• Hydrological and Meteorological Observations on Seven Streams in the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska (NPR–A)

      Vas, D.; Toniolo, H.; LaMesjerant, E.; Bailey, J. (2018-09)
      This report summarizes the hydrological and meteorological data collected from 2003 to 2017 at 7 stations in the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska. During an 8-year period, from May 2010 to December 2017, a research team from the University of Alaska Fairbanks, Water and Environmental Research Center, and personnel from the Bureau of Land Management performed 351 discharge measurements and collected and analyzed data on air temperature, rainfall, wind speed, and wind direction at stations distributed on a southwest–northeast transect from the foothills of the Brooks Range to the Arctic Ocean. In general, the air temperature data indicate an evident warming trend for the entire region. Rainfall data suggest a trend in increasing precipitation during the summer months from the coastal plain to the foothills, though there are some exceptions. The overall highest mean monthly wind speed was recorded in February; the overall lowest mean monthly wind speed varied from station to station. Wind roses indicate two main wind directions—approximately from the northeast and southwest—with winds from the northeast predominant at the northern stations and winds from the southwest predominant at the southern stations.
    • Hydrological Interpretation of Basin Morphology

      Fox, John D. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1978-08)
      Hydrologic processes in a particular basin are governed by three groups of factors: input regimes of mass and energy, the nature of mass and energy transfer and transformation, and the biophysical characteristics of the basin. This third group provides the structural or morphological framework in which hydrologic processes are taking place and, as such, contributes significantly to the uniqueness of specific basin response.
    • Hydrological, Sedimentological, and Meteorological Observations and Analysis on the Sagavanirktok River

      Toniolo, H.; Youcha, E.K.; Tape, K.D.; Paturi, R.; Homan, J.; Bondurant, A.; Ladines, I.; Laurio, J.; Vas, D.; Keech, J.; et al. (2017-12)
      The Dalton Highway near Deadhorse was closed twice during late March and early April 2015 because of extensive overflow from the Sagavanirktok River that flowed over the highway. That spring, researchers from the Water and Environmental Research Center at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) monitored the river conditions during breakup, which was characterized by unprecedented flooding that overtopped and consequently destroyed several sections of the Dalton Highway near Deadhorse. The UAF research team has monitored breakup conditions at the Sagavanirktok River since that time. Given the magnitude of the 2015 flooding, the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company started a long-term monitoring program within the river basin. In addition, the Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities (ADOT&PF) funded a multiyear project related to sediment transport conditions along the Sagavanirktok River. The general objectives of these projects include determining ice elevations, identifying possible water sources, establishing surface hydro-meteorological conditions prior to breakup, measuring hydro-sedimentological conditions during breakup and summer, and reviewing historical imagery of the aufeis extent. In the present report, we focus on new data and analyze it in the context of previous data. We calculated and compared ice thickness near Franklin Bluffs for 2015, 2016, and 2017, and found that, in general, ice thickness during both 2015 and 2016 was greater than in 2017 across most of the study area. Results from a stable isotope analysis indicate that winter overflow, which forms the aufeis in the river area near Franklin Bluffs, has similar isotopic characteristics to water flowing from mountain springs. End-of-winter snow surveys (in 2016/2017) within the watershed indicate that the average snow water equivalent was similar to what we observed in winter 2015/2016. Air temperatures in May 2017 were low on the Alaska North Slope, which caused a long and gradual breakup, with peak flows occurring in early June, compared with mid-May in both 2015 and 2016. Maximum discharge measured at the East Bank station, near Franklin Bluffs was 750 m3/s (26,485 ft3/s) on May 30, 2017, while the maximum measured flow was 1560 m3/s (55,090 ft3/s) at the same station on May 20, 2015. Available cumulative rainfall data indicate that 2016 was wetter than 2017. ii In September 2015, seven dry and wet pits were dug near the hydro-sedimentological monitoring stations along the Sagavanirktok River study reach. The average grain-size of the sediment of exposed gravel bars at sites located upstream of the Ivishak-Sagavanirktok confluence show relatively constant values. Grain size becomes finer downstream of the confluence. We conducted monthly topo-bathymetric surveys during the summer months of 2016 and 2017 in each pit. Sediment deposition and erosion was observed in each of the pits. Calculated sedimentation volumes in each pit show the influence of the Ivishak River in the bed sedimenttransport capacity of the Sagavanirktok River. In addition, comparison between dry and wet pit sedimentation volumes in some of the stations proves the complexity of a braided river, which is characterized by frequent channel shifting A two-dimensional hydraulic model is being implemented for a material site. The model will be used to estimate the required sediment refill time based on different river conditions.
    • Hydrology and Meteorology of the Central Alaskan Arctic: Data Collection and Analysis

