• Effects of seasonability and variability of streamflow on nearshore coastal areas: final report

      Carlson, Robert F.; Seifert, Richard D.; Kane, Douglas L. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1977-01)
      General nature and scope of the study: This study examines the variability of streamflow in all gaged Alaskan rivers and streams which terminate in the ocean. Forty-one such streams have been gaged for varying periods of time by the U. S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division. Attempts have been made to characterize streamflow statistically using standard hydrological methods. The analysis scheme which was employed is shown in the flow chart which follows. In addition to the statistical characterization, the following will be described for each stream when possible: 1. average period of break-up initiation (10-day period) 2. average period of freeze-up (10-day period) 3. miscellaneous break-up and freeze-up data. 4. relative hypsometric curve for each basin 5. observations on past ice-jam flooding 6. verbal description of annual flow variation 7. original indices developed in this study to relate streamflow variability to basin characteristics and regional climate.
    • The Effects of Surface Disturbances on the Leaching of Heavy Metals

      Dixson, David P.; Brown, Edward J. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1987-10)
      The harmful effects of heavy metal contamination of surface waters impacted by gold mining activity are well documented. An examination was conducted on the effects of surface disturbances in Wade Creek on the concentrations of heavy metals in solution, and whether Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, a bacteria found in heavy metal contaminated drainages from placer mines, is found in the drainage. Thiobacillus ferrooxidans was not detected in this particular setting. The effects of mining activity and relandscaping of stockpiled tailings showed in a short distance, a net increase of dissolved arsenic, copper, zinc, and iron. However, the long distance impact of dissolved metals was minimal. Generally, it seems that the dampening of the total suspended solids had a direct effect on the removal of metals dissolved in solution.
    • The Effects of Suspended Silts and Clays on Self-purification in Natural Waters: Protein Adsorption

      Murray, Ann P. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1972-04)
      The effects of the suspended sediments found in many natural waters on the microbial processes involved in the self-purification of those waters are not known. Clays and silts with their large surface area per unit weight have an immense capacity for adsorbing nutrient molecules from solution, but the extent to which such adsorption takes place is largely unknown. Adsorption of a major portion of a biodegradable substance from solution onto a solid surface would significantly alter its susceptibility to bacterial attack and, hence, also the rate at which it is decomposed. In this paper are reported the results of adsorption experiments with soil materials found in some Alaskan waters which are typically heavily sediment-laden. The affinities of these soils for the protein bovine serum albumin were measured as a function of pH, temperature, and protein concentration. An empirical relationship was discovered, for a given soil material, between the equilibrium protein concentration and the initial protein-to-soil ratio. Temperature variations from 5 to 25°C had no detectable effect on adsorption, whereas variations in pH between 2 and 10 had dramatic effects on the extent of adsorption. The amount of protein adsorbed at the pH of the natural water system was so small as to lead one to predict that adsorption of this protein onto suspended sediments would have a negligible effect on the rate at which the protein would be decomposed by bacteria in the aqueous environment.
    • Effects of Thermal Discharge Upon a Subarctic Stream: Completion Report

      Carlson, Robert F.; Tilsworth, Timothy; Hok, Charlotte (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1978-06)
    • The Effects of Water Quality and Quantity on the Fauna of a Non-Glacial Alaskan River

      Morrow, James E. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1971)
    • Egress Window Tests

      Rood, Robert (1985-08)
    • Electric thermal storage in isolated wind diesel power systems: use of distributed secondary loads for frequency regulation

