• Electromagnetic heating of unconventional hydrocarbon resources on the Alaska North Slope

      Peraser, Vivek; Patil, Shirish L.; Khataniar, Santanu; Sonwalkar, Vikas S.; Dandekar, Abhijit Y. (2012-05)
      The heavy oil reserves on the Alaska North Slope (ANS) amount to approximately 24-33 billion barrels and approximately 85 trillion cubic feet of technically recoverable gas from gas hydrate deposits. Various mechanisms have been studied for production of these resources, the major one being the injection of heat into the reservoir in the form of steam or hot water. In the case of heavy oil reservoirs, heat reduces the viscosity of heavy oil and makes it flow more easily. Heating dissociates gas hydrates thereby releasing gas. But injecting steam or hot water as a mechanism of heating has its own limitations on the North Slope due to the presence of continuous permafrost and the footprint of facilities. The optimum way to inject heat would be to generate it in-situ. This work focuses on the use of electrical energy for heating and producing hydrocarbons from these reservoirs. Heating with electrical energy has two variants: high frequency electromagnetic (EM) heating and low frequency resistive heating. Using COMSOL ® multi-physics software and hypothetical reservoir, rock, and fluid properties an axisymmetric 2D model was built to study the effect of high frequency electromagnetic waves on the production of heavy oil. The results were encouraging and showed that with the use of EM heating, oil production rate increases by ~340% by the end of third year of heating for a reservoir initially at a temperature of 120°F. Applied Frequency and input power were important factors that affected EM heating. The optimum combination of power and frequency was found to be 70 KW and 915 MHz for a reservoir initially at a temperature of 120°F. Then using CMG-STARS ® software simulator, the use of low frequency resistive heating was implemented in the gas hydrate model in which gas production was modeled using the depressurization technique. The addition of electrical heating inhibited near-wellbore hydrate reformation preventing choking of the production well which improved gas production substantially.
    • Elutriator design manual for coarse heavy mineral recovery from sluice box concentrate

      Walsh, D.E. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1991)
      This manual addresses the design and fabrication of an elutriation system for the separation of coarse heavy minerals from waste rock. Elutriation is a process for separating a mixture of minerals into two or more products and utilizes the difference in settling velocity between particles to effect this separation. An upward flow of water runs countercurrent to the material flow in a hollow elutriation column. Particle separation is affected by particle density, size and shape and the upward water velocity. It was felt that the design and demonstration of a low cost, functional and efficient unit for the concentration of coarse, heavy minerals would be of benefit to the placer mining industry. Industrial efficiency can be improved by the additional recovery of byproduct heavy minerals with market potential. Elutriation provides an inexpensive method for processing +1/4 inch, sluice box concentrate to recover by-product heavy minerals. Elutriator design emphasized the use of materials which are inexpensive and readily available to the average placer gold mining company. The design also incorporated concentrate storage and shipment functionality into a detachable section of the elutriator. Design is based on the construction of a prototype unit and testing of the unit for coarse cassiterite (Sn02) recovery efficiency. Laboratory testing utilized 3/4" x 3/16" sluice box concentrate from Shoreham Resources Ltd's Cache Creek Mine, Tofty, Alaska. Following laboratory testing, the elutriator was field tested on-site in September, 1990. Both laboratory and field testing were highly successful. The elutriator proved to be a simple, robust concentrator for this application and produced tin recoveries and grades in excess of 99% and 55% respectively. Field feed grades to the elutriation unit were approximately 26% tin.
    • An Empirical Model for Optimal Highway Durability in Cold Regions

      Yan, Jia (Center for Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Cold Climates, 2016-03-10)
      We develop an empirical tool to estimate optimal highway durability in cold regions. To test the model, we assemble a data set containing all highway construction and maintenance projects in Arizona and Washington State from 1990 to 2014. The data set includes information on location, time, type (resurfacing, construction, or lane widening), pavement material and thickness, and total expenditure for these projects. Using the data, we first estimate how highway maintenance costs and highway duration depend on pavement thickness and traffic loading. We then calibrate the effects of different deicers on highway durability and thus on highway maintenance costs. Finally, we demonstrate how the estimated and calibrated model can be used by planners to make optimal decisions for highway pavement and winter operations in cold regions.
    • Enabling Data-Driven Transportation Safety Improvements in Rural Alaska