      Kane, D.L.; Youcha, E.K.; Stuefer, S.L.; Myerchin-Tape, G.; Lamb, E.; Homan, J.W.; Gieck, R.E.; Schnabel, W. E.; Toniolo, H. (2014-05)
      The availability of environmental data for unpopulated areas of Alaska can best be described as sparse; however, these areas have resource development potential. The central Alaskan Arctic region north of the Brooks Range (referred to as the North Slope) is no exception in terms of both environmental data and resource potential. This area was the focus of considerable oil/gas exploration immediately following World War II. Unfortunately, very little environmental data were collected in parallel with the exploration. Soon after the oil discovery at Prudhoe Bay in November 1968, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) started collecting discharge data at three sites in the neighborhood of Prudhoe Bay and one small watershed near Barrow. However, little complementary meteorological data (like precipitation) were collected to support the streamflow observations. In 1985, through a series of funded research projects, researchers at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF), Water and Environmental Research Center (WERC), began installing meteorological stations on the North Slope in the central Alaskan Arctic. The number of stations installed ranged from 1 in 1985 to 3 in 1986, 12 in 1996, 24 in 2006, 23 in 2010, and 7 in 2014. Researchers from WERC also collected hydrological data at the following streams: Imnavait Creek (1985 to present), Upper Kuparuk River (1993 to present), Putuligayuk River (1999 to present, earlier gauged by USGS), Kadleroshilik River (2006 to 2010), Shaviovik River (2006 to 2010), No Name River (2006 to 2010), Chandler River (2009 to 2013), Anaktuvuk River (2009 to 2013), Lower Itkillik River (2012 to 2013), and Upper Itkillik River (2009 to 2013). These catchments vary in size, and runoff generation can emanate from the coastal plain, the foothills or mountains, or any combination of these locations. Snowmelt runoff in late May/early June is the most significant hydrological event of the year, except at small watersheds. For these watersheds, rain/mixed snow events in July and August have produced the floods of record. Ice jams are a major concern, especially in the larger river systems. Solid cold season precipitation is mostly uniform over the area, while warm season precipitation is greater in the mountains and foothills than on the coastal plain (roughly 3:2:1, mountains:foothills: coastal plain).The results reported here are primarily for the drainages of the Itkillik, Anaktuvuk, and Chandler River basins, where a proposed transportation corridor is being considered. Results for 2011 and before can be found in earlier reports.
    • Hydrology of the Central Arctic River Basins of Alaska

      Kane, Douglas L.; Carlson, Robert F. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1973-12)
    • Hydrometallurgy of complex sulfide ores, process development

      Rao, P.D. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1988)
      In 1984, Nerco Minerals Co. signed a cooperative agreement with the University of Alaska to conduct hydrometallurgical research. The principle objective of the agreement was to conduct bench scale research to study the problems of leaching the sulfide ore and the recovery of its valuable metals. Nerco has provided funding on an annual basis. Information contained in this publication is a result of this research.
    • Hydrometallurgy of the delta sulfide ores, first stage report

