• Hydroclimate in Eurasia from the Arctic to the Tropics

      Majhi, Ipshita; Bhatt, Uma S.; Zhang, Xiangdong; Molders, Nicole; Walsh, John; Krishnamurthy (2018-05)
      Hydrometeorology in Eurasia connects the Arctic with lower latitudes through exchanges in moisture and teleconnections influencing climate variability. This thesis investigates the role of dams on the Kolyma basin, of precipitation and temperature change on a pristine permafrost lined basin of the Yana, and of changing snow cover over Eurasia on the Indian Monsoon. These three pieces of work illustrate different aspects of a changing climate that impact Eurasian hydrometeorological variations. The Kolyma is one of the large rivers which flows into the Arctic Ocean where there has been a large winter increase and summer decrease in flow over the 1986-2000 period. Winter months are characterized by low flow while summer months by high flow. Reservoir regulation was identified as the main cause of changes in the discharge pattern, since water is released in winter for power generation and stored in summer for flood control. The overall discharge to the Arctic Ocean has decreased for Kolyma basin, despite the increase during winter. This study documents how human activities (particularly reservoirs) impact seasonal and regional hydrological variations. The Yana Basin is a small pristine basin that has experienced minimal human impact and is ideal for investigating the role of climate variability on discharge. The precipitation discharge and temperature discharge analysis for Ubileinaya suggests that increased precipitation and higher temperatures resulted in higher discharge, but other parameters also come into play since greater precipitation does not always yield higher discharge. Overall our analysis for this station has increased our understanding of natural basins and how the climate variables like precipitation and temperature play a role. Recent increases in May-June Indian monsoon rain fall were investigated in the context of Eurasian snow cover variations since the onset of the monsoon has long been linked to Himalayan snow cover. Himalayan snow cover and depth have decreased and this study argues that this is the driver of increased rainfall during May-June, the pre-monsoon and early monsoon period. In addition, there has been an increase in snow water equivalent in Northern part of Eurasia and decrease in Southern part, suggesting that the anomalies are large-scale. Storm track analysis reveals an increase in the number of storms in northern and a decrease in southern Eurasia. The large-scale Eurasian snow increases have been shown by other studies to be linked to Arctic sea ice decline. The direct linkage between fall Arctic sea ice decline and an increase in May-June Indian monsoon rainfall is proposed in this work but the exact climate mechanism is tenuous at this point. This study is focused on understanding changing Arctic rivers and the connection of the Arctic with the Indian monsoon. Our study has shed some light into the connection between the Arctic and the tropics. This study could benefit from modeling study where we could have case study with and without sea ice to understand better how that could impact the monsoon and the hydrological cycle in the present and the future. Better understanding of the mechanism would help us take steps towards better adaptation policies.
    • Hydrovolcanism in Okmok caldera, Alaska

      Almberg, Leslie Deanne (2003-12)
      Hydrovolcanic activity in Okmok Caldera predominated on the crater floor during approximately the first 775 years after the caldera collapsed at 2050 yr. B.P. Interactions between rising magma and shallow water (<100 m) controlled the development of lithofacies observed in the early post-caldera deposits. The distinctive lithofacies reflect the eruptive processes active as Cone D, a composite tuff, lava flow, and cinder cone, breached the surface of a lake which once covered the caldera floor. Three phases of eruptive activity constructed Cone D: first, a subaqueous cycle; second, emergent; and finally a purely subaerial strombolian and hawaiian phase built the edifice to its current height. Radiocarbon dates provide constraining ages for a catastrophic flood that emptied the 4.3 x 10⁹ m³ caldera lake and exposed the subaqueous lithofacies. An effusion rate of 2.7 x 10⁶ m³yr⁻¹ for this early eruptive period is calculated using eruptive volumes determined from a 5-m resolution DEM, based on AirSAR data. The prehistoric effusion rate determined for Cone D is on the same order of magnitude as the calculated historic effusion rate of 5.3 x 10⁶ m³yr⁻¹ from Cone A, based on mapped extents and thicknesses of lava flows and the cone itself.
    • Ice clouds over Fairbanks, Alaska