      Janssen, Nicholas T.; Wies, Richard W.; Peterson, Rorik A.; Mueller-Stoffels, Marc; Xiang, Yujiang (2017-08)
      Isolated coastal utilities in Arctic villages commonly use a mix of diesel and wind power to provide electrical service to their consumers. It is common for such communities to experience periods of high wind generation for which no immediate demand exists and either waste, curtail, or poorly utilize the surplus. The objective of the present work is to explore (through mathematical and numerical modelling) the technical feasibility of and optimization strategies for distributing this excess wind energy as domestic space heat for use as a cleaner, more economical alternative to fossil fuels. Autonomously controlled Electric Thermal Storage (ETS) devices are considered as a solution to decouple the supply of excess wind power with domestic heat demand without the need for communication infrastructure or a second distribution circuit. First, using numerical heat transfer analysis, it is shown that the performance of an ETS heater core can be generalized and expressed in terms of its physical properties and simple geometric dimensions in such a way as to inform system sizing and economic performance studies for prospective applications. Furthermore, a collection of autonomous ETS units is shown (using a full-scale lab-validated mathematical model) to possess the ability to assume the role of partial and/or sole frequency regulator on a hybrid wind-diesel system. Several design changes are proposed, which render the commercially-available units more amenable to frequency regulation. Ultimately, ETS is shown to be a promising alternative means of utilizing excess renewable energy for domestic space heat while providing additional stability to the electrical grid.
    • Electromagnetic heating of unconventional hydrocarbon resources on the Alaska North Slope

      Peraser, Vivek; Patil, Shirish L.; Khataniar, Santanu; Sonwalkar, Vikas S.; Dandekar, Abhijit Y. (2012-05)
      The heavy oil reserves on the Alaska North Slope (ANS) amount to approximately 24-33 billion barrels and approximately 85 trillion cubic feet of technically recoverable gas from gas hydrate deposits. Various mechanisms have been studied for production of these resources, the major one being the injection of heat into the reservoir in the form of steam or hot water. In the case of heavy oil reservoirs, heat reduces the viscosity of heavy oil and makes it flow more easily. Heating dissociates gas hydrates thereby releasing gas. But injecting steam or hot water as a mechanism of heating has its own limitations on the North Slope due to the presence of continuous permafrost and the footprint of facilities. The optimum way to inject heat would be to generate it in-situ. This work focuses on the use of electrical energy for heating and producing hydrocarbons from these reservoirs. Heating with electrical energy has two variants: high frequency electromagnetic (EM) heating and low frequency resistive heating. Using COMSOL ® multi-physics software and hypothetical reservoir, rock, and fluid properties an axisymmetric 2D model was built to study the effect of high frequency electromagnetic waves on the production of heavy oil. The results were encouraging and showed that with the use of EM heating, oil production rate increases by ~340% by the end of third year of heating for a reservoir initially at a temperature of 120°F. Applied Frequency and input power were important factors that affected EM heating. The optimum combination of power and frequency was found to be 70 KW and 915 MHz for a reservoir initially at a temperature of 120°F. Then using CMG-STARS ® software simulator, the use of low frequency resistive heating was implemented in the gas hydrate model in which gas production was modeled using the depressurization technique. The addition of electrical heating inhibited near-wellbore hydrate reformation preventing choking of the production well which improved gas production substantially.
    • Elutriator design manual for coarse heavy mineral recovery from sluice box concentrate

      Walsh, D.E. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1991)
      This manual addresses the design and fabrication of an elutriation system for the separation of coarse heavy minerals from waste rock. Elutriation is a process for separating a mixture of minerals into two or more products and utilizes the difference in settling velocity between particles to effect this separation. An upward flow of water runs countercurrent to the material flow in a hollow elutriation column. Particle separation is affected by particle density, size and shape and the upward water velocity. It was felt that the design and demonstration of a low cost, functional and efficient unit for the concentration of coarse, heavy minerals would be of benefit to the placer mining industry. Industrial efficiency can be improved by the additional recovery of byproduct heavy minerals with market potential. Elutriation provides an inexpensive method for processing +1/4 inch, sluice box concentrate to recover by-product heavy minerals. Elutriator design emphasized the use of materials which are inexpensive and readily available to the average placer gold mining company. The design also incorporated concentrate storage and shipment functionality into a detachable section of the elutriator. Design is based on the construction of a prototype unit and testing of the unit for coarse cassiterite (Sn02) recovery efficiency. Laboratory testing utilized 3/4" x 3/16" sluice box concentrate from Shoreham Resources Ltd's Cache Creek Mine, Tofty, Alaska. Following laboratory testing, the elutriator was field tested on-site in September, 1990. Both laboratory and field testing were highly successful. The elutriator proved to be a simple, robust concentrator for this application and produced tin recoveries and grades in excess of 99% and 55% respectively. Field feed grades to the elutriation unit were approximately 26% tin.
    • An Empirical Model for Optimal Highway Durability in Cold Regions