      Letwoski, F.; Chous, Kuo-tung; Rao, P.D. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1986)
      This report presents the results of hydrometallurgical research carried out from September 16, 1985 to June 30, 1986 on metals recovery from complex sulfide ores from the Delta deposit near Tok, Alaska. The leaching characteristics performed for 6 different ore samples indicate that the most valuable components form the following order: Zn > Au > Pb > Ag > Cu > So. Further study demonstrates that direct leaching of the ore is effective both in chloride as well as in sulfate oxidizing solutions coupled with separating of leached solid components by flotation. Three variants of the ore processing with ferric chloride or fenic sulfate leaching are analyzed: one flowsheet with direct ore leaching in ferric chloride solution followed by leaching-flotation step, with subsequent zinc separation in a solvent extraction step and electrolysis in chloride solution; and two flowsheets of direct ore leaching with ferric sulfate solution followed by a leaching-flotation step, with zinc sulfate electrolysis and other metals recovery in chloride leaching sreps. In two last flowsheets silver is recovered during the chloride leaching steps and gold h m flotation products during the cyanide leaching. Preliminary economic and technical evaluation is presented. The engineering study on apparatus for the fast leaching- flotation processing and on better accumulation of gold and silver in one semi-product are concluded for the next year of research.
    • Hydrometallurgy of the delta sulfide ores, second stage report

      Letowski, F.; Rao, P.D. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1987)
      This report contains results of the Fluidized-Bed Leaching (FBL) initially adapted to improve Leaching-Flotation processing of Delta ores in sulfate solution. The research carried out in the continuous laboratory installation show, however, that the new, 3-phase (solid-liquid-gaseous) reactor also performs satisfactorily in other leaching systems. A new process of pyritic matrix destruction for precious metals recovery in the FBL reactor, and a new process for recovery of zinc and other metals in a chloride system are proposed on the basis of laboratory results.
    • Hydrometeorological Literature Review for the Delta-Clearwater Creek Area

      Fox, John D. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1978-06)
      Phase One of this study consists of a search for existing hydrometeorological data or other information relevant to environmental baseline studies of the Delta-Clearwater Creek agricultural development project. A general summary of this literature search is presented below; a detailed annotated bibliography immediately follows the summary. Phase Two consists initially of a preliminary analysis, based on existing information, of the local water budget, the groundwater regime, and the potential for transport of agricultural chemicals into the water system. Finally, evaluation and comments on the adequacy or sufficiency of existing data and recommendation for future work are made. Selected charts, diagrams, or tables of data have been included in the text where such information is relevant, but not voluminous.
    • Ice, bedload transport, and channel morphology on the upper Kuparuk River

      Oatley, Jeffrey Albert (2002-12)
      The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of bottom ice on sedimentation processes at a study site on the Upper Kuparuk River, in Northern Alaska. The approach taken was to use the Meyer-Peter and Mueller (1948) and Parker (1990) equations to determine bedload rating curves at four cross sections within the study reach, and to apply these rating curves to the ten year flow history of the study site to determine the total potential bedload transport that was suppressed during snowmelt runoff. In conjunction with this analysis, a tracer rock study was performed at the study site. During the first two years of the project, the field study yielded little bedload transport information, as there were no competent flows during this time. However, the storm of record occurred in August 02 2002, which provided an opportunity to observe the geomorphic response to a major event, to estimate an average bedload transport rate based on the virtual velocity of the recovered tracer rocks, and to compare the predictive methods to the tracer data based calculations. The results suggest that the potential bedload transport (500 m³) over the ten-year flow history is comparable to the amount of transport that occorred during the extreme event of August 2002 (870 m³), and that the suppression of bedload transport, due to an ice covered bed surfaces, likely affects the morphology and sediment supply of the river.
    • Identification and Laboratory Assessment of Best Practices to Protect DOT Equipment from the Corrosive Effect of Chemical Deicers

      Shi, Xianming; Li, Yongxin; Jungwirth, Scott; Fang, Yida; Seeley, Nicholas; Jackson, Emily (Alaska University Transportation Center, 2013)
    • Impact of Cold Climates on Vehicle Emissions: The Cold Start Air Toxics Pulse

      Jobson, Tom; Huangfu, Yibo (Center for Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Cold Climates, 2016-09)
      This project measured cold start emissions from four vehicles in winter using fast response instrumentation to accurately measure the time variation of the cold start emission pulse. Seventeen successful tests were conducted over a temperature range of -4°C to 10°C in winter 2015 at the Washington State University campus. Vehicle cold starts are thought to be a significant source of air toxic compounds in cold winter environments due to the rapid increase in mass emission rates with decreasing temperature. We used a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer for high time resolution measurement of the emissions the air toxic compounds benzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, in addition to toluene and C2-alkylbenzenes. Measured molar emission ratios relative to toluene in the cold start pulse were compared with cold start emission profiles for E10 fueled vehicles used in the EPA MOVES2014 model. We found that the measured acetaldehyde-to-toluene emission ratio was about a factor of 8 greater than the emission ratio used in MOVES2014. Measured formaldehyde-to-toluene emission ratios were a factor of 5 greater. Our study suggests that emission of the air toxics acetaldehyde and, likely, formaldehyde is significantly underestimated in wintertime by the MOVES2014 model.
    • Impact of Embedded Carbon Fiber Heating Panel on the Structural/Mechanical Performance of Roadway Pavement

