• Water/Wastewater Evaluation for an Arctic Alaskan Industrial Camp

      Tilsworth, Timothy (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1973-04)
      Discovery of a huge oil field at Prudhoe Bay in the late 1960's resulted in a great deal of industrial activity on the North Slope of arctic Alaska. This flurry of industrial activity was accompanied by environmental concern across the nation. The fact that Alaska was "the last frontier” placed it high on the list for ecological scrutiny.
    • Laboratory Rearing Experiments on Artificially Propagated Inconnu (Stenodus leucichthys)

      LaPerriere, Jacqueline D. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1973-06)
    • Water Balance of a Small Lake in a Permafrost Region

      Hartman, Charles W.; Carlson, Robert F. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1973-09)
    • Alaska Water Resources Research Needs for the 70's: A seminar, Oct. 27-28 Anchorage, Alaska

      Carlson, Robert F.; Butler, Jacqueline (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1973-09)
    • Polyethylene Sheeting as a Water Surface Cover in Sub-zero Temperatures

      Behlke, Charles; McDougall, James (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1973-12)
      The occurrence of temperatures below -20°C in central Alaska produces a situation conducive to the formation of ice fog. By far the largest source of ice fog in the Fairbanks area is the evaporation of water in the cooling ponds of power plants. In an attempt to find methods to reduce this evaporation and subsequent fogging, a study was conducted during the winter of 1973 in order to examine the feasibility of using po1yethylene sheeting as a water surface cover. An uncovered insulated tank of water was placed on the roof of the Engineering Building of the University of Alaska. The water was circulated to prevent stratification and kept from freezing by a thermostatically controlled heater. From January 23 through February 2, the water surface was 1eft uncovered. Evaporation rates were measured daily by maintaining the water surface at a constant level. During the period of February 2 through 11, the water surface was covered with a sheet of clear polyethylene, thereby eliminating evaporation. Throughout the period of study, daily readings were made of the power consumption of the heater and pump. Temperatures within and above the tank were also frequently measured with copper-constantine thermocouples. From the data co11ected, a daily energy balance for the tank was calculated. Taken into consideration were the net short-wave and long-wave energy exchange, heat loss due to evaporation and sensible heat transfer, heat loss through the sides of the tank, change in stored energy, and energy input from heater and pump. Results indicate that polyethylene is an effective water surface cover that could be used to virtually eliminate evaporation from cooling ponds.
    • Hydrology of the Central Arctic River Basins of Alaska

      Kane, Douglas L.; Carlson, Robert F. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1973-12)
    • Thermal Tolerances of Interior Alaskan Arctic Grayling (Thymallus arcticus)

      LaPerriere, Jacqueline D.; Carlson, Robert F. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1973-12)
    • Characterization of Alaska's coals

      Rao, P.D. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1974)
      Coal characterization is a systematic determination of those properties of coal, or of its constituents, that affect its behavior when used. It will help in planning for recovery and use of the extensive Alaskan coal deposits, which have proven reserves of 130 billion tons. This estimate is of necessity based on widely scattered outcrops and meager drill hole data, and the reserves in the Cook Inlet region and the Northern Alaska field are considered to be several fold this figure.
    • Organic and Color Removal from Water Supplies by Synthetic Resinous Adsorbents: Completion Report

      Tilsworth, Timothy (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1974-01)
    • Modeling snowmelt runoff in an arctic coastal plain

      Carlson, Robert F.; Norton, William; McDougall, James (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1974-01)
      Present and impending oil exploration and development activity on Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain has created a need to better understand the region's water resources. The remoteness of the area and an almost complete lack of hydrologic data preclude the use of usual hydrologic analysis techniques. Attempts by the Institute of Water Resources to synthesize this data led to the development of snowmelt runoff models which simulate the spring runoff, an important part of the hydrologic system. The snowmelt model produces a snowmelt hydrograph which is converted by the runoff model into a runoff hydrograph. The snowmelt model subdivides the snowpack into two layers. Daily climatological parameters govern the heat transfer between snowpack and atmosphere. Once the heat flux received or emitted by the snowpack has been computed, the melting processes within the snowpack are considered. Computed parameters of the snowpack are density, depth, water equivalent, water content, temperature, and thermal quality. The runoff model uses a three-parameter linear storage model to transform the snowmelt hydrograph into a runoff hydrograph. The parameters represent the amount of storage, the rate of runoff, and the lag between snowmelt and runoff. Using Prudhoe Bay weather data as input, and comparing the output to runoff data from the Kuparuk, Putuligayuk, and Sagavanirktok Rivers for the years 1970 and 1971, produced results which indicate that the models perform satisfactorily.
    • Ground Water Quality Effects on Domestic Water Utilization

      Smith, Daniel W.; Casper, Lawrence A. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1974-03)
    • Suprapermafrost Water: Completion Report

      Guymon, G. L. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1974-06)
    • A Study of the Breakup Characteristics of the Chena River Basin Using ERTS Imagery: Completion Report

