• The determination of titanium in titaniferous magnetite ores by atomic absorption spectrophotometry

      Rao, P.D. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1972-03)
      Amos and Willis (1) first investigated the use of nitrous oxide for the determination of titanium. They found that the presence of HF and iron enhance the absorption of titanium. They recommended “much more extensive investigation before a practicing chemical analyst can determine this element in a routine fashion by atomic absorption.” Various authors (2, 3, 4, 5, 6) have investigated titanium by atomic absorption and have recommended a number of different procedures to remove interference. In attempting to analyze lithium metaborate fusions (7, 8) of titaniferous magnetite ores of Alaska by atomic absorption, it was found that the interferences are not completely removed by any single approach suggested in the literature. Silicon, iron and aluminum could vary widely between samples and an approach was needed that would completely eliminate interference effects of all these elements, without having to match the gross matrix composition of samples and standards.
    • Develop a Regional Multi-Source Database System for Safety Data Management and Analysis in RITI Communities in Washington State

      Wang, Yinhai; Zeng, Ziqiang; Gottsacker, Christopher; Yang, Hao (Frank) (2019-05)
      Rural, Isolated, Tribal, and Indigenous (RITI) communities across the United States are disadvantaged from a transportation safety perspective. Particular concern is focusing on rural road safety. Since RITI communities often do not have the capability and resources to sufficiently solve roadway safety problems, several challenges are encountered for addressing transportation safety issues in RITI communities, including: (1) Crashes are often distributed along roads in RITI areas without known patterns; (2) Strategies to address safety issues are diverse for different RITI communities and draw from several safety areas. As a result, there is a critical need to realize equitably-augmented safety solutions that address the needs of these underserved and underinvested RITI communities. To address this gap, this project aims to develop a regional multi-source database system for traffic safety data management and analysis of RITI communities in Washington State. The existing crash data sources in RITI communities in Washington was identified and documented. The crash data on rural routes was extracted from the raw data from Washington State Department of Transportation and integrated into the multi-source database system, including traffic flow characteristics, crash attributes and contribution factors, crash-related trauma data and medical records, weather conditions, etc. The Colville tribe also provided the crash data in their tribal communities under a confidentiality agreement. A multi-source database fusion and integration system architecture was designed. Microsoft SQL Server 2012 was used to implement the database and manage the data. A six-step data quality control method was employed to clean the data by wiping out the outliers from spatial and temporal aspects. The tribal crash data was made accessible to authorized users so they can download the datasets by using password, while the WSDOT crash data was set to be public for all the users. A safety analysis module was developed for visualizing the data in the regional multi-source database system in RITI communities. The data visualization platform is developed based on the Vaadin Framework. The users can interact with the interface for data analysis. A safety performance index and a potential safety improvement index were also developed. By combining the two indexes, one can easily identify crash hotspots and the key influencing factors to consider in an improvement package.
    • Develop Guidelines for Pavement Preservation Treatments and for Building a Pavement Preservation Program Platform for Alaska

      Hicks, Gary; Cheng, DingXin; Zubeck, Hannele; Liu, Jenny; Mullins, Tony (Alaska University Transportation Center, California Pavement Preservation Center, 2012)
    • Developing a Data-Driven Safety Assessment Framework for RITI Communities in Washington State

      Wang, Yinhai; Sun, Wei; Yang, Hao; Gottsacker, Christopher; Ricord, Sam; Yin, Shuyi (2019-10-03)
      In the history of this country, rural, isolated, indigenous, and tribal (RITI) communities were commonly overlooked with regards to social infrastructure and support. This issue is evident in the development of the transportation networks of these areas and the distinct lack of road safety in these types of communities. RITI communities carry a significantly disproportionate amount of traffic collisions and fatalities compared to urban areas. In order to improve the traffic safety conditions of the RITI communities in Washington State, it is necessary to build a traffic safety management system. A baseline data platform was developed by integrating the collected safety related data for the RITI communities in Washington State in the Year 1 Center for Safety Equity in Transportation (CSET) project. Besides the baseline data, the traffic safety management also requires the safety assessment framework, which is the corner stone of the traffic safety management system. Therefore, this project aims to develop a data-driven safety assessment framework to enable an effective roadway safety management system and improve the traffic safety conditions for RITI communities. The framework is based on an effective and efficient database management system for traffic and crash-related data of the RITI communities. In addition, in order to assist transportation agencies in practices such as the identification of high-risk roadway segments, the developed database management system has powerful visualization functions. Besides the database management and visualization platform, this project also develops roadway safety performance indices and traffic safety assessment methods in the safety assessment framework. This project also provides guidance on how to utilize these safety performance indices and results of safety assessment methods for visualization and analysis.
    • Developing an Interactive Baseline Data Platform for Visualizing and Analyzing Rural Crash Characteristics in RITI Communities

