to provide the rescue team with situational awareness such as real-time data regarding the environment (fire, poisonous or explosive gasses), as well as the location and physical condition of the trapped miners. Before starting the rescue mission, and in order to eliminate or reduce the dangers of exposing more humans to the explosive mining environment for information collection, a combination of unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is proposed. In this project, a conceptual test bed is designed to collect one specific set of information about a trapped miner (in this case, heartrate data). This test bed collects the required data from a heart rate sensor on the trapped miner and transmits it wirelessly to a nearby UAV which will receive the data and send it back to the rescue team via a UGV.
    • Conference on Alaskan placer mining, focus: gold recovery systems

      Beistline, E.H.; Cook, D.J.; Thomas, B.I.; Wolff, E.N. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1979)
      Alaska Miners' Association and the School of Mineral Industry, University of Alaska, Fairbanks conference proceedings of the Alaskan Placer Mining conference on Gold Recovery Systems.
    • Connecting Alaskans: mixed-use safety and accessibility challenges in rural environments

      Sorensen, Carrie L.; Belz, Nathan; Goddard, Scott; Barnes, David (2017-12)
      Connectivity in transportation networks, or lack thereof, is a challenge that many people have to deal with. Alaska has many rural communities that are inaccessible by conventional modes of transportation. In order for people to reach these communities and move between them unconventional modes of transportation are needed. However, very few studies have been done on unconventional transportation modes such as ATVs and snowmachines and the level to which they contribute to connecting people and how to help limit traumatic injuries of users. This study focuses on Alaska and three primary datasets. First, the Pacific North West Transportation Survey developed by the University of Alaska Fairbanks and the University of Idaho. Second, Alaska Trauma Registry data obtained from Division of Public Health and Safety. Thirdly, publicly available GIS transportation network and populated place data. These three data sets accomplish the following objectives: (1) document preferences and perceptions of mixed-use safety, (2) to better understand the reasons for injuries and fatalities involving ATVs and snowmachines, and (3) to identify potential mixed-use conflict areas by geographic mapping of traumas. From this analysis a better understanding of ATV mode use was discovered. ATVs are used for a variety of trip purposes including: commuting, running errands, chores, and recreation. ATVs are used on and near roadways 24% of the time. There are twice as many ATV-related traumas in connected places than in isolated places, and 3 times more ATV related traumas in highway connected places than secondary road connected places. Snowmachines are used on and near roadways 23% of the time and have 3 times as many traumas in highway connected places than secondary road connected places. Highway connected places have a significantly higher risk of having ATV and snowmachine traumas than road connected places. This indicates that part of the issue could be the amount of traffic in connected areas, or perhaps the frequency of use of ATVs rather than automobiles in non-connected areas leading to fewer mixed-use scenarios.
    • Constraints on the development of coal mining in arctic Alaska based on review of Eurasian arctic practices

      Lynch, D.F.; Johansen, N.I.; Lambert, C., Jr.; Wolff, E.N. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1976)
      Arctic Alaska's enormous reserves of coal may be a significant future source of energy for the United States and for the Pacific Basin. Large coal reserves have been developed in the Arctic portions of Eurasia, where problems similar to those that might be encountered in Alaska have already been faced. To determine the nature of these problems, the Mineral Industry Research Laboratory of the University of Alaska, under contracts S 0133057 with the U.S. Bureau of Mines, has conducted a literature review on Eurasian coal mining and visited mines in Svalbard, Norway; Carmacks, Y.T.; and Healy, Alaska. The purpose was to establish the most significant physical constraints which may apply to the eventual development of Northwestern Arctic Alaskan coal.
    • Construction Dust Amelioration Techniques

      Moses, Thomas; Eckoff, Travis; Connor, Billy; Perkins, Robert A. (Alaska University Transportation Center, Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities, 2012)
    • Continued Field Evaluation of Precutting for Maintaining Asphalt Concrete Pavements with Thermal Cracking

      Liu, Jenny; Zhao, Sheng; McHattie, Robert (Center for Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Cold Climates, 2017-08)
      In continuation of a previously completed project entitled Evaluate Presawn Transverse Thermal Cracks for Asphalt Concrete Pavement, this project was a further effort to understand important variables in the thermal cracking process through continued field monitoring of three precutting test sites in Interior Alaska. The test sites included (1) Phillips Field Road, precut in 1984 (≈ west ¼ mile of this road), (2) Richardson Highway precut in 2012 (≈ MP 343–344), and (3) Parks Highway precut in 2014 (≈ MP 245–252). Preliminary results at relatively short periods (up to 4 years) indicate that precutting is an economically promising way to control natural thermal cracks. Even short-term economic benefits appear to range between about 2% and 21%. The degree to which precutting works for an AC pavement appears to be a function of the thickness and general structural robustness of new construction. Shorter precut spacing, along with stronger and/or thicker pavement structures, looks promising with respect to crack control. Continuing evaluation and monitoring of test sections are needed to recommend an effective design methodology and construction practice for Alaska and cold areas of other northern states.