• Mute Llama

      Ober, Richard Holmes; Soos, Frank; Bishop, Wendy; Perkins, Leroy (1988-09)
      The novella Mute Llama and the short story "The Keeper of Dogs" "both deal with the role that the imagination plays in the articulation of reality through symbols. At its core, this is an issue which involves the very essence of the creation of fictive worlds. In both pieces, the protagonist is engaged in a second-person, internal soliloquy as he is confronted with the startling fluidity of the "real" world of objects. When the objective world is encountered by an active imagination, as it is by each of us every day, the result is a reality that is created, rather than simply observed. The protagonist of each of these pieces comes to this realization and discovers that it produces both existential despair and self-empowerment. In the end, this paradox is central to the understanding of postmodernist art.
    • Permafrost, Vol. 11, No. 2 (Spring-Summer 1989)

      Alaska Association for the Arts (Permafrost, 1989)
    • Permafrost, Vol. 12, No. 2 (Spring-Summer 1990)

      Alaska Association for the Arts (Permafrost, 1990)
    • Permafrost, Vol. 12, No. 1 (Spring 1990)

      Alaska Association for the Arts (Permafrost, 1990)
    • Permafrost, Vol. 13, No. 1 (Fall-Winter 1990)

      Alaska Association for the Arts (Permafrost, 1990)
    • Permafrost, Vol. 13, No. 2 (Spring-Summer 1991)

      Alaska Association for the Arts (Permafrost, 1991)
    • Permafrost, Vol. 14 (Spring 1992)

      Alaska Association for the Arts (Permafrost, 1992)
    • Permafrost, Vol. 15 (Spring 1993)

      Alaska Association for the Arts (Permafrost, 1993)
    • Permafrost, Vol. 16 (Spring 1994)

      Alaska Association for the Arts (Permafrost, 1994)
    • Permafrost, Vol. 17 (Winter 1995)

      Alaska Association for the Arts (Permafrost, 1995)
    • Rivers From The Air

      Odden, Mary Elaine; Soos, Frank; Bartlett, D. A.; Morgan, John (1995)
      This is a collection of creative non-fiction essays. They are triggered by events and persons from my life's experiences, but I hope they shed light on experiences I share with others: coming of age, mothering, probing relationships with nature, understanding and misunderstanding strangers and friends. The Anglo-Saxons believed that to see something was to cast a shaping light upon it, rather than passively accepting what "is." I like that, and it follows, for me, that writing is an active kind of seeing that casts itself in stone here and there like children playing "statues." The whole thing is moving and changing, of course, and can't really be seen. But trying to see it is my idea of what we are here for. <p>
    • Culture And Empire: Rudyard Kipling's Indian Fiction

      Grekowicz, Eric John; Blalock, Susan (1996)
      A survey of Rudyard Kipling's Indian fiction indicates that his writings reflect a deeply-felt ambivalence toward the imperial projects of his contemporaries. Kipling condemns British characters who denigrate Indians or India, and in doing so, he subverts the Victorian notion of Britain's innate superiority. Kipling's early fiction reveals the author's respect for Eastern culture and religion. His India represents a utopic vision of cultural mixing. An anthropological perspective on these stories shows that the Indian fiction is designed to create cross-cultural communication. Kipling illustrates how failure to understand India ultimately destroys the British, and by attacking many of the injustices of imperialism, he fosters an atmosphere condusive to the synthesis of cultures. Kipling's ultimate enterprise is to promote tolerance of difference through understanding and respect of the other. <p>
    • Permafrost, Vol. 18 (Fall 1996)

      Alaska Association for the Arts (Permafrost, 1996)
    • Permafrost, Vol. 19 (Fall 1997)

      Alaska Association for the Arts (Permafrost, 1997)
    • Permafrost, Vol. 20 (1998)

      Alaska Association for the Arts (Permafrost, 1998)
    • Permafrost, Vol. 21 (1999)