      Yang, Zhaohui “Joey”; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Song, Gangbing; Singla, Mithun; Patil, Divendra (Alaska University Transportation Center, University of Houston, 2012)
    • Impact Of Freeze -Thaw On Liquefaction Potential And Dynamic Properties Of Mabel Creek Silt

      Zhang, Yu (2009)
      In the early winter of 2002 (November), the Alaska Denali earthquake (Mw=-7.9) caused significant damage in partially frozen fine-grained soil and extensive liquefaction was observed in glacial fine-grained saturated soil surface deposits near Tok, Alaska. It illustrated that there was a need to evaluate the seismic response and liquefaction potential of fine-grain soil in cold regions; however, until now most of the research on the liquefaction phenomenon and seismic response were mainly about soil in non-cold regions. The seismic response and liquefaction potential of soils in cold regions, especially those of fine-grained nature, has not been studied thoroughly and therefore is not well-understood. This document presents a laboratory study on liquefaction potential and cyclic response of fine-grained soil in cold regions. As the main features of the soil in the ground of cold regions, temperature change at below freezing temperatures or near-freezing temperatures, and the seasonal climate change were evaluated on liquefaction potential, dynamic properties, and post-cyclic-loading settlement of fine-grained soils. Increasing temperatures from near freezing to the completely thawed temperature (i.e., 24�C, 5�C, 1�C, and 0.5�C) were used to thaw the frozen Mabel Creek silt to simulate temperature change on it, or the Mabel Creek silt experienced several freezing and thawing alternating processes (i.e., 1, 2, and 4 freeze-thaw cycles) to simulate seasonal climate change. Triaxial strain-controlled cyclic tests were conducted to evaluate liquefaction potential, dynamic properties, and post-cyclic-loading settlement. Based on this limited laboratory effort, results show that in most cases, temperature rise and freeze-thaw cycles can impact: (a) liquefaction potential, (b) dynamic properties and (c) post-cyclic-loading settlement of fine-grained soils. However, there was one case exception and this is decribed in the following sentence. When a fine-grained soil was conditioned in a partially frozen state, the possibility and threat of liquefaction significantly increased.
    • Impact of Groundwater Flow on Permafrost Degradation and Transportation Infrastructure Stability

      Darrow, Margaret M.; Daanen, Ronald P.; Zottola, Jason T.; Fortier, Daniel; de Grandpre, Isabelle; Veuille, Sabin; Sliger, Michel (Alaska University Transportation Center, Transport Canada, 2013)
    • The Impact of Snowfall on Airport Operations and Delays

      Lee, Jukwan; Yan, Jia (2019-03-31)
      Flight delays or cancelations due to snowfall are a costly inconvenience, not only to airports but also to airlines, passengers and society as a whole. However, no quantitative research has ever been done to provide an analytical explanation about the issue. Though being a reliable alternative to melt snow on the runway and mitigate flight delays, the Heated Pavement System is not adopted in any US airports because of concerns over the initial investments and maintenance costs being higher than the economic loss from delays during unpredictable snowfall days. Combining weather and domestic flight data in Boston and Los Angeles regions, we analyze the benefits and costs associated with installing the Heated Pavement System. Using two advanced econometric methods, the Difference in Difference in Difference (DDD) and the nearest neighbor matching, we first develop a Delay Analysis model to evaluate the exact effect of snowfall on flight delays, and then we calculate the delay costs. Based on the empirical findings, we conduct cost-benefit analysis of installing HPS at the three airports in Boston area. Our results indicate that HPS is feasible for airports with a great number of flights and passengers, such as Boston Logan airport.
    • Impacts of Climate Variability and Change on Flood Frequency Analysis for Transportation Design