      Bennett, F. Lawrence; Metzgar, Jonathan B.; Perkins, Robert A. (2019-12)
      Safety improvements require funding. A clear need must be demonstrated to secure funding. For transportation safety, data, especially data about past crashes, is the usual method of demonstrating need. However, in rural locations, such data is often not available, or is not in a form amenable to use in funding applications. This research aids rural entities, often federally recognized tribes and small villages acquire data needed for funding applications. Two aspects of work product are the development of a traffic counting application for an iPad or similar device, and a review of the data requirements of the major transportation funding agencies. The traffic-counting app, UAF Traffic, demonstrated its ability to count traffic and turning movements for cars and trucks, as well as ATVs, snow machines, pedestrians, bicycles, and dog sleds. The review of the major agencies demonstrated that all the likely funders would accept qualitative data and Road Safety Audits. However, quantitative data, if it was available, was helpful.
    • End-to-end well planning strategies for Alaska north slope directional wells

      Mahajan, Neeraj Hemant; Khataniar, Santanu; Patil, Shirish; Dandekar, Abhijit; Fatnani, Ashish (2018-05)
      Directional well planning has gained special attention in the Alaska North Slope (ANS) as operators are being compelled to drill increasing numbers of wells from already congested pads because of low oil prices, Capex restrictions, and environmental regulations. This research focuses on two major components of directional well planning: anti-collision and torque and drag analysis in Schrader Bluff, Milne Point. The drilling pattern at the ANS implies very high wellbore collision risk, especially at the shallower section, which affects the safety of drilling operations. However, satisfying anti-collision norms is not the solitary step towards successful well planning. Integration of anti-collision results with torque and drag analysis is essential in evaluating the safety and feasibility of drilling a particular well path and avoiding drill string failures. In the first part of the study, three well profiles (horizontal, slant, and s-shaped) were planned for each of the two new targets selected in the Schrader Bluff OA sand. Initially, this part of the research compared the performance of the newly developed Operator Wellbore Survey Group (OWSG) error model and the industry-standard Industry Steering Committee for Wellbore Surveying Accuracy (ISCWSA) error model. To provide effective guidelines, the results of error model comparison were used to carry out sensitivity analyses based on four parameters: surface location, well profiles, survey tools, and different target locations in the same sand. The results of this study aid in proposing an improved anti-collision risk management workflow for effective well planning in Arctic areas. The second part of the study investigates the drillability of the well paths planned using the improved anti-collision risk management workflow. Furthermore, this part of the research aims at defining the end point limits for critical well planning parameters, including inclination and dogleg, such that within these limits, the well path satisfies anticollision as well as torque and drag considerations. These limits were generated using a drill string optimized in terms of steerable tool, drill pipe size, mud rheology, trip speed, rotational speed, and weight on bit (WOB) during drilling and tripping out operations. The results of this study would help reduce the cumbersome iterative steps and narrow down the design domain for any well to be drilled on the North Slope of Alaska.
    • Enhanced bioweathering of coal for rare earth element extraction and concentration