      Yan, Jia (Center for Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Cold Climates, 2016-03-10)
      We develop an empirical tool to estimate optimal highway durability in cold regions. To test the model, we assemble a data set containing all highway construction and maintenance projects in Arizona and Washington State from 1990 to 2014. The data set includes information on location, time, type (resurfacing, construction, or lane widening), pavement material and thickness, and total expenditure for these projects. Using the data, we first estimate how highway maintenance costs and highway duration depend on pavement thickness and traffic loading. We then calibrate the effects of different deicers on highway durability and thus on highway maintenance costs. Finally, we demonstrate how the estimated and calibrated model can be used by planners to make optimal decisions for highway pavement and winter operations in cold regions.
    • Enabling Data-Driven Transportation Safety Improvements in Rural Alaska

      Bennett, F. Lawrence; Metzgar, Jonathan B.; Perkins, Robert A. (2019-12)
      Safety improvements require funding. A clear need must be demonstrated to secure funding. For transportation safety, data, especially data about past crashes, is the usual method of demonstrating need. However, in rural locations, such data is often not available, or is not in a form amenable to use in funding applications. This research aids rural entities, often federally recognized tribes and small villages acquire data needed for funding applications. Two aspects of work product are the development of a traffic counting application for an iPad or similar device, and a review of the data requirements of the major transportation funding agencies. The traffic-counting app, UAF Traffic, demonstrated its ability to count traffic and turning movements for cars and trucks, as well as ATVs, snow machines, pedestrians, bicycles, and dog sleds. The review of the major agencies demonstrated that all the likely funders would accept qualitative data and Road Safety Audits. However, quantitative data, if it was available, was helpful.
    • End-to-end well planning strategies for Alaska north slope directional wells

      Mahajan, Neeraj Hemant; Khataniar, Santanu; Patil, Shirish; Dandekar, Abhijit; Fatnani, Ashish (2018-05)
      Directional well planning has gained special attention in the Alaska North Slope (ANS) as operators are being compelled to drill increasing numbers of wells from already congested pads because of low oil prices, Capex restrictions, and environmental regulations. This research focuses on two major components of directional well planning: anti-collision and torque and drag analysis in Schrader Bluff, Milne Point. The drilling pattern at the ANS implies very high wellbore collision risk, especially at the shallower section, which affects the safety of drilling operations. However, satisfying anti-collision norms is not the solitary step towards successful well planning. Integration of anti-collision results with torque and drag analysis is essential in evaluating the safety and feasibility of drilling a particular well path and avoiding drill string failures. In the first part of the study, three well profiles (horizontal, slant, and s-shaped) were planned for each of the two new targets selected in the Schrader Bluff OA sand. Initially, this part of the research compared the performance of the newly developed Operator Wellbore Survey Group (OWSG) error model and the industry-standard Industry Steering Committee for Wellbore Surveying Accuracy (ISCWSA) error model. To provide effective guidelines, the results of error model comparison were used to carry out sensitivity analyses based on four parameters: surface location, well profiles, survey tools, and different target locations in the same sand. The results of this study aid in proposing an improved anti-collision risk management workflow for effective well planning in Arctic areas. The second part of the study investigates the drillability of the well paths planned using the improved anti-collision risk management workflow. Furthermore, this part of the research aims at defining the end point limits for critical well planning parameters, including inclination and dogleg, such that within these limits, the well path satisfies anticollision as well as torque and drag considerations. These limits were generated using a drill string optimized in terms of steerable tool, drill pipe size, mud rheology, trip speed, rotational speed, and weight on bit (WOB) during drilling and tripping out operations. The results of this study would help reduce the cumbersome iterative steps and narrow down the design domain for any well to be drilled on the North Slope of Alaska.
    • Engineering economic analysis of a rail extension from Dunbar siding to Livengood, Alaska

