• Internet based data collection and monitoring for wireless sensor networks

      Revuri, Venkatramana Reddy (2007-05)
      The omnipresence of the Internet and the advances in integrated circuit technologies has expanded the potential modes of communication and data collection. Adding Internet capabilities to any electronic device greatly extends the device's user interface, allowing the user to remotely configure and monitor the device over the network through the embedded web server. The embedded web server is expected to establish two-way communication and serve dynamic web pages using very limited resources. We adapted an existing embedded web server to allow remote control and monitoring of wireless sensor networks (WSN). This required establishing an interface to the WSN and developing firmware and user programs to communicate with the remote client. An interactive and flexible web-based user management interface is developed to allow the two-way interaction between the remote user and the wireless sensor network. The embedded server generates email alerts to the administrator about critical issues in the WSN, provides secure access to the WSN control modules, etc. Two embedded web servers are developed using different hardware platforms. The first solution is a low cost, energy efficient solution with somewhat limited functionality. The other uses a more powerful microcontroller-based platform and implements a fully-functional, dynamic web server with multiple web pages.
    • Investigation and development of a mathematical model for the oxidation of cyanide in the INCO SO₂/O₂ process

      Oleson, James L. (2003-12)
      The purpose of this study was to develop a mathematical model to describe the oxidation of cyanide with SO₂ as proposed in the INCO process. This research employed a direct method for measuring the change in cyanide concentration with respect to time as affected by varying concentrations of SO₂ and copper and pH. This model may be applicable in determining optimum conditions in a process well known and used in the mining industry.
    • An investigation into the cold heavy oil production with sand process using synthetic cores and designed experiments

      Narayan, Arya; Awoleke, Obadare; Ahmadi, Mohabbat; Hanks, Catherine; Liu, Jenny (2016-05)
      This study deals with the development of a methodology for making low compressive strength cores used in an experimental investigation of the Cold Heavy Oil Production with Sand (CHOPS) process. An experimental setup was designed and built to investigate the effect of rock compressive strength as well as flow parameters, such as oil viscosity, net and total confining pressure, and injection rate, on core permeability. The approach was to optimize the value of a response variable by changing the values of the affecting factors. Sand blends were prepared by varying the ratios of aggregate, cementing material and water to prepare synthetic cores. An experimental unit was built to simulate wormhole propagation during the CHOPS process, where oil, at an ambient temperature, was injected into 2-inch × 4-inch cores at varying rates of 0.5–10 ml/min under differential confining pressures of 500 and 1000 psia. The pressure drop across the core was monitored and recorded throughout the process. When non-swelling clay is used as a cementing material compared with actual cement to make synthetic core, the compressive strength of the samples falls dramatically by 64%. Two factors were considered in the coreflood experiments: Oil Viscosity (370 and 690 cp) and Injection Rates (0.5 and 3 ml/min) at a net confining pressure of 500 psia, below the compressive strength of the core. It is hypothesized that injecting oil of different viscosities at different rates affects the internal structure of the core in different ways (there is fluid-rock interaction) and thus, at lower pore volumes of injection, the permeability of the core for high viscosity oil is almost 11.2% greater than for low viscosity oil. Also, design of experiment approach was used and regression model was developed for permeability of core based on values recorded at specific pore volumes injected for different injection rates and oil viscosities. It was found that at a constant confining pressure for all rates and at lower pore volumes injected, 99.8% of the variance in permeability can be explained by oil viscosity, injection rate and their interaction. At higher pore volumes injected, the variance in permeability that can be explained by oil viscosity, the injection rate and their interaction is only 40.63%.
    • Investigation of a tensile cycloidal rotor and cam cyclic pitching mechanism