      Kayetha, Vinay Kumar; Sassen, Kenneth; Mölders, Nicole; Collins, Richard (2014-05)
      Arctic clouds have been recognized long ago as one of the key elements modulating the global climate system. They have gained much interest in recent years because the availability of new continuous datasets is opening doors to explore cloud and aerosol properties as never before. This is particularly important in the light of current climate change studies that predict changing weather scenarios around the world. This research investigates the occurrence and properties of a few types of ice clouds over the Arctic region with datasets available through the Arctic Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (AFARS; 64.86° N, 147.84° W). This study exclusively focuses on ice clouds that form in the upper (cirrus clouds) and midlevels of the troposphere, and that are transparent to laser pulses (visible optical depth τ< 3.0 - 4.0). Cirrus clouds are icedominated clouds that are formed in the upper levels of the troposphere and are relatively thin such that their visual appearances range from bluish to gray in color. Mid-level ice clouds are those clouds primarily composed of ice crystals forming in the midlevels of the troposphere. It is hypothesized that unlike the basic midlevel cloud type (altostratus), other varieties of midlevel ice clouds exist at times over the Arctic region. The midlevel ice clouds studied here are also transparent to laser pulses and sometimes appear as a family of cirrus clouds to a surface observer. Because of their intermediate heights of occurrence in the troposphere, these could have microphysical properties and radiative effects that are distinct from those associated with upper level ice clouds in the troposphere. A ground-based lidar dataset with visual observations for identifying cloud types collected at AFARS over eight years is used to investigate this hypothesis. Cloud types over AFARS have been identified by a surface observer (Professor Kenneth Sassen) using established characteristics traits. Essential macrophysical properties of the clouds are derived from the lidar data, which serves as a climatological representation for the visually identified cirrus and mid-level ice clouds over a typical sub-Arctic location. Synoptic-scale weather patterns conducive for such cloud type formations are derived using a clustering technique applied to a re-analysis dataset. The cloud properties derived from ground-based lidar over AFARS are used to assess the cloud observations from the CALIPSO satellite.
    • Identification and evolution of tectonic faults in the greater Fairbanks area, Alaska

      Frohman, Rachel A.; Wallace, Wesley; Koehler, Richard; Hanks, Catherine (2014-12)
      I have identified evidence for potentially active northeast-striking faults in the greater Fairbanks area and have developed a model for their evolution that defines the character of faults and timing of structural events. Seismicity, topographic data, and geological and geophysical maps show that potentially active faults correspond with previously mapped bedrock faults, topographic lows, and magnetic anomalies. Seismicity indicates that faults in Interior Alaska have low to moderate tectonic activity; geomorphic and structural analyses of mapped faults indicate they are dominantly left-lateral strike-slip, but have smaller normal or reverse components. The normal component of slip increases to the west toward the Nenana basin based on tilted fault block geometries observed in seismicity. Deformed Pliocene to Quaternary strata, placer deposits presumably related to tectonic-induced stream capture events, and geomorphic anomalies such as valley and basin asymmetry, barbed drainages, and changes in river morphology all suggest Pliocene-Quaternary tectonic activity along northeast-striking left-lateral faults. Northeast-striking faults have been at least episodically active since the late Cretaceous. Northeast-striking fault-hosted gold deposits related to ~90 Ma intrusions suggest that fault parallel extension fractures or tension veins formed at ~90 Ma during a period of northwest-southeast extension. Thermochronological data are consistent with exhumation at ~56-42 Ma, possibly resulting from dextral shearing between the Denali and Tintina faults. Northeast-striking faults were reactivated as normal faults along pre-existing extensional trends. Thermochronological data suggest that strike-slip displacement on the Tintina fault significantly decreased at ~42 Ma. However, dip-slip motion continued along northeast-striking faults after 42 Ma as a result of contraction related to northward plate convergence. Drainage restorations, high-levels of background seismicity, and focal mechanisms support the hypothesis that at ~6 Ma, significant left-lateral motion occurred along northeast-striking faults and has continued to the present.
    • Identification And Function Of Male Moose Urinary Pheromones