      Bohart, Charles W.; Metz, Paul A.; Huang, Scott L.; Misra, Debasmita (2011-12)
      The Dunbar Siding to Livengood rail extension study is an economic prefeasibility investigation, and is conducted from two perspectives as a cost benefit analysis. The first perspective is, that of the Alaska Railroad Corporation (ARRC) in which the capital and operating costs of the proposed extension are recovered through the revenue stream resulting from the out-bound mineral freight loads, the in-bound re-supply freight loads, and the potential commuter passenger service to mining projects and communities in the Livengood area. The second perspective is that of the private sector in which a shipping sensitivity and employee transport analysis with respect to mining project developments. The large mineral resource base within the Dunbar-Livengood Corridor indicates an excellent freight potential with generous benefits for Alaska's economy of greater than $2 billion annually in gross revenues; whereas, resource and rail development are synergistic.
    • Enhanced bioweathering of coal for rare earth element extraction and concentration

      Sachan, Ankur; Ghosh, Tathagata; Briggs, Brandon; Ganguli, Rajive; Aggarwal, Srijan (2019-05)
      Rare earth elements (REEs) are a group of seventeen elements that include scandium, yttrium, and fifteen of the lanthanide series elements, which are used in a variety of consumer goods and for defense purposes. Acquiring a domestic profitable source of REEs is a critical national need as most of the global supply comes from one country, China. To counter this problem, the US is actively looking at alternative sources of REEs by implementing unconventional methods of extraction. Coal is one of the alternative sources of REEs. Alaskan coal from Wishbone Hill and Healy are known to contain REEs up to 286 ppm and 524 ppm, respectively, while having concentrations as high as 950 ppm on ash basis in some density fractions. Microbial leaching or bioleaching is a novel method that can be used for extraction of REEs from coal as microbes are known to affect earth's surface over geologic time by playing critical roles in weathering of minerals. A certain species of bacteria, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, was used to separate the REEs from Wishbone Hill and Healy coal samples. The experiments were performed for various density fractions of both coals by varying solids percentage, temperature, size of coal, and bacterial concentration, and recovery of REEs for these conditions was recorded. Highest individual recovery of neodymium, 75.3%, was obtained for Wishbone Hill 1.3 floats, while a maximum of 98.4% total REE recovery was obtained for Healy 1.3 sinks. Healy coal has the higher total recovery of REEs in comparison to Wishbone Hill coal. Bioleaching process was also compared to the acid leaching process. Healy coal responded better to bioleaching than the acid leaching process. The Wishbone Hill coal had comparable recoveries of bioleaching with acid leaching, although they were always less than acid leaching.
    • Enhancement of algorithm for detection of gold strip circuit vessel sensor errors

      de Melo, Eduardo Pimenta; Ganguli, Rajive; Ghosh, Tathagata; Arya, Sampurna (2019-08)
      Sensors are used to understand the condition and flow of mineral processes. Having accurate and precise information is fundamental for proper operation. Even small errors are relevant to cost when considering the operational span of a mine. Finding small errors is hard; few algorithms can detect them and fewer still, when considering errors on the scale of 2% in magnitude. Some tools have recently been developed using data mining techniques for detecting small errors. Rambabu Pothina (2017) created an algorithm for detecting small errors in strip vessel temperature sensors in the carbon stripping circuit in Pogo mine. The algorithm performed well and was able to detect small magnitude errors without disrupting the industrial process. This thesis improves the understanding of the performance of the algorithm, while also making some minor changes. First, a statistical analysis of the results of the algorithm on baseline data revealed an inherent difference in how the carbon strip process was run with respect to the two strip vessels. This discovery provided insight into the algorithm, and how its performance depended on process characteristics. Second, the error detection algorithm was tested under scenarios different from Pothina (2017). Three separate types of errors were artificially added to real data: a) a fixed 2% ("fixed" error increase) b) a fixed 2% decrease ("fixed" error decrease) and c) an error with a mean value of 2% of magnitude ("noisy" error). Additionally, error was added to temperature data from each strip vessel (rather than just one), though only one at a time. The algorithm was tested under each scenario for each of the four years, 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018. The time to detect errors ranged from 19 to 73 days. The time to detect was very high (53 to 73 days) in 2017 since there were large data gaps that year. In general, time to detect was about 30 days. The performance under noisy error were not that far below fixed error scenario. The algorithm took 10% more time to detect errors under noisy error scenario compared to fixed error scenario. On average, the algorithm detected an error after 25 cycles, regardless of the time span this represents. This is consistent in years with plentiful data, such as 2015, as well as years with less data, 2017 and 2018. In years with data gaps, 25 cycles represent a longer time period. Seeded errors that decreased vessel temperature have very similar results to its equivalent increase, i.e. the decrease in 2% of S2 has results similar to the increase of 2% in S1 and vice versa. In conclusion, these additional testing and analysis helped develop a more comprehensive understanding of the behavior of the data and the algorithms. These results validate and strengthen the findings of Pothina (2017).
    • Envirnonmental Standards for Northern Regions: A Symposium