      Elfering, Kelsey H. (2012-08)
      A cycloidal rotor is characterized by an airfoil span parallel to the axis of rotation. A tensile cycloidal rotor places the airfoils under tensile forces only, thereby attempting to utilize the inertial forces on the rotor to minimize airfoil deflection and overall weight. A prototype rotor was built that meets the micro air vehicle (MAV) size constraint of 15.24 centimeters (6 inches). A new cam path design was used as a pitching mechanism, which reduced overall design weight and mechanical power requirements, and allowed for curved flat plate airfoils and angled airfoil structural supports. The cycloidal rotor was designed to pitch on both sides of the airfoils in an effort to reduce the axial force that was previously observed in mechanisms that pitch straight airfoils using an offset four bar linkage on only one side. The radial and axial strains were measured to determine the forces on the rotor, and compared well with a finite element simulation. The power-to-thrust ratio increased with RPM, which is in contradiction with theoretical rotor predictions. This indicated there are likely inefficiencies due to friction, which is supported by the measured non-zero power requirement at zero RPM.
    • Investigation of Alternative Deicers for Snow and Ice Control

      Fay, Laura; Akin, Michelle (Center for Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Cold Climates, 2018-03-15)
      This technical report presents the findings of the laboratory analysis of potassium succinate (KSu) as a roadway deicer. Laboratory analysis included modified SHRP ice-melting testing, a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermogram, and friction measurements to quantify performance. The overall results indicate that the performance of KSu is similar to that of NaCl at improving friction on roadways during snow and ice conditions. The results of DSC suggest that KSu can be applied as a roadway deicer at -5°C (23°F) and above. However, KSu does not function as a deicer at colder temperatures where salt brine will work (the generally agreed upon lowest working temperature for salt brine is 15°F [-9.5°C]). The results of the laboratory testing show that KSu functions as a roadway deicer with slightly lower ice-melting rates than salt brine. The ice-melting rates, DSC, and friction performance testing of KSu show that the product performs as a deicer at warmer temperatures than salt brine, with slightly less ice-melting capacity and similar friction performance. Based on these and previous results showing lack of corrosion in metals, equipment, and pavements from use of KSu and similar BOD of KSu to potassium acetates, KSu appears to be a viable option as a roadway deicer at temperatures at or above -5°C (23°F). Use of KSu as a roadway deicer may be focused in areas where there are concerns about impacts to infrastructure, equipment, or pavements, such as on bridges, elevated roadways, in parking garages, or on newer concrete pavements. Potential concerns with the use of KSu as a roadway deicer are its price, lack of full-scale manufacturing of KSu at this time, and the BOD exerted by the product. Additional testing to fully quantify the environmental impacts of KSu on soil, water, flora, and fauna is recommended. If water quality and BOD are of concern, application of this product is not recommended in large quantities and during times of low water flow.
    • Investigation of an ozone-filter system for color and iron removal at low temperatures

      Smith, Daniel W.; Hargesheimer, John M. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1975-10)
      The application of ozonation as a disinfectant and as a treatment process for both water and wastewater has been increasing in recent years. The study of ozone application to Arctic and subarctic waters, which are normally at low temperatures, has been limited. Many portions of the Alaskan Arctic and subarctic are plagued with waters which exceed the 1962 Drinking Water Standards for one or more parameters. The iron content and color of the water are among the most common offenders. This project was directed toward the examination of a method for water treatment utilizing ozone to meet the iron and color limits for drinking water. The three principle objectives of the project were: (1) to examine the effect of ozone on several known qualities of water, (2) to examine the effect of ozone on representative samples of surface and ground water, and (3) to develop a laboratory scale system for iron and color removal utilizing ozone followed by sand filtration.
    • Investigation of CO₂ sequestration options for Alaskan North Slope with emphasis on enhanced oil recovery