      Sachan, Ankur; Ghosh, Tathagata; Briggs, Brandon; Ganguli, Rajive; Aggarwal, Srijan (2019-05)
      Rare earth elements (REEs) are a group of seventeen elements that include scandium, yttrium, and fifteen of the lanthanide series elements, which are used in a variety of consumer goods and for defense purposes. Acquiring a domestic profitable source of REEs is a critical national need as most of the global supply comes from one country, China. To counter this problem, the US is actively looking at alternative sources of REEs by implementing unconventional methods of extraction. Coal is one of the alternative sources of REEs. Alaskan coal from Wishbone Hill and Healy are known to contain REEs up to 286 ppm and 524 ppm, respectively, while having concentrations as high as 950 ppm on ash basis in some density fractions. Microbial leaching or bioleaching is a novel method that can be used for extraction of REEs from coal as microbes are known to affect earth's surface over geologic time by playing critical roles in weathering of minerals. A certain species of bacteria, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, was used to separate the REEs from Wishbone Hill and Healy coal samples. The experiments were performed for various density fractions of both coals by varying solids percentage, temperature, size of coal, and bacterial concentration, and recovery of REEs for these conditions was recorded. Highest individual recovery of neodymium, 75.3%, was obtained for Wishbone Hill 1.3 floats, while a maximum of 98.4% total REE recovery was obtained for Healy 1.3 sinks. Healy coal has the higher total recovery of REEs in comparison to Wishbone Hill coal. Bioleaching process was also compared to the acid leaching process. Healy coal responded better to bioleaching than the acid leaching process. The Wishbone Hill coal had comparable recoveries of bioleaching with acid leaching, although they were always less than acid leaching.
    • Enhancement of algorithm for detection of gold strip circuit vessel sensor errors

      de Melo, Eduardo Pimenta; Ganguli, Rajive; Ghosh, Tathagata; Arya, Sampurna (2019-08)
      Sensors are used to understand the condition and flow of mineral processes. Having accurate and precise information is fundamental for proper operation. Even small errors are relevant to cost when considering the operational span of a mine. Finding small errors is hard; few algorithms can detect them and fewer still, when considering errors on the scale of 2% in magnitude. Some tools have recently been developed using data mining techniques for detecting small errors. Rambabu Pothina (2017) created an algorithm for detecting small errors in strip vessel temperature sensors in the carbon stripping circuit in Pogo mine. The algorithm performed well and was able to detect small magnitude errors without disrupting the industrial process. This thesis improves the understanding of the performance of the algorithm, while also making some minor changes. First, a statistical analysis of the results of the algorithm on baseline data revealed an inherent difference in how the carbon strip process was run with respect to the two strip vessels. This discovery provided insight into the algorithm, and how its performance depended on process characteristics. Second, the error detection algorithm was tested under scenarios different from Pothina (2017). Three separate types of errors were artificially added to real data: a) a fixed 2% ("fixed" error increase) b) a fixed 2% decrease ("fixed" error decrease) and c) an error with a mean value of 2% of magnitude ("noisy" error). Additionally, error was added to temperature data from each strip vessel (rather than just one), though only one at a time. The algorithm was tested under each scenario for each of the four years, 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018. The time to detect errors ranged from 19 to 73 days. The time to detect was very high (53 to 73 days) in 2017 since there were large data gaps that year. In general, time to detect was about 30 days. The performance under noisy error were not that far below fixed error scenario. The algorithm took 10% more time to detect errors under noisy error scenario compared to fixed error scenario. On average, the algorithm detected an error after 25 cycles, regardless of the time span this represents. This is consistent in years with plentiful data, such as 2015, as well as years with less data, 2017 and 2018. In years with data gaps, 25 cycles represent a longer time period. Seeded errors that decreased vessel temperature have very similar results to its equivalent increase, i.e. the decrease in 2% of S2 has results similar to the increase of 2% in S1 and vice versa. In conclusion, these additional testing and analysis helped develop a more comprehensive understanding of the behavior of the data and the algorithms. These results validate and strengthen the findings of Pothina (2017).
    • Envirnonmental Standards for Northern Regions: A Symposium

      Smith, Daniel W.; Tilsworth, Timothy (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1975-03)
      The environmental standards for water, air, and land are of prime importance to all members of the northern community. Many of the ecological systems are easily disrupted. Some of the systems are extremely stable. Although the volume of scientific and engineering research on various aspects of the total environment is expanding rapidly it appears that those studying the conditions that exist and those setting the standards for these areas seldom, if ever, communicate. Due to the increased attention being paid to the meaning and impact of regulations, the sponsors of this symposium proposed an opportunity for open discussion of the issues. The program was designed to address the full range of environmental situations. The principal objectives of this symposium were: 1. to review environmental standards and regulations 2. to identify environmental problem areas 3. to examine the adequacy, pertinence, enforcement, and effectiveness of environmental control in the North. While these objectives could not be completely satisfied by this meeting, doors were opened; participants discussed issues brought forth; and progress was made toward a better understanding of needed environmental standards for northern regions.
    • Environment, health and safety management in mining and other industries