      Smith, Daniel W.; Tilsworth, Timothy (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1975-03)
      The environmental standards for water, air, and land are of prime importance to all members of the northern community. Many of the ecological systems are easily disrupted. Some of the systems are extremely stable. Although the volume of scientific and engineering research on various aspects of the total environment is expanding rapidly it appears that those studying the conditions that exist and those setting the standards for these areas seldom, if ever, communicate. Due to the increased attention being paid to the meaning and impact of regulations, the sponsors of this symposium proposed an opportunity for open discussion of the issues. The program was designed to address the full range of environmental situations. The principal objectives of this symposium were: 1. to review environmental standards and regulations 2. to identify environmental problem areas 3. to examine the adequacy, pertinence, enforcement, and effectiveness of environmental control in the North. While these objectives could not be completely satisfied by this meeting, doors were opened; participants discussed issues brought forth; and progress was made toward a better understanding of needed environmental standards for northern regions.
    • Environment, health and safety management in mining and other industries

      Yoon, Seok J.; 윤석준; Lin, Hsing K.; Walsh, Daniel E.; Barnes, David L.; Chen, Gang (2014-05)
      While environment and health and safety may appear to be two different areas, they may be integrated into Environment, Health and Safety (EHS). This study is to investigate the impact of the environment and Occupational Health and Safety Management System (OHSMS) on health and safety. Three case studies were conducted. The first one is to study the impact of abandoned mines on soils, water and crops. The second one is to examine the effect of OHSMS implementation on reducing occupational safety risk. The third one examines the impact of environment on health. The abstracts of these three case studies are as follows: THE INVESTIGATION OF ARSENIC AND HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN SOIL, WATER AND CROPS AROUND ABANDONED METAL MINES. Soils, water and crops around abandoned metal mines can be contaminated by heavy metals from adjacent tailings and waste rocks accumulated during mining operations. The results indicate that the As, Zn, Cd and Cr concentrations exceed the soil contamination standard in many soil samples of the nearby farmlands as well as the tailings sites. In the case of water quality, the As concentrations in the Okgae and Youngchen Mines show a decreasing trend with increasing distance from the mine, which is similar to that of the soil samples. The Cd and Pb concentrations in the crops near the Okgae Mine show a decreasing trend with increasing distance from the mine which is also similar to that of soil samples. In addition, the Cd and Pb concentrations in the rice samples and the Cd concentration in the corn samples increase with the Cd and/or Pb concentrations in the soil. EFFECT OF OHSMS ON WORK-RELATED ACCIDENT RATE AND DIFFERENCES OF OHSMS AWARENESS BETWEEN MANAGERS IN SOUTH KOREA's CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY. The study was conducted to investigate the status of the occupational health and safety management system (OHSMS) in the construction industry and the effect of OHSMS on accident rates. Differences of awareness levels on safety issues among site general managers and occupational health and safety (OHS) managers are identified through surveys. The accident rates for the OHSMS-certified construction companies from 2006 to 2011, when the construction OHSMS became widely available, were analyzed to understand the effect of OHSMS on the work-related injury rates in the construction industry. The Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA) 18001 is the certification to these companies performing OHSMS in South Korea. The questionnaire was created to analyze the differences of OHSMS awareness between site general managers and OHS managers of construction companies. The implementation of OHSMS among the top 100 construction companies in South Korea shows that the accident rate decreased by 67% and the fatal accident rate decreased by 10.3% during the period from 2006 to 2011. The survey in this study shows different OHSMS awareness levels between site general managers and OHS managers. The differences were motivation for developing OHSMS, external support needed for implementing OHSMS, problems and effectiveness of implementing OHSMS. Both work-related accident and fatal accident rates were found to be significantly reduced by implementing OHSMS in this study. The differences of OHSMS awareness between site general managers and OHS managers were identified through a survey. The effect of these differences on safety and other benefits warrants further research with proper data collection. THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN CHILDHOOD ASTHMA AND RESIDENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS THROUGH CASE-CONTROL STUDY IN ANDONG, KOREA. Using the International Society for Augmentative and Alternative Communication (ISAAC) questionnaire, we surveyed the childhood asthma prevalence and related socioeconomic and residential environment on 887 elementary schoolchildren in Andong, Korea. We selected asthma case group (29) and control group (26) and performed the exposure assessment for the personal exposure for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and formaldehyde level for 3 days. As a result, 814 schoolchildren completed the questionnaire. It was found that the asthma prevalence was 19.9% and gender (male, OR; Odds Ratio=1.55), age (younger, OR=1.60), family history of asthma (OR=3.70), passive smoking (OR=1.53), and odor from nearby house (OR=2.01) were affective factors. There was no significant difference between the case and control groups in VOCs and formaldehyde exposure level. In the logistic regression analysis, family income (aOR; adjusted OR =3.20, 95% CI=1.41-7.24) and amount of house sunlight (aOR=2.14, 95% CI; Confidence Interval =1.00-4.58) were significant after adjusting gender, age, and family history of asthma. In conclusion, socioeconomic factors including family income and residential environmental factors such as passive smoking, odor from nearby household, and amount of house sunlight are associated with the prevalence of childhood asthma.
    • Environmental path of arsenic in groundwater: Completion report

