• Modeling volcanic ash and sulfur dioxide with the Weather Research Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model

      Egan, Sean D.; Cahill, Catherine; Stuefer, Martin; Webley, Peter; Lopez, Taryn; Simpson, William (2019-12)
      The Weather Research Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model is capable of modeling volcanic emissions of ash, sulfur dioxide and water vapor. Here, it is applied to eruptions from three volcanoes: the 2008 eruption of Kasatochi Volcano in Alaska, the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland and the 2019 eruption of Raikoke in the Kurile Islands. WRF-Chem's ability to model volcanic emissions dispersion is validated through comparison of model output to remote sensing, in situ and field measurements. A sensitivity of the model to modeled plume height is discussed. This work also modifies the base WRF-Chem code in three ways and studies the effects of these modifications. First, volcanic ash aggregation parameterizations are added covering three modes of particle collisions through Brownian motion, differential settling and shear. Second, water vapor emissions from volcanic eruptions are added and coupled to the new aggregation scheme. The effects of these changes are assessed and found to produce volcanic ash concentrations in agreement with in situ measurements of plume concentrations and field measurements of tephra fallout. Third, the model is adapted to include multiple model initializations such that each is perturbed by selecting between two volcanic ash particle sizes and five initial plume heights. This modified WRF-Chem is nested in an application program interface that enables a new, automated, near real-time capability. This capability is assessed and the feasibility of its use as an augmenting tool to current operational VATD models is commented upon.
    • Multi-sensor techniques for the measurement of post eruptive volcanic deformation and depositional features

      McAlpin, David B.; Meyer, Franz J.; Begét, James; Webley, Peter W.; Dehn, Jonathan (2019-08)
      Remote sensing of volcanic activity is an increasingly important tool for scientific investigation, hazard mitigation, and geophysical analysis. These studies were conducted to determine how combining remote sensing data in a multi-sensor analysis can improve our understanding of volcanic activity, depositional behavior, and the evolutionary history of past eruptive episodes. In a series of three studies, (1) optical photogrammetry and synthetic aperture radar are combined to determine volumes of lahars and lava dome growth at Redoubt Volcano, Alaska; (2) applied data from multiple synthetic aperture radar platforms are combined to model long-term deposition of pyroclastic flow deposits, including past deposits underlying current, observable pyroclastic flow deposits at Augustine Volcano, Alaska; and finally (3) combined, low-spatial-resolution thermal data from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer sensors are combined with high resolution digital elevation models derived from the microwave TanDEM-X mission, to increase the accuracy of eruption profiles and effusion rates at Tolbachik Volcano on the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russian Far East. As a result of this study, the very diverse capabilities of multiple remote sensing instruments were combined to improve the understanding of volcanic processes at three separate locations with recent eruptive activity, and to develop new methods of measurement and estimation by merging the capabilities of optical, thermal, and microwave observations. With the multi-sensor frameworks developed in this study now in place, future efforts should focus on increasing the diversity of sensor types in joint analyses, with the objective of obtaining better solutions to geophysical questions.