      Patil, Santosh Bramhadev (2006-08)
      Carbon dioxide (CO₂), the main component of greenhouse gases, is released into the atmosphere primarily by combustion of fossil fuels like coal and oil. Due to a conspicuous lack of any CO₂ sequestration studies for Alaskan North Slope (ANS), the study of CO₂ sequestration options will open new avenues for CO₂ disposal options, such as viscous oil reservoirs and coal seams, on the ANS. This study focuses on the investigation of CO₂ storage options by screening ANS oil pools amenable to enhanced oil recovery, evaluating phase behavior of viscous oil and CO₂ mixture, and simulating enhanced oil recovery by CO₂ flooding, and migration of CO₂ in saline aquifer. Phase behavior studies revealed that CO₂ gas was partially miscible with West Sak, at the pressure closer to the reservoir pressure. Compositional simulation of CO₂ flooding for a five-spot West Sak reservoir pattern showed an increase in percent recovery with an increase in pore volume injected, but at the expense of an early breakthrough. Sensitivity analysis of CO₂ flooding project was found to be strongly dependent on the variables such as oil price and discount rate. Investigation of supercritical CO₂ injection in saline formation didn't increase temperature in the permafrost region.
    • Investigation of phase behavior and reservoir fluid properties in support of enhanced oil recovery of Alaska North Slope (ANS) viscous oils

      Alurkar, Kaustubh D. (2007-12)
      Declining light oil production on Alaska North Slope (ANS) has attracted oil producers to develop viscous oil resources of ANS that range between 20 to 25 billion barrels. These oils are viscous, flow sluggishly in the formations, and are difficult to transport through unconsolidated formations and are hard to produce by conventional methods. Viscous oil recovery entails neatly designed enhanced oil recovery processes and the success of these processes is critically dependent on accurate knowledge of phase behavior and fluid properties of these oils under variety of pressure and temperature conditions. An experimental study was conducted to quantify the phase behavior and physical properties of viscous oils from ANS. The oil samples were compositionally characterized by simulated distillation technique, constant composition expansion and differential liberation tests were conducted on these samples. Experimentally studied phase behavior and reservoir fluid properties were modeled by using the Peng-Robinson Equation-of-State (EOS). The Peng-Robinson EOS was tuned with experimental data to predict the phase behavior, accurately. Widely used corresponding state viscosity model predictions deteriorate when applied to heavy oil systems due to use of ultra-light methane as a reference compound. Therefore, a semi empirical approach (Lindeloff model) was adopted for modeling the viscosity behavior. Viscosity behavior of degassed ANS viscous oils was correlated to their temperature and molecular weight. Integration of this correlation into the Lindeloff model resulted in accurate viscosity predictions for viscous oils under reservoir conditions.
    • Investigation of thermal regimes of lakes used for water supply and examination of drinking water system in Kotzebue, Alaska

      Bendlova, Tereza; Arp, Christopher D.; Duffy, Lawrence K.; Schnabel, William E.; Barnes, David L. (2012-08)
      Many villages in Arctic Alaska rely on lakes for water supply, such as the Alaskan City of Kotzebue, and these lakes may be sensitive to climate variability and change, particularly thermal regimes and corresponding effects on water quality. Thus, I initiated a study of water supply lakes in Kotzebue to collect data for developing a model to hindcast summer thermal regimes. Surface (Tws) and bed (Twb) temperature data collected from two water supply lakes and two control lakes from June 22nd-August 28th 2011 showed a similar pattern in relation to air temperature (Ta) and solar radiation with more frequent stratification in the deeper lakes. The average Tws for all lakes during this period was 14.5°C, which was 3.4°C higher than Ta for the same period. I modeled Tws from 1985 to 2010 using Ta, and theoretical clear-sky solar radiation (TCSR) to analyze interannual variability, trends, and provide a baseline dataset. Similar to patterns in Ta for this period, I found no trend in mean Tws for the main lake used for water supply (Devil's Lake), but considerable variation ranging from 12.2°C in 2000 to 19.2°C in 2004. My analysis suggests that 44% of years during this 25 year period maximum daily Tws surpassed 20°C for at least one day. This hindcasted dataset can provide water supply managers in Kotzebue and other Arctic villages with a record of past conditions and a model for how lakes may respond to future climate change and variability that could impact water quality.
    • Investigations of lightweight aggregates in Alaska

      Heiner, L.E.; Loskamp, A.N. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1966)
      Increased construction costs coupled with the current large demand for aggregate materials prompted an investigation by the Mineral Industry Research Laboratory to find deposits of shale suitable for the manufacture of lightweight aggregate near the cities of Anchorage and Fairbanks.
    • Iron in Surface and Subsurface Waters, Grizzly Bar, Southeastern Alaska