      Yoon, Seok J.; 윤석준; Lin, Hsing K.; Walsh, Daniel E.; Barnes, David L.; Chen, Gang (2014-05)
      While environment and health and safety may appear to be two different areas, they may be integrated into Environment, Health and Safety (EHS). This study is to investigate the impact of the environment and Occupational Health and Safety Management System (OHSMS) on health and safety. Three case studies were conducted. The first one is to study the impact of abandoned mines on soils, water and crops. The second one is to examine the effect of OHSMS implementation on reducing occupational safety risk. The third one examines the impact of environment on health. The abstracts of these three case studies are as follows: THE INVESTIGATION OF ARSENIC AND HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN SOIL, WATER AND CROPS AROUND ABANDONED METAL MINES. Soils, water and crops around abandoned metal mines can be contaminated by heavy metals from adjacent tailings and waste rocks accumulated during mining operations. The results indicate that the As, Zn, Cd and Cr concentrations exceed the soil contamination standard in many soil samples of the nearby farmlands as well as the tailings sites. In the case of water quality, the As concentrations in the Okgae and Youngchen Mines show a decreasing trend with increasing distance from the mine, which is similar to that of the soil samples. The Cd and Pb concentrations in the crops near the Okgae Mine show a decreasing trend with increasing distance from the mine which is also similar to that of soil samples. In addition, the Cd and Pb concentrations in the rice samples and the Cd concentration in the corn samples increase with the Cd and/or Pb concentrations in the soil. EFFECT OF OHSMS ON WORK-RELATED ACCIDENT RATE AND DIFFERENCES OF OHSMS AWARENESS BETWEEN MANAGERS IN SOUTH KOREA's CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY. The study was conducted to investigate the status of the occupational health and safety management system (OHSMS) in the construction industry and the effect of OHSMS on accident rates. Differences of awareness levels on safety issues among site general managers and occupational health and safety (OHS) managers are identified through surveys. The accident rates for the OHSMS-certified construction companies from 2006 to 2011, when the construction OHSMS became widely available, were analyzed to understand the effect of OHSMS on the work-related injury rates in the construction industry. The Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA) 18001 is the certification to these companies performing OHSMS in South Korea. The questionnaire was created to analyze the differences of OHSMS awareness between site general managers and OHS managers of construction companies. The implementation of OHSMS among the top 100 construction companies in South Korea shows that the accident rate decreased by 67% and the fatal accident rate decreased by 10.3% during the period from 2006 to 2011. The survey in this study shows different OHSMS awareness levels between site general managers and OHS managers. The differences were motivation for developing OHSMS, external support needed for implementing OHSMS, problems and effectiveness of implementing OHSMS. Both work-related accident and fatal accident rates were found to be significantly reduced by implementing OHSMS in this study. The differences of OHSMS awareness between site general managers and OHS managers were identified through a survey. The effect of these differences on safety and other benefits warrants further research with proper data collection. THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN CHILDHOOD ASTHMA AND RESIDENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS THROUGH CASE-CONTROL STUDY IN ANDONG, KOREA. Using the International Society for Augmentative and Alternative Communication (ISAAC) questionnaire, we surveyed the childhood asthma prevalence and related socioeconomic and residential environment on 887 elementary schoolchildren in Andong, Korea. We selected asthma case group (29) and control group (26) and performed the exposure assessment for the personal exposure for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and formaldehyde level for 3 days. As a result, 814 schoolchildren completed the questionnaire. It was found that the asthma prevalence was 19.9% and gender (male, OR; Odds Ratio=1.55), age (younger, OR=1.60), family history of asthma (OR=3.70), passive smoking (OR=1.53), and odor from nearby house (OR=2.01) were affective factors. There was no significant difference between the case and control groups in VOCs and formaldehyde exposure level. In the logistic regression analysis, family income (aOR; adjusted OR =3.20, 95% CI=1.41-7.24) and amount of house sunlight (aOR=2.14, 95% CI; Confidence Interval =1.00-4.58) were significant after adjusting gender, age, and family history of asthma. In conclusion, socioeconomic factors including family income and residential environmental factors such as passive smoking, odor from nearby household, and amount of house sunlight are associated with the prevalence of childhood asthma.
    • Environmental path of arsenic in groundwater: Completion report