      Zhang, Guohui; Prevedouros, Panos; Ma, David T.; Yu, Hao; Li, Zhenning; Yuan, Runze (2019-10-01)
      This project focused on developing an interactive baseline crash data platform, termed as Rural Crash Visualization Tool System (RCVTS), to visualize and analyze rural crash characteristics in RITI communities. More than 975 thousand crash records were collected in the state of Alaska, Idaho, and Washington, from 2010 to 2016. Data fusion is applied to unify the collected data. In the proposed RCVTS platform, three main functions are defined: crash data visualization, data analysis, and data retrieval. Crash data visualization includes an on-street map based crash location tool and a graphic query tool. Data analysis involves a number of visualization approaches, including static charts— i.e., the scatter chart—the line chart, the area chart, the bar chart, and interactive graph— i.e., the sunburst chart. Users are allowed to generate customized analytical graphs by specifying the parameters and scale. The three types of authorized users are defined to download crash information in the data retrieval section following corresponding limitations. The proposed RCVTS was illustrated using a sample case with crash records of the State of Alaska. It showed that the proposed RCVTS functions well. Recommendations on future research are provided as well.
    • Developing Computer Models To Study The Effect Of Outdoor Air Quality On Indoor Air For The Purpose Of Enhancing Indoor Air Quality

      Marsik, Tomas; Johnson, Ron (2007)
      People in developed countries spend the majority of their time indoors. Therefore, studying the effect of outdoor air quality on indoor air is of a great importance to human health. This thesis presents several dynamic computer models that were developed to study this effect. They estimate indoor pollutant levels based on outdoor levels, ventilation rate, and other factors. Also, an analysis method is presented that allows for quantifying the effect of outdoor air quality on indoor air at a given building based on measured real-time outdoor and indoor pollutant levels. An important part of this method is separating the measured indoor level into two components - a component caused by indoor sources and a component caused by pollutants penetrating from outdoors. This separation is accomplished using a dynamic model, which, unlike some other methods, also allows for processing transient samples and thus simplifies the needed measurements. Outdoor and indoor pollutant levels were measured at eight buildings in Fairbanks, Alaska and the developed method was used to analyze the data. The main focus was on fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO) - the pollutants of major concern in Fairbanks. The effective penetration efficiency for PM2.5 ranged from 0.16 to 0.69, and was close to unity for CO. The outdoor generated PM2.5 was responsible in average for about 67% of the indoor PM2.5 in residences, and close to 100% in office environments. These results imply that reducing outdoor pollution can have significant health benefits even for people spending the majority of their time indoors. An air-quality control algorithm for a Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system was developed and tested using one of the models. This algorithm was shown to reduce indoor PM2.5 levels by 65%. Another model was used to study various ventilation options for a typical Fairbanks home with respect to indoor air quality, energy consumption, overall economy, and environmental impact. Using a Heat Recovery Ventilator (HRV) with an additional filter was shown to be the best option. Another model was successfully used to address key factors for radon mitigation in a home located in a radon-prone area.
    • Developing Guidelines for Two-Dimensional Model Review and Acceptance

      Toniolo, Horacio; Homan, Joel (Center for Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Cold Climates, 2018-01-31)
      Two independent modelers ran two hydraulic models, SRH-2D and HEC-RAS 2D. The models were applied to the Lakina River (MP 44 McCarthy Road) and to Quartz Creek (MP 0.7 Quartz Creek Road), which approximately represent straight and bend flow conditions, respectively. We compared the results, including water depth, depth averaged velocity, and bed shear stress, from the two models for both modelers. We found that the extent and density of survey data were insufficient for Quartz Creek. Neither model was calibrated due to the lack of basic field data (i.e., discharge, water surface elevation, and sediment characteristics). Consequently, we were unable to draw any conclusion about the accuracy of the models. Concerning the time step and the equations used (simplified or full) to solve the momentum equation in the HEC-RAS 2D model, we found that the minimum time step allowed by the model must be used if the diffusion wave equation is used in the simulations. A greater time step can be used if the full momentum equation is used in the simulations. We developed a set of guidelines for reviewing model results, and developed and provided a two-day training workshop on the two models for ADOT&PF hydraulic engineers.
    • Developing Locally Sourced Brine Additive for Anti-Icing