      Hoskin, Charles M.; Slatt, Roger M. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1972-08)
      Atomic absorption spectrophotometric measurements for total iron were made on 69 samples of water from 8 different environments in an outwash fan built by meltwater streams from the retreating Norris Glacier on granodiorite bedrock. Norris Glacier ice contained no iron (3 samples), a subglacial stream contained 5.5 ppm Fe (1 sample), and a meltwater lake fronting Norris Glacier contained 0.7 ppm Fe (3 samples). Iron content of ground water from outwash ranged between 0.0 and 17.0 ppm (6 samples); surface streams fed by emergent ground water on the fan periphery contained 0.0 to 0.2 ppm Fe (13 samples). Taku Inlet waters contained 6.4 ppm Fe (3 samples). Subsurface water from an intertidal mud flat contained between 0.0 and 27.0, X 5.9, ppm Fe (31 samples). Surface and subsurface water from a bog and associated stream contained 1 ppm Fe (12 samples). Little exchangeable Fe was found. In situ measurements in water for Eh showed large positive values (+0.30 to +0.50 volts) and pH was slightly alkaline. The single most important source of iron was vermiculitized biotite. Iron was transported in water in the particulate state, except in outwash ground water where particulate Fe+3 was reduced to dissolved Fe+2. Iron deposits of Fe(OH)3 were found near the top of the outwash water table.
    • Juvenile Fish Passage Through Culverts in Alaska: A Field Study

      Kane, Douglas L.; Belke, Charles E.; Gieck, Robert E.; Mclean, Robert F. (2000-06)
      In the past, culvert design where fish passage was considered generally has been based on the weakest-swimming adult fish in a river system. It has also been recognized for some time that juvenile fish are very active throughout the year, moving upstream and downstream in response to a number of environmental factors. In Alaska, many natal and nonnatal streams in southcentral and southeastern Alaska support both Chinook (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha (Walbaum)) and Coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum)) for one to three years, respectively, before they emigrate to sea. Are we restricting desirable habitat for these juvenile salmonids with hydraulic structures such as culverts? Unfortunately we have little information on either the behavior of juveniles in the vicinity of hydraulic structures or their swimming abilities. The objective of this study was to examine the behavior of juveniles when attempting to ascend a culvert. It was hypothesized that vertical obstacles or high velocity of opposing flow may prevent juvenile fish from moving upstream. It was also hypothesized that they would determine and take the path of least resistance to optimize their chances of successfully ascending a culvert. Four culverts were selected for intensive study regarding juvenile fish passage: Beaver and Soldotna Creeks on Kenai Peninsula and No-name and Pass Creek Tributary on Prince of Wales Island. It was postulated that fish are motivated to move upstream to obtain food if they can establish its presence. We used salmon eggs as an attractive food source both to initially capture the juveniles and then to motivate them to ascend the culvert for possible recapture. Juvenile fish were captured in a baited minnow trap and stained with a dye. They were released downstream of the culvert while the food source was placed upstream in a minnow trap. We supplemented our visual observations with underwater video cameras. We made numerous hydrologic and hydraulic measurements at each site. Although we attempted to select culverts that would prove to be quite challenging to juvenile fish passage, in three of the culverts selected, juvenile fish, of the full range of the fork length initially captured, succeeded in ascending through the culvert. For the fourth culvert, some larger juvenile fish succeeded in ascending the culvert, but not the smaller of each fish type. It was clearly established that juvenile fish were motivated to move upstream to obtain food. In the Beaver Creek culvert, fish used the large corrugations to their advantage when ascending the culverts. The Pass Creek Tributary culvert had corrugations too small for fish to utilize. No-name Creek appeared to present not problems for juvenile fish for the water levels at the time of the visit as they small along the bottom on the centerline of the culvert. In general, observations of fish attempting to move upstream through the culvert revealed that they swam very close to the culvert wall, and in the case of high velocities (Beaver Creek and Pass Creed Tributary) they swam near the surface along the sidewall where velocities are reduced. It is obvious that the juvenile fish are attempting to minimize power output and energy expenditure by taking the path of least resistance. Although not quantitavely proven, it appears that as long as fish make some headway in their upstream movement they are content. The rationale for this conclusion is that fish do not know what they may encounter upstream so they attempt to conserve as much power and energy as possible while still moving forward. They generally do so by seeking out the lowest velocities in the cross-section. In areas of steep velocity gradients along the wall (where the areal extent of low velocities is limited), it is clear in our videotapes that fish have problems maintaining their position and preferred orientation. It is apparent from our observations that because of their small size, juvenile fish are hindered by turbulence and that this area needs more study.
    • Kanban teaching examples

