The effects of volitional laughter on positive affect, negative affect, and day-to-day depressive symptoms among college students were investigated utilizing a non-equivalent control group design. The laughter group (n = 23) participated in daily volitional laughter treatments (three treatments of 30 seconds each) while the control group (n = 40) received no treatment. Both groups were pre- and post-tested using the PANAS (Positive And Negative Affect Schedule) and the CES-D (Center for Epidemiological Studies -Depression Inventory). A significant difference was found for the laughter group in negative affect. An additional post-hoc analysis, after eliminating a group of subjects from the control group, indicated a significant difference for the volitional laughter treatment group in increasing positive affect. No significant difference in depressive symptoms was detected.
Thesis (M.A.) University of Alaska Fairbanks, 1997
Table of Contents
List of Tables -- Acknowledgments -- Introduction -- Review of Literature -- Methods -- Results -- Discussion -- References -- Appendix A: Thesis Timeline -- Appendix B: PANAS and CES-D -- Appendix C: Laughter Criteria Score Sheet -- Appendix D: Consent Form -- Appendix E: Attendance Sheet -- Appendix F: Feedback Questionnaire
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