      Carlson, Robert F.; Wendler, Gerd (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1974-06)
      Snowmelt and rainfall floodinq is a major water resource problem in Alaska. At the present time, forecastinq of these floods is based on a sparse hydrological and climatological network. Numerous basins with drainage areas of 5,000 km2 and less remain completely ungaged. The lack of data causes uncertainty in the design of transportation schemes such as tile Trans-Alaska oil pipeline. This project studied the utility of using ERTS-l imagery as a source of additional data for the prediction of snowmelt runoff, the most dynamic hydroloqic event in arctic and subarctic basins. Snow distribution as determined from the satellite imagery was compared with values determined from the conventional snow course stations and with the results of a snowmelt energy model. The Chena River Basin was selected because of the availability of ground truth data for comparison. Very good agreement for snow distribution and rates of ablation was found between the ERTS-l imagery, the snowmelt model, and field measurements. Monitoring snowmelt rates for relatively small basins appears to be practical. The main limitation of the ERTS-l imagery is the interval of coverage. More frequent overflights providing coverage are needed for the study of transient hydrologic events. ERTS-l data is most useful when used in conjunction with snowmelt prediction models and existing snow course data. These results should prove very useful in preliminary assessment of hydrologic conditions in ungaged watersheds and will provide a tool for month-to-month volume forecasting.
    • Methods of Flood Flow Determination in Sparse Data Regions

      Carlson, Robert F.; Fox, Patricia M.; Shrader, Stephen D. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1974-06)
    • Sediment Relations of Selected Alaskan Glacier-fed Streams: Completion Report

      Guymon, G. L. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1974-06)
    • Flood Frequency Estimation in Northern Sparse Data Regions: Completion Report

      Carlson, Robert F.; Fox, Patricia (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1974-07)
      The primary objective of this project was to complete development of an arctic hydrologic model and to evaluate its usefulness in generating information useful for a design tool in estimation of peak flow discharges. The peak flow discharges studied were those generally analyzed and evaluated in the design of facilities for stream crossings.
    • A Northern Snowmelt Model

      McDougall, James; Carlson, Robert F. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1974-08)
      In early 1968, a large petroleum discovery was made in the Prudhoe Bay area of Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain. This discovery has led Alaska into a period of development of unprecedented speed and magnitude. This development will require the construction of many engineering facilities which are affected by the water resources. The design of each of these requires an understanding of the hydrologic system, a system which is dominated in Alaska by low temperatures, high latitudes, large elevation differences and sparse data. The latter factor is unique to Alaska and makes application of common design techniques virtually impossible.
    • The Characteristics and Ultimate Disposal of Waste Septic Tank Sludge

      Tilsworth, Timothy (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1974-11)
    • Focus on Alaska's coal '75, proceedings of the conference

      Rao, P.D.; Wolff, E.N. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1975)
      Interest in Alaska's coals has increased greatly in the last few years partly as a II result of the public's realization that we are in a real energy shortage and partly because the building of the Alaska pipe line has demonstrated that transportation for Alaska's raw materials can be supplied if needed. Both President Ford and Secretary of Interior Kleppe have pointedly stated that Alaska must furnish much of the nation's energy needs in the next few decades. During the years 1974 and 1975, industry also showed greater interest as indicated by the large scale exploration activities in the Nenana, Beluga and Susitna coal fields. As a result of all of this interest it was decided that the time was right for an exchange of information on Alaska's coal; to bring people together and bring them up to date, and this conference was the result. Focus on Alaska's Coal, the first conference of its kind, attracted wide participation and apparently an enthusiastic response. The papers and the audience questions showed an overriding concern for the nation's energy needs and the possibility that Alaska can help alleviate those needs with its enormous solid fuel resources along with its oil and gas resources. As a result of the conference, the following points were brought into focus: Alaska's coal deposits are much more extensive than hitherto known. The development of a coal industry in Alaska to supply west coast markets is no longer a dream, and will in fact be a reality before long. Additional research on characterization and upgrading of coals is needed to further evaluate the potential of the enormous reserves. Alaska's coals are low in sulfur and thus are environmentally more acceptable. It is hoped that this conference brought into focus the opportunities Alaska offers to the nation and as a result, that work will be stimulated leading to the further development and utilization of its coal resources.
    • Thermogravimetric and distillation studies on mercury, antimony and arsenic sulfides

      Town, J.W.; Rao, P.D. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1975)
      Thermogravimetric studies were made on naturally occurring sulfides of mercury, antimony and arsenic to determine activation energies and Arrhenius rates of reaction in vacuum and in atmospheres of air and nitrogen. Of the three sulfides only antimony showed an appreciable change in rate of reaction for the different test conditions. Distillation results on three flotation concentrates from Alaska mining operations showed that cinnabar (mercury sulfide) could be distilled in a closed system, with over 99 percent recovery of the mercury as metal when the sulfur was reacted with iron. Over 98 percent mercury recovery was obtained from a cinnabar-stibnite (antimony sulfide) concentrate, with less than 1 percent of the antimony distilled from the furnace charge. Cinnabarrealgar-orpiment (arsenic sulfides) could not be separated by distillation and large quantities of soot (condenser residue) formed with the metallic mercury in the condenser.