      Remick, Karen J.; Genetti, Jon; Lawlor, Orion; Chappell, Glenn (2017-04)
    • Knowledge Transfer Needs and Methods

      Perkins, Robert A.; Bennett, F. Lawrence (Alaska University Transportation Center, Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities, 2012)
    • Known and potential ore reserves, Seward Peninsula, Alaska

      Lu, F.C.; Heiner, L.E.; Harris, D.P. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1968)
      The study utilizes all available information pertaining to the resources of the Seward Peninsula in an attempt to present factual data as well as to predict by statistical means the resources yet to be found.
    • Laboratory and Field Evaluation of Modified Asphalt Binders and Mixes for Alaskan Pavements

      Liu, Jenny; Liu, Jun (2019-08)
      In order to properly characterize modified asphalt binders and mixes for Alaskan pavements, this study evaluated properties of 13 asphalt binders typically used in Alaska from three different suppliers, and 10 hot mix asphalt (HMA) mixtures which were either produced in the lab or collected from existing paving projects in Alaska. Various binder and mixture engineering properties were determined, including true high binder grades, complex modulus (G*), and phase angle (δ) at high performance temperatures, multiple stress creep recovery rate and compliance, bending beam rheometer stiffness and m-value, Glover-Rowe parameter, ΔT, rheological index, and crossover frequency for binders, and rut depth, critical strain energy release rate (Jc), Indirect tensile (IDT) creep stiffness and strength for mixtures. Binder cracking temperatures were determined using asphalt binder cracking device. Mixture cracking temperatures were determined with IDT creep compliance and strength data. It was found that rutting and cracking resistances of the mixtures with highly modified binders were better than the mixture with unmodified asphalt binder (PG 52-28). Future recommendations for highly modified asphalt binders applications and research were provided based on laboratory testing results and field survey evaluation.
    • Laboratory investigation of infiltration process of nonnewtonian fluids through porous media in a non-isothermal flow regime for effective remediation of adsorbed contaminants