      Hawkins, D.B. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1976-10)
      This is the final completion report for a project begun in July, 1974, for the purpose of determining the concentration of arsenic in the Pedro Dome-Cleary Summit area of the Fairbanks Mining District, Alaska. Because arsenic contamination of the waters of the area was detected during the first year, the study was extended for another year to examine for arsenic the waters of the Ester Dome area, a more populated part of the district. This study was undertaken because it was known that arsenic as arsenopyrite and arseniferous pyrite accompanies the gold mineralization in the Fairbanks District. It was not known if such arsenic was liberated to the waters of the area by weathering processes. The Pedro Dome-Cleary Summit area was chosen for the initial study because arsenopyrite- bearing rocks are abundant and mining activities which might accelerate release of arsenic had long been carried out in the region. The area also had a few wells thus permitting a limited number of groundwater samples to be taken. The subsequently studied Ester Dome area permitted extensive sampling of the groundwater there. From a health standpoint, 70 mg arsenic has proven to be toxic to humans, while arsenic in low concentrations appears to be a carcinogen. In view of these facts, the United States Public Health Service (USPHS) recommended guide limit for arsenic in potable waters is 10 parts per billion (ppb) with 50 ppb a level which, if exceeded, constitutes grounds for rejection of the water as a public water supply. Because of the rapid population growth in the Fairbanks area and the growing reliance upon domestic wells as a source of water by much of the population, it is important that the arsenic content of the surface and ground water be determined.
    • Environmental Planning for an Alaskan Water-Oriented Recreation Area

      Smith, Daniel W. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1975-06)
      The principal objective of this study was to detail the procedures, methods, alternatives, and considerations necessary for the development of environmental management programs for Alaskan water-oriented recreational areas. Major emphasis was to be placed on the Nancy Lake area. As procedures for evaluation were to be used at the Nancy Lake State Recreation Area as they were developed, it was hoped that a valuable data base could be established for the area. Such information could be extremely valuable in making management decision, in monitoring changes that may occur, and in modifying plans for the area.
    • Environmental planning for an Alaskan water-oriented recreational area

      LaPerriere, Jacqueline Doyle (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1978-06)
      This research focused initially on delineation of the proper procedures to be applied when the state of Alaska, through the appropriate agencies, selects and develops water-based recreation areas. The Nancy Lakes recreational area was selected as a case study for testing these procedures. This area is located approximately 106 km (66 road miles) northwest of Anchorage along the Parks Highway (61°N,150°W). When the research was begun in July of 1973, this area was determined to be important to the future recreational needs of the residents of the growing municipality of Anchorage as well as to travelers between Fairbanks and Anchorage along the newly opened highway. Today, this area is even more important as the new capital of the state of Alaska will be located approximately 6 km (4 miles) east of Nancy Lakes. In the summer of 1974, difficulties arose concerning the objectives of the project and the reports to be generated. Therefore, a decision was made to terminate the research at Nancy Lakes. A partial completion report was compiled concerning the work completed to September 1, 1974. This report was distributed to cooperators at the State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Parks; the Sport Fish Division of Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Palmer; and to the Office of Water Resources Research, the predecessor of the Office of Water Research and Technology. The research has continued, focusing on the Tanana Lakes near Fairbanks, Alaska, (64°N,146°N) with the cooperation of the Sport Fish Division of the Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fairbanks. These lakes, located within 160 km (100 miles) of Fairbanks, are important to the residents of Fairbanks, as well as to tourists driving to Fairbanks from the 48 continguous states. Many Fairbanks residents have cottages at one of the three largest of these, Harding, Birch, and Quartz Lakes. Several youth groups have summer camps on these lakes; the U. S. Army and the U. S. Air Force are currently sharing an extensive recreation facility at Birch Lake; and the state park at Harding Lake is one of the state's most utilized campgrounds. The research on this lake group has focused on the variation in productivity between these lakes due to differences in lake morphometry and watershed characteristics, with some attempt to assess recreational impacts on their water quality.
    • Environmental quality conditions in Fairbanks, Alaska, 1972