      Hawkins, D.B. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1976-10)
      This is the final completion report for a project begun in July, 1974, for the purpose of determining the concentration of arsenic in the Pedro Dome-Cleary Summit area of the Fairbanks Mining District, Alaska. Because arsenic contamination of the waters of the area was detected during the first year, the study was extended for another year to examine for arsenic the waters of the Ester Dome area, a more populated part of the district. This study was undertaken because it was known that arsenic as arsenopyrite and arseniferous pyrite accompanies the gold mineralization in the Fairbanks District. It was not known if such arsenic was liberated to the waters of the area by weathering processes. The Pedro Dome-Cleary Summit area was chosen for the initial study because arsenopyrite- bearing rocks are abundant and mining activities which might accelerate release of arsenic had long been carried out in the region. The area also had a few wells thus permitting a limited number of groundwater samples to be taken. The subsequently studied Ester Dome area permitted extensive sampling of the groundwater there. From a health standpoint, 70 mg arsenic has proven to be toxic to humans, while arsenic in low concentrations appears to be a carcinogen. In view of these facts, the United States Public Health Service (USPHS) recommended guide limit for arsenic in potable waters is 10 parts per billion (ppb) with 50 ppb a level which, if exceeded, constitutes grounds for rejection of the water as a public water supply. Because of the rapid population growth in the Fairbanks area and the growing reliance upon domestic wells as a source of water by much of the population, it is important that the arsenic content of the surface and ground water be determined.
    • Environmental Planning for an Alaskan Water-Oriented Recreation Area

      Smith, Daniel W. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1975-06)
      The principal objective of this study was to detail the procedures, methods, alternatives, and considerations necessary for the development of environmental management programs for Alaskan water-oriented recreational areas. Major emphasis was to be placed on the Nancy Lake area. As procedures for evaluation were to be used at the Nancy Lake State Recreation Area as they were developed, it was hoped that a valuable data base could be established for the area. Such information could be extremely valuable in making management decision, in monitoring changes that may occur, and in modifying plans for the area.