      Jungwirth, Scott; Cao, Ling; Shi, Xianming (Alaska University Transportation Center, Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities, 2014)
    • Development and control of a remotely accessible hardware-in-the-loop simulator (HILS) for PUMA 560

      Singaraju, Trivikram Srinivas (2007-05)
      In this thesis a novel Hardware-In-the-Loop-Simulator (HILS) system is developed for the real-time simulation of the PUMA 560 robot arm. The developed HILS structure is different from those used in the literature, as it involves the emulation of both the actuation and load effects of the actual system with use of Permanent Magnet DC (PMDC) motor and Direct-Drive motor (DDM) and not just by computer simulations as is common in the literature. A HILS system typically utilizes hardware with different hardware ratings and time constants than the actual manipulator, and yet is required to replicate the output of the actual system exactly. In this thesis, system dynamics matching and controller scaling approach is developed to match the HILS response of any given system to the output response of any given manipulator. The HILS of the PUMA 560 (HILS-PUMA) is conducted for both PD and PD+ controllers. The HILS-PUMA is done on a joint-by-joint basis, in which one joint is simulated at a time on the HILS setup, while the other five are produced by computer simulations. Experiments are conducted on HILS-PUMA and the actual PUMA 560 via the Internet. The data collected from the HILS setup are also accompanied by an animation developed with the use of V-Realm software. Inspecting the plotted responses of the HILS-PUMA and PUMA 560, it has been noted that the developed HILS test-bed and the generalized scaling/matching approach yield a very similar performance to the actual system. Synchronized animations using the HILS results and snapshots of the actual PUMA 560 performance taken under the same control and reference trajectories demonstrate successful performance.
    • Development and economic appraisal of a lightweight zeolite cement blend for high temperature - high pressure oil and geothermal wells

      Misra, Jyotishka; Khataniar, Santanu; Patil, Shirish; Dandekar, Abhijit (2015-12)
      With ever-increasing global energy demand, it is of vital importance that technology consistently meets industry requirements. As high temperature-high pressure reservoirs become more and more profitable, the energy industry can be expected to exploit them. Hence, a versatile cement system that can be used in such reservoirs would need to be capable of ensuring well integrity under such conditions. However, in order to overcome most of these challenges, cement systems are often too dense to pump into a formation without damaging it. Therefore, a lightweight cement is needed. One promising means of delivering a lightweight cement that meets these rigorous demands is to replace a portion of the API cement with a natural pozzolan such as a zeolite. The zeolite cement blend developed in this project has a density of 13.5 ppg, far lower than the 17 to 18 ppg cements that would otherwise be used. Through a trial and error process of replacing portions of API class H or G cement with six different zeolites, an acceptable zeolite cement blend was found, along with the necessary system of additives to ensure that it performed within existing specifications for oil well cements. Each of the cement blends was subjected to high temperature-high pressure testing of consistency behavior, fluid loss, and compressive strength, along with studies of modification with carbonation. This study also endeavored to show that such a cement system was economically viable. This was done using a number of case studies including both oil and geothermal wells. The cement costs of the cement were found by studying each component. The associated costs associated with the cement were subjected to a Monte Carlo simulation to reflect better the variability expected in a well job. By adding the two, and comparing the cost with a similar job carried out with a standard class H cement, the economic viability of the cement was established. In addition, the cost per kilowatt-hour and projected revenues for the geothermal projects were calculated to show that it made financial sense to use the zeolite cement blend.
    • Development and optimization of a reconfigurable telemetry system for sounding rocket payloads

      Si, Niladri (2007-12)
      This thesis addresses the development of a flight-ready telemetry encoder for the Alaska Student Rocket Project (ASRP) sounding rocket payload. The Frame Oriented eXpandable Integrated circuit Encoder-2007 (FOXIE-07) was developed to resolve crosstalk, timing, and thermal issues in the original FOXIE-03 encoder prototype. A pre-modulation low-pass filter was implemented between the encoder and the FM transmitter to minimize undesired sidebands from the transmitted signal. Complete testing of the FOXIE-07 encoder and pre-modulation filter was performed to certify them as flight-ready components for the SRP5 payload launch from Poker Flat Research Range in 2009.
    • Development of Landslide Warning System