      Whittle, Chris L.; Clausen, Thomas P. (2005)
      Olfactory communication and associated scent-marking activities play a major role in the behavioral ecology of many mammals. During the mating season (rut), scent marking associated with urine of male cervids is an important chemical cue to relay information to conspecifics. Specifically, adult male moose (Alces alces) dig rutting pits in which they urinate, and females respond strongly to urine deposited in pits. A behavioral bioassay was developed to aid in the identification and function of adult male moose urinary pheromones, which elicited the behaviors observed in females during rut. Several behavioral bioassays were conducted to delineate the putative pheromones(s). It was experimentally established that when female moose were presented with urine from the pre-rut and rut periods, females preferred the urine from rut. Moreover, this experiment documented that females responded markedly to constituent(s) in rut urine by wallowing. Rut urine can be chemically extracted and maintain its bioactivity when presented to female moose, the partition of the urine that had bioactivity was delineated. Information was provided on the chemical and physical nature of the chemosignal---not a protein, or carbohydrate, relatively non-polar, and of low molecular weight. Urinary constituents that may function as the putative pheromone(s) were characterized. Some of the chemical differences that existed in rut urine and may not function as chemical signals were eliminated. Also provided, was evidence that female moose may utilize the main olfactory system to detect chemosignals present in rut urine.
    • Identifying areas of neotectonic activity using radar remote sensing in the northern foothills of the Alaska Range

      Denny, Casey L. (2013-05)
      The tectonically active northern foothills of the Alaska Range display obvious uplift and deformation, making the area an attractive place to conduct research. Research has been done in this area of Alaska in the recent past, most of which required intensive fieldwork. This study analyzes if modern radar remote sensing technology is useful in identifying neotectonic activity and in determining where future work should be conducted. Radar remote sensing data is used in two ways to support the identification of tectonically active areas: First, I incorporated available geologic maps with polarimetric and interferometric radar remote sensing data to create a classification scheme to identify and map the preserved depositional surface of the Nenana Gravel. This surface, successfully mapped and overlain on a newly available high-resolution DEM, highlighted the topographic expression of deformation in the area. Second, the high-resolution DEMs were used to create and analyze longitudinal river profiles, and a Stream Length-gradient Index Map, both of which correlate well with known active structures. This study indicates that radar remote sensing can be used to identify tectonically active areas before employing extensive fieldwork and used in combination with traditional geological procedures enhances the amount and quality of the derived information.
    • Identifying bearded and ringed seal diet - a comparison of stomach contents, stable isotopes, fatty acids, and fecal dna

      Bryan, Anna Laura; Hundertmark, Kris; Horstmann-Dehn, Lara; Hardy, Sarah; Quakenbush, Lori (2014-08)
      Stomach contents, stable isotopes, fatty acids, and more recently fecal DNA are commonly used to infer the diet of marine mammals. However, how complementary or contradictory these methods are, especially when considering individual diet variability, remains poorly understood. This study assessed the differences in the dietary information resulting from stomach contents, stable isotopes, and fatty acids for adult bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus), and fishes identified from stomach contents and fecal DNA for bearded and ringed seals (Pusa hispida), harvested in Alaska for subsistence use. Stomach contents and fecal DNA provided information on recently consumed prey. In contrast, stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes of muscle and fatty acid profiles of blubber provided information on prey consumed and integrated over a longer time frame, but taxonomic resolution of prey was low. Overall, stomach contents provided the most dietary data, while fecal DNA delivered the least. Using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S gene fragments, only 40% of the fecal samples (12 bearded and one ringed seal) produced detectable DNA suitable for reference gene amplification. Only three fish species could be positively identified in the diet of seals (Arctic cod, Boreogadus saida; shorthorn sculpin, Myoxocephalus scorpius; and an unknown snailfish species, Liparidae) when using fecal DNA. In a dietary comparison, and despite differences in dietary time frames, the relative occurrence (RO) of prey from stomach contents and the mean proportions of prey source groups from a Bayesian stable isotope mixing model (SIAR) were similar. The proportions of indicator fatty acids from full-thickness blubber, such as 16:4n-1, 20:5n-3, 20:4n-6, 20:1n-9, 22:1n-11, and the presence of non-methylene-interrupted fatty acids were similar to other fatty acid studies of bearded seals in Alaska, and suggest a benthic diet. Overall, the methods yielded different, but not necessarily contradictory results.
    • Igneous rocks and structures of the Nixon Fork Mine, Alaska, and their relations to ores