      Tidwell, Amy (Alaska University Transportation Center, Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities, 2010)
    • Implementation of CALINE4

      Johnson, R.A.; Anderson, M.; Lilly, E.; Hok, C. (1988-11)
      To help gauge the environmental impacts of proposed highway projects, computer models are commonly used to predict both CO emissions and the resultant concentrations of CO in the atmosphere. This study has focused on an assessment of MOBILE3 as a mobile source emissions model and CALINE4 as a line source dispersion model in Alaska. We have used limited data obtained in Fairbanks o evaluate CALINE4 here. We have modified MOBILE3 to allow it to predict emissions at ambient temperatures below 0(degrees)F and have incorporated available meteorological data for Fairbanks to evaluate CALINE4. We find the use of these models does allow one to approximate trends over time in CO levels in Fairbanks, but a lack of more detailed data precludes our being able to make global statements about the abilities of the models to predict peaks and detailed spatial trends. However, the results to data indicate that these models have the potential to accurately predict CO levels in Alaska. In particular, results from a 37-hour calibration run made near an intersection indicates that CALINE4, using emissions generated by MOBILE3, can predict peak one-hour and eight-hour values within a factor of two of measured values. Conservative peak value predictions occur when the intersection option is used with the wind blowing from the intersection toward the receptor. However, the nonmodeled CO contributions may be significant if only major roads near a receptor are modeled. For worst case predictions, the limited data analyzed corroborates prior work linking worst case scenarios with cold stable meteorological conditions. In particular, a G stability case and wind speed around 0.5 m/s are appropriate. We also suggest the receptor be located downwind from an intersection. For the input emissions, we suggest the use of MOBILE3 using an average vehicle speed of 20 mph and a temperature around -20(degrees)F for Fairbanks and 10(degrees)F for Anchorage. For ambient CO levels, we suggest the user consult with local environmental agency personnel.
    • Implementation of various bed load transport equations at monitoring sites along the Sagavanirktok River

      Laurio, Jenah C.; Toniolo, Horacio; Barnes, Dave; Stuefer, Svetlana (2019-05)
      In May 2015, the Sagavanirktok River in Alaska flooded, spilling over the Dalton Highway and destroying several sections of the road near the community of Deadhorse. The Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities made repairs to the road and funded the University of Alaska Fairbanks, Water and Environmental Research Center (WERC), to conduct a multiyear study of hydro-sedimentological conditions on the Sagavanirktok River. Personnel from the WERC installed four monitoring stations for research purposes. The first monitoring station (DSS1) is located near Deadhorse at Milepost (MP) 405 of the Dalton Highway, the second (DSS2) is located below the Ivishak River (MP 368), the third (DSS3) is located in Happy Valley (MP 335), and the fourth (DSS4) is located at MP 318. Near each monitoring station, large pits were excavated to trap bed sediment as it moves downstream. Researchers involved in the Sagavanirktok River study have been collecting bathymetry measurements from the sediment pits since fall of 2015. The following document discusses a research project that focused on bed load transport along the Sagavanirktok River at monitoring sites DSS1, DSS2, and DSS3. Monitoring site DSS4 was not included in this study due to difficulties retrieving sediment data caused by high water levels. Sediment transport volumes measured from the test pits were compared with volume estimations calculated using Acronym (a computer program), and applying the bed load equations of Meyer-Peter and Muller, Wong and Parker, Ashida and Michue, Fernandez Luque and Van Beek, Engelund and Fredsoe, the Parker fit to Einstein’s relation, Lajeunesse et al., and Wilson, with a critical Shields value ( t #) of 0.06 and 0.03. The study results showed that in all cases the bed load transport volumes measured at sites DSS2 and DSS3 were far smaller than those calculated using the bed load transport equations. For monitoring site DSS1, a few of the bed load transport equations estimated volumes were close to those measured. The Acronym program was used only for sites DSS2 and DSS3 due to difficulties creating the grain size distribution curve at DSS1. Data show that the volumes calculated by Acronym are greater than those measured at both sites. The bed load transport equations used for the project were not applicable to the Sagavanirktok River.