      Riad, Beshoy; Zhang, Xiong (2019-11)
      Landslides cause approximately 25 to 50 deaths and US$1 - 2 billion worth of damage in the United States annually. They can be triggered by humans or by nature. It has been widely recognized that rainfall is one of the major causes of slope instability and failure. Slope remediation and stabilization efforts can be costly. An early warning system is a suitable alternative and can save human lives. In this project, an early warning system was developed for a 40-foot-high cut slope on the island of Hawaii. To achieve the objective, subsurface investigations were performed and undisturbed samples were collected. For the purpose of unsaturated soil testing, new testing apparatuses were developed by modifying the conventional oedometer and direct shear cells. The unsaturated soil was characterized using two separate approaches and, later, the results were discussed and compared. The slope site was instrumented for the measurement of suction, water content, displacement, and precipitation. The collected climatic data along with the calibrated hydraulic parameters were used to build an infiltration-evapotranspiration numerical model. The model estimations were compared with the field measurements and showed good agreement. The verified model was used to determine the pore-water pressure distribution during and after a 500-years return storm. Later, the pore-water pressure distribution was transferred to a slope stability software and used to study the slope stability during and after the storm. Based on a 2D slope stability analysis, the slope can survive the 500-year storm with a factor of safety of 1.20. Instrument threshold values were established for water content sensors and tensiometers using a traffic-light-based trigger criterion.
    • Development of a Computer Vision-Based Three-Dimensional Reconstruction Method for Volume-Change Measurement of Unsaturated Soils during Triaxial Testing

      Zhang, Xiong; Xia, Xiaolong (2019-10)
      Problems associated with unsaturated soils are ubiquitous in the U.S., where expansive and collapsible soils are some of the most widely distributed and costly geologic hazards. Solving these widespread geohazards requires a fundamental understanding of the constitutive behavior of unsaturated soils. In the past six decades, the suction-controlled triaxial test has been established as a standard approach to characterizing constitutive behavior for unsaturated soils. However, this type of test requires costly test equipment and time-consuming testing processes. To overcome these limitations, a photogrammetry-based method has been developed recently to measure the global and localized volume-changes of unsaturated soils during triaxial test. However, this method relies on software to detect coded targets, which often requires tedious manual correction of incorrectly coded target detection information. To address the limitation of the photogrammetry-based method, this study developed a photogrammetric computer vision-based approach for automatic target recognition and 3D reconstruction for volume-changes measurement of unsaturated soils in triaxial tests. Deep learning method was used to improve the accuracy and efficiency of coded target recognition. A photogrammetric computer vision method and ray tracing technique were then developed and validated to reconstruct the three-dimensional models of soil specimen.
    • Development of a Conceptual Hydrologic Model for a Sub-Arctic Watershed

      Carlson, Robert F. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1972-06)
      The Caribou-Poker Creek Research Watershed began as an Alaskan inter-agency effort in 1969. As more data becomes accumulated, as more hydrologic analysis is accomplished and as a greater variety of activities are carried out on the watershed, there is a need to understand the complete hydrologic system of the watershed. This report describes the development of a general hydrologic system model which describes the runoff occurrence on the watershed. The model will provide a basis upon which to make comparative observations, to suggest changes in·the model structure and to point out further measurement needs. A conceptual model study such as this work should not be thought of as a final answer to all systems analysis within the watershed or even the most desirable answer in many cases. There is a definite need, however, for a conceptual model because of the variety of activities and investigators, many of which do not have a complete understanding of the whole system. A complete and flexible conceptual model provides a convenient focal point for all types of investigators, regardless of their background and interest in the overall system. The Caribou-Poker Creek Research Watershed is located approximately 25 miles northwest of Fairbanks, Alaska. It is about 40 square miles in size and covers a variety of terrain which is typical of Interior Alaska. Other details concerning this watershed may be found in Slaughter (1971). Results of hydrologic data to date has been primarily data collection and reporting (Slaughter, 1972). The model as it is offered in this report is not intended to be a complete study of conceptual watershed modeling. Rather, the intention is to illustrate the derivation of a conceptual model and illustrate how it is applied to a particular watershed.
    • Development of a Design Method for H2Ri Wicking Fabric in Pavement Structures