      Pearson, Roger W.; Smith, Daniel W. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1972)
      This study represents a starting point for investigating the nature and interconnectivity of environmental quality problems in Fairbanks in the 1970's. Since the Fairbanks flood of 1967, no detailed survey of environmental quality conditions has been conducted despite the impact of the flood, the considerable expansion of the city limits, and the population expansion (anticipated and actual) associated with the oil pipeline. The study focuses on selective aspects of environmental quality of continuing and increasing concern to Fairbanks area residents and also to the city and borough governments. Specifically, the issues analyzed are (1) the environmental setting of the area, (2) structures, especially housing conditions, (3) premise conditions, and (4) waste control. Much of the data was derived from a program called NEEDS, an acronym for Neighborhood Environmental Evaluation and Decision System. NEEDS was developed by the Bureau of Community Environmental Management of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare for rapid gathering of environmental, health, and social information in urban areas.1 The NEEDS survey design consists of two separate stages. Stage I is concerned with collecting general environmental quality information to determine geographically where the most pronounced environmental health problems exist in a given urban area. Stage II consists of detailed interviews with residents of the identified "problem areas" to determine the exact nature of existing health and environmental problems, e.g., housing, health, availability of services, and attitudes regarding existing government (local, state, and federal) programs. With this information, local officials could begin to reorganize existing programs and/or develop new programs to solve some of the interrelated environmental quality problems in the disadvantaged sections of their cities.
    • Environmentally Friendly Pervious Concrete for Treating Deicer-Laden Stormwater: Phase I

      Xu, Gang; Shi, Xianming (Center for Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Cold Climates, 2015-12-30)
      A graphene oxide-modified pervious concrete was developed by using low-reactivity, high-calcium fly ash as sole binder and chemical activators and other admixtures. The density, void ratio, mechanical strength, infiltration rate, Young’s modulus, freeze-deicer salt scaling, and degradation resistance of this pervious concrete were measured against three control groups. The test results indicate that graphene oxide modified fly ash pervious concrete is comparable to Portland cement pervious concrete. While the addition of 0.03% graphene oxide (by weight of fly ash) noticeably increased the compressive strength, split tensile strength, Young’s modulus, freeze-deicer salt scaling, and degradation resistance of fly ash pervious concrete, it reduced the void ratio and infiltration rate. The fly ash pervious concrete also showed unfavorable high initial loss during the freeze-deicer salt scaling test, which may be attributed to the low hydration degree of fly ash at early age. It is recommended that durability tests for fly ash concrete be performed at a later age.
    • Environmentally Friendly Pervious Concrete for Treating Deicer-Laden Stormwater: Phase II

      Xu, Gang; Shi, Xianming (2018-12)
      In Phase I of this project, graphene oxide (GO)-modified pervious concrete was developed using coal fly ash as the sole binder. The primary objectives of Phase II of this project were (1) to evaluate the stormwater infiltration capacity of GO-modified fly ash pervious concrete; (2) to evaluate the durability performance of GO-modified fly ash pervious concrete using freeze/thaw and salt resistance testing methods; and (3) to use advanced analytical tools to fully characterize the GO-modified fly ash binder. Test results indicate different degrees of reduction in concentrations of possible pollutants in stormwater—copper, zinc, sulphate, chloride, ammonia, nitrate, and total phosphate. The incorporation of GO significantly improved the resistance of pervious concrete to freeze/thaw cycles and ambient-temperature salt attack. The specimens were examined using X-ray diffraction, which revealed that the mineralogy and the chemical composition of fly ash pastes differ considerably from those of cement pastes. Nuclear magnetic resonance was used to study the chemical structure and ordering of different hydrates, and provided enhanced understanding of the freeze/thaw and salt scaling resistance of fly ash pervious concrete and the role of GO.
    • Equation of state model development and compositional simulation of enhanced oil recovery using gas injection for the West Sak heavy oil