      Alaska Association for the Arts (Permafrost, 1999)
    • Permafrost, Vol. 22 (1999)

      Alaska Association for the Arts (Permafrost, 1999)
    • Author as ethnographer: The merging of genres in Raymond Carver's and Thomas Pynchon's texts

      Snyder, Megan Dawn; Bird, Roy K. (1999)
      Several of Raymond Carver's short stories and two of Thomas Pynchon's novels are analyzed for their ability to function as ethnography, through which they reveal the dominant and dominated codes in American culture. These texts were approached from an interdisciplinary stance, using theories and concepts from literary criticism, cultural anthropology, and sociology in order to interpret them with a greater degree of accuracy; because the text is treated as an ethnographic representation of a culture, it is possible to turn to it as the sole illustration of cultural elements and, in doing so, to be more open to addressing themes that the text explicates, rather than approaching the it with a preconceived agenda of what necessarily constructs American culture. By focusing in this manner on Carver's and Pynchon's texts as accounts of what is to be "American," it is possible to remain closer to what the texts portray and to avoid misreadings as well as misinterpretations of culture. Through these authors' representations of characters who defy mainstream cultural codes, the reader encounters in these authors' works what mainstream America finds most unsettling: characters who are not only alienated, but also aware of their status as outsiders and, more frequently than not, choose to embrace deviance in their self-definitions. Carver and Pynchon, when taken together, afford the reader with a vision of our culture that explores the dissociation and alienation that cuts through our society regardless of class or background. In their varying presentations of reality, they offer complementary views of distinct American subcultures that feature characters who are isolated and who generally denounce mainstream ideals. Conformist society is merely hinted at within the texts; its presence appears through its absence, characters' recognition of what they are denying, and what characters are denied. Both authors feature characters who identify aberrant behavior, for which rule-breaking individuals are labeled. Characters, once labeled, adopt secondary deviance and instigate a deviant career, from which the authors rarely permit a reprieve. The effect of labeling is the creation of a schism in the social fabric of American culture, which is characterized by the societal exclusion of individuals who do not uphold the dominant beliefs. American culture is also characterized by assimilation; as characters in Carvers and Pynchon's texts resist this process, they pose a threat to the social order, which is the prime factor in their labeling.
    • "A woman is either a lady or not": the influence of mothers on daughters in William Faulkner's "As I lay dying" and "The sound of the fury"

      Dassinger, Kristine Robyn; Heyne, Eric; Corti, Lillian; Bird, Roy K. (2000-05)
      William Faulkner, in 'As I lay dying' and 'The sound of the fury, ' illustrates the relationship between parents and children within a disintegrating social structure. Not only does the father pass his misogynistic views onto his sons and daughters, but the mother also acts as an agent, perpetuating patriarchal order. Although Addie Bundren discovers that her identity is not defined in male terms, she fails to educate her daughter, Dewey Dell. Rather than struggle against her environment, Addie chooses to die, leaving Dewey Dell alone with her father and brothers. Caroline Compson preserves the patriarchal structures within her life by submitting to her father's definition of women. She then teaches this rigid view to Caddy and little Quentin. Through these failed mother and daughter relationships, Faulkner illustrates how families in the South are destroyed from within.
    • Carpenters daughter

      Osier, Jill N. (2000-05)
      Carpenter's Daughter reveals the construction and reconstruction a woman understands her life to be. Acknowledging the creation of identity through the tools of history, memory, dream, and imagination, it further explores where these worlds converge at different points along the path from child to girl to woman. The poems are equally concerned with dynamics beyond a sense of self--particularly how things come together and come apart. In both the realm of nature and that of human emotion, the speakers are confronted by tenuous connections and surprising holds, moved by the frailties lying beneath solid foundations and the grace witnessed in failing frames. Though several poems use formal patterns of line or stanza, most work in free verse and are driven by narrative, image, or voice. These also provide thematic links throughout the collection, their echoes serving to fully present ideas as well as celebrate sound.