      Lin, Chuang; Zhang, Xiong; Han, Jie (2016-11)
      A new roadway drainage design concept is proposed to reduce the roadway water content and enhance the overall pavement performance by implementing H2Ri geotextile with lateral wicking ability. Compared with conventional drainage materials, this type of geotextile has high tensile strength and higher specific surface area, which enable to continuously transport water under unsaturated conditions. SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) images indicated that the geotextile functions effectively for soils with particle size larger than 12 microns. A series of tests were performed to establish the relationships among different parameters, including resilient modulus test, large-scale direct shear test, salt concentration test and pressure plate test. Test results indicated that the soil-geotextile system can work effectively to reduce the water content within the pavement structure by 2%. By doing so, the corresponding resilient modulus can be increased by 3 times and the permanent deformation can be reduced to half of that value. Meanwhile, the interface frictional strength between geotextile and soil was not sensitive to water content change.
    • Development of a differential GPS tracking system for sounding rocket payloads

      Helmericks, Jay Gregory (2001-08)
      The purpose of this thesis was to develop a system that could track a sounding rocket payload with a commercial GPS receiver. A GPS receiver was chosen that still outputs raw data when the COCOM limits are exceeded. All the hardware to support the OEM GPS receiver in a reverse differential system was designed and built, including both a ground system and two flight systems to support both on-board storage and telemetry. A software program was developed to archive and compute positions from the raw data. The GPS system has been ground tested and flown on an Orion sounding rocket. The testing shows that the system works and the expected accuracy is 10-50 ft. depending on the distance between the ground station and the rocket, satellite geometry and other sources of error.
    • Development of a light-weight low cost self potential unit

      Zonge, K.L. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1968)
      A lightweight, low cost self-potential unit has been developed using solid state components. The parts for the basic unit including batteries, copper sulfate pots, and hookup wire costs approximately $70.00. The device is instant reading and weighs two pounds. The batteries used have a shelf life of ten years and an estimated operation life (based on continuous use for ten hours per day) of sixty days. This instrument was developed specifically for the Alaskan prospector who is concerned with weight and cost of field instrumentation.
    • Development of a methodology for the characterization of mafic rocks with respect to their use for mineral carbonation: the mineralogy, petrology, and geochemistry of the Portage Lake Volcanics in the Keweenaw Peninsula, Michigan

      Bolz, Patrizia; Metz, Paul; Darrow, Margaret; Newberry, Rainer (2014-05)
      Mineral carbonation of basalt has been proposed by various researchers to reduce anthropogenic CO₂ output without necessitating considerable reduction of fossil fuel usage. The feasibility of any mafic rock for mineral carbonation depends on the present mineralogy, texture, grain size, and alteration. The purpose of this research is the development of a methodology for the characterization of mafic rocks regarding their susceptibility for mineral carbonation, based on samples from mine tailings in the Keweenaw Peninsula, Michigan. Samples were characterized using petrographic examination, microprobe analyses, whole rock data, and thermodynamic modeling. Thin section analyses revealed several alteration assemblages ranging from relatively fresh samples to extremely altered samples. End-members of minerals present in the study area were used for thermodynamic modeling. Based on thermodynamics, anorthite, prehnite, and diopside are the most feasible minerals for carbonation, minerals potentially viable include forsterite, enstatite, talc, clinochlore, and phengite. To determine feasible minerals for carbonation, kinetic modeling should be conducted to establish minerals with realistic reaction rates. The approach outlined in this study can be used as an inexpensive and expeditious method to determine mafic samples most feasible for mineral carbonation based on thermodynamic modeling. Not all mafic rocks should be treated as basalts, nor are all mafic rocks equally feasible for mineral carbonation.
    • Development of a thermodynamic model for CH₄, CO₂, CH₄-CO₂ gas hydrate systems

      Kulkarni, Abhijeet S.; Zhu, Tao; McGrail, B. P.; Chen, Gang; Patil, Shirish L.; Ogbe, David O. (2005-05)
      An equation of state (EOS) software module was developed for CH4, CO2, and CH4-CO2 gas hydrates using the van der Waals-Platteeuw model. The model is based on classical thermodynamics and is used to predict the thermodynamic behavior of gas hydrates including the pressure and temperature at which gas hydrates form. A numerical scheme was developed for solving I-H-V, Lw-H-V, and Lw-H-Lhc equilibrium conditions for bulk hydrate formation from pure water and hydrocarbon. The model was further extended to determine hydrate equilibrium conditions in the presence of porous media of different radii. The numerical scheme was modified to account for the effect of salt on hydrate phase equilibrium. The results obtained from the model were in close agreement with the experimental data reported in literature. The main contribution of this work is that the proposed model can predict hydrate dissociation pressures at temperatures above 285 K more accurately than any of the available models.
    • Development of Ambient PM 2.5 Management Strategies

      Johnson, Ron; Marsik, Tom; Cahill, Cathy; Lee, Ming (Alaska University Transportation Center, 2009)