      Morye, Ganesh G.; Patil, Shirish; Dandekar, Abhijit; Khataniar, Santanu (2007-12)
      West Sak oil field, with its very huge reserves of heavy oil, has the potential of supplementing the declining light oil production on the Alaska North Slope. Due to the heavy nature of oil, its phase behavior is very complex. A proper understanding of the phase behavioral changes of the West Sak oil is crucial to design any enhanced oil recovery scheme. Such Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) techniques are essential in the absence of natural drive mechanisms in these reservoirs. For the proper selection of any EOR technique, reservoir simulation studies should prove its viability. Accordingly, a complete phase behavior analysis of the West Sak crude oil was carried out. All the available experimental data was scrutinized and a model equation of state was developed that should describe the phase behavior of West Sak oil. After having done that, reservoir simulation was carried out to study the implications of employing gas injection as an EOR technique for the West Sak reservoir. It was found that a definite increase in heavy oil production can be obtained with proper selection of injectant gas and optimized reservoir operating parameters. A comparative analysis is provided which should help in making such a decision.
    • Establishing and testing detection methods for anti-icing and deicing chemicals using spectral data

      Fulton, Gabriel; Belz, Nathan; Meyer, Franz; Stuefer, Svetlana (2019-08)
      Snow and ice accumulation on pavement reduce roadway surface friction and consequently result in diminished vehicle maneuverability, slower travel speeds, reduced roadway capacity, and increased crash risk. Though the use of chlorides and other freeze-inhibiting substances have been shown to reduce these negative factors, methods to quantify and analyze snow and ice remediation methods as well as the imposed loss of material are needed to allow state and municipal agencies to better allocate winter maintenance resources and funding. The use and application of chlorides, sand, and their related mixtures have proven to be highly effective for controlling or removing the development of ice on the roadway surface. However, if the amount of salt in solution becomes too dilute, then it no longer retains the capacity to control the development of, or to melt, ice on the roadway and may prove to be more detrimental by allowing the previously melted material to refreeze with a smoother (i.e., more slippery) surface state. The goal of this project was to determine to what extent winter roadway surfaces can be analyzed using spectrometry to determine the longevity and coverage of various types of applications. Using a systematically paired analysis of changes in spectrometric curves as solution concentrations change, relationships were generated which detected change in deicing and anti-icing compounds reliably in a lab setting. Field results were less reliable, suggesting that further comparisons and a more in-depth spectral library are needed.
    • Estimating Future Flood Frequency and Magnitude in Basins Affected by Glacier Wastage

      Liljedahl, Anna; Debolskiy, Matvey; Youcha, Emily; Arendt, Anthony; Davis, Jennifer; Hock, Regine; Roth, Aurora; Wolken, Gabriel; Zhang, Jing (Alaska University Transportation Center, Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities, 2015)
    • Estimating seasonal and diurnal variations in influent wastewater characteristics for optimization of activated sludge system in a northern community

      Pinto, Ameet John (2005-08)
      Influent characterization experiments were carried out at the wastewater treatment facility in Fairbanks, Alaska. These experiments were carried out to trace the diurnal and seasonal variations in the influent flow and organic loading rates. A considerable difference in the wastewater flow and organic loading rates was -seen on a seasonal as well as a diurnal basis. The project hypothesized that better understanding of broad influent diurnal and seasonal variations in a wastewater-treatment facility can help optimize control strategies. Based on the observed variations, oxygen production and supply was analyzed as an avenue for optimization in the high purity oxygen activated system. The results indicate that up to 35% excess oxygen was being supplied on the sampling days despite the current control strategy. This excess maybe eliminated by including an upstream measurement device in the treatment scheme to enhance control over the process. Respirometry may improve the plant's ability to make suitable predictions for the oxygen requirements. Benefits of respirometry were discussed and several site-specific recommendations were rnade for the application of respirometric techniques at the Fairbanks wastewater treatment facility.