      Naseer, Fawad; Misra, Debasmita; Metz, Paul; Awoleke, Obadare; Najm, Majdi Abou (2019-12)
      Contamination of soil and groundwater have serious health implications for man and environment. The overall goal of this research is to study a methodology of using nonNewtonian fluids for effective remediation of adsorbed contaminants in porous media under nonisothermal flow regimes. Non-Newtonian fluids (Guar gum and Xanthan gum solutions) provide a high viscous solution at low concentration and these fluids adjust their viscosities with applied shear rate and change in temperature. Adjustment of viscosity with an applied rate of shear is vital for contaminant remediation because non-Newtonian shear thinning fluids can penetrate to low permeability zones in subsurface by decreasing their viscosities due to high shear rates offered by low permeability zones. The application of non-Newtonian shear thinning fluids for contaminant remediation required the improvement in understanding of rheology and how the factors such as concentration, temperature and change in shear rate impacted the rheology of fluids. In order to study the rheology, we studied the changes in rheological characteristics (viscosity and contact angle) of non-Newtonian fluids of different concentrations (i.e., 0.5g/l, 1g/l, 3g/l, 6g/l and 7g/l) at different temperatures ranging from 0 ºC to 30 ºC. OFITE model 900 viscometer and Tantec contact angle meter were used to record the changes in viscosity of fluids for an applied range of shear rate (i.e., 17.02 s⁻¹ to 1021.38 s⁻¹) and contact angles, respectively, for different concentrations of non-Newtonian fluids. Understanding the flow characteristic of non-Newtonian fluids under low temperature conditions could help in developing methods to effectively remediate contaminants from soils. Results of rheological tests manifested an increase in the viscosity of both polymers with concentration and decrease in temperature. Mid (i.e., 3g/l) to high (i.e., 6g/l and 7g/l) concentrations of polymers manifested higher viscosities compared to 0.5g/l for both polymers. Flow of high viscous solutions required more force to pass through a glass-tube-bundle setup which represented a synthetic porous media to study the flow characteristic and effectiveness of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids for contaminant remediation. Low concentrations of 0.5g/l were selected for flow and remediation experiments because this concentration can flow through porous media easily without application of force. The 0.5g/l of Xanthan gum and de-ionized water were used to conduct the infiltration experiments to study the flow characteristics of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids at 0.6°C, 5°C and 19°C in synthetic porous media. Infiltration depth of both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids would decrease with the decrease in temperature because of the change in their properties like dynamic viscosity, density and angle of contact. The result of comparison of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids showed water to be more effective in remediating a surrogate adsorbent contaminant (Dichlobenil) from the synthetic porous media at 19°C. This result was counter-intuitive to what we began with as our hypothesis. However, it was also observed later that 0.5 g/l concentration of Guar gum behaved more like a Newtonian fluid and 0.5 g/l concentration of Xanthan gum had not shown strong non-Newtonian behavior compared to higher concentrations of Xanthan gum. Hence more analysis needs to be done to determine what concentration of non-Newtonian fluid should be more effective for remediation.
    • Laboratory Performance of Wicking Fabric H2Ri in Silty Gravel, Sand and Organic Silt

      Connor, Billy; Zhang, Xiong (16-05)
      The use of wicking fabric, H2Ri, is growing in its use to remove water from roadway and airport embankments. Past research has shown H2Ri to be effective in sands and fine grained materials in roadways up to 32 feet in width. However, there is a desire to use H2Ri for airports which require a minimum width of 75 ft. This project tested H2Ri in a 73-foot flume in a crushed surface course with 14 % fines. In addition, the fabric was tested in a 22-foot flume with a sand and with an organic clay. The intent was to bracket the material for which the H2Ri will work. The study showed that the fabric will easily move water 73 feet in a silty gravel. The study showed that the fabric was also able to readily remove water in sand. However, the fabric blinded when used in organic silt and proved ineffective. The study also showed that using simple overlap of the H2Ri as a splice, while effective, was not as efficient at moving water as the fabric itself. Consequently, moisture tended to build up around the splice.
    • Laboratory Procedure for Measuring the Effectiveness of Dust Control Palliatives

      Barnes, David; Connor, Billy (Alaska University Transportation Center, 2017-06)
      Creation of fugitive dust on unpaved roads results in the loss of up to 25 mm (one inch) of surface aggregate annually (FHWA, 1998). On these roads, shearing forces created by vehicles dislodge the fine aggregate fraction (silt and clay) that binds the coarse aggregate. Turbulent airflow created by vehicles loft these fine particles in plumes of fugitive dust that impact health, safety, and quality of life. The loss of these particles results in raveling of the road surface, culminating in large annual losses of surface aggregate. Chemical dust control (palliatives) is an attractive option. However, there are currently no accepted field or laboratory performance testing procedures for chemical road dust palliatives. The lack of a method to predict palliative performance forces engineers and road managers into a trial-and-error methodology or reliance on personal judgment and supplier claims to determine what will work best on their unpaved road or runway surfaces. The overall objective of this research was to finalize the development of a laboratory test procedure for evaluating different dust control formulations and application rates required to effectively control the airborne suspension of dust particles in the size range (aerodynamic diameter) of 10 μm or less.