      Perttu, Brian; Newberry, Rainer; Wallace, Wesley; Layer, Paul (2013-12)
      The Nixon Fork Mine is a high-grade Cu-Au skarn deposit located near the western contact of the 5 square km Late Cretaceous Mystery pluton with marble, 7 km southeast of the Iditarod-Nixon Fork (I-NF) fault. This fault strikes at ~060�, and can be traced for ~400 km, with a minimum dextral displacement of ~90 km. Close proximity suggests that the Nixon Fork deposit should have been affected by the I-NF fault. In order to assess the structural evolution, I analyzed the orientations of geologic structures. I transcribed 1172 structures from previous mapping (to assess structures) and converted 186 maps into Vulcan CAD software (to create a three-dimensional model). I also acquired ������Ar/�_��_Ar dates for eleven representative potassium-bearing minerals and rocks. I identified six different episodes of deformation, including intrusion of felsic dikes, intrusion of mafic dikes, two episodes likely related to the I-NF fault, and two other poorly constrained episodes. ������Ar/�_��_Ar dates show the skarn is significantly younger than the Mystery Creek pluton, indicating it was likely sourced from an unexposed pluton. The main skarn pipe can be approximated as a line oriented ~210�/65�, which is approximately the intersection of planes defined by felsic dikes and major veins.
    • Impact of Daily Arctic Sea Ice Variability in CAM3.0 during Fall and Winter

      Dammann, Dyre O.; Bhatt, Uma S.; Langen, Peter L.; Krieger, Jeremy R.; Zhang, Xiangdong (2013-03-15)
      Climate projections suggest that an ice-free summer Arctic Ocean is possible within several decades and with this comes the prospect of increased ship traffic and safety concerns. The daily sea ice concentration tendency in five Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations is compared with observations to reveal that many models underestimate this quantity that describes high-frequency ice movements, particularly in the marginal ice zone. To investigate whether high-frequency ice variability impacts the atmosphere, the Community Atmosphere Model, version 3.0 (CAM3.0), is forced by sea ice with and without daily fluctuations. Two 100-member ensemble experiments with daily varying (DAILY) and smoothly varying (SMTH) sea ice are conducted, along with a climatological control, for an anoma- lously low ice period (August 2006–November 2007). Results are presented for three periods: September 2006, October 2006, and December–February (DJF) 2006/07. The atmospheric response differs between DAILY and SMTH. In September, sea ice differences lead to an anomalous high and weaker storm activity over northern Europe. During October, the ice expands equatorward faster in DAILY than SMTH in the Siberian seas and leads to a local response of near-surface cooling. In DJF, there is a 1.5-hPa positive sea level pressure anomaly over North America, leading to anomalous northerly flow and anomalously cool continental U.S. temperatures. While the atmospheric responses are modest, the differences arising from high temporal frequency ice variability cannot be ignored. Increasing the accuracy of coupled model sea ice variations on short time scales is needed to improve short-term coupled model forecasts.
    • The impact of HLA-DM on peptide binding to MHC class II

      Templeton, Megan; Ferrante, Andrea; Kuhn, Thomas; Hueffer, Karsten (2016-05)
      Recognition of peptides bound to class II major histocompatibility complex (MHCII) molecules by T cell receptors of CD4+ T cells initiates an adaptive immune response. Analysis of the antigen presentation pathway indicates that elements of the epitope selection process are critical to generation of the peptide repertoire presented to T cells. Antigen presentation by dedicated cells (APCs) involves the intracellular fragmentation of protein antigens by cathepsins, binding of the derived peptide epitopes to MHCII with the participation of the peptide-editing molecule HLA-DM (DM), and subsequent transport to the surface for recognition. This thesis focuses on the energetics and structural flexibility of the peptide-MHCII complex, and their correlation with DM-susceptibility, to identify the criteria associated with the selection of peptides by APCs for subsequent presentation to T cells. Using the human MHCII HLA-DR (DR), and peptides derived from influenza H3 HA305-318 as test system, it was observed that, in the absence of DM, stable peptide binding is not reached through independent contributions of single-point interactions, but is a distributive process that involves the peptide-DR groove dyad in its entirety highlighting the inherent flexibility of the binding process. Here, DM mechanism is investigated in its ability to impact structural flexibility of the complex. Analysis of release from and binding to DR of a gamut of HA-derived peptides at two different levels of pH reveals that structural stability is reduced as a consequence of DM function. The results indicate that the outcome of DM activity is favoring the endurance of complexes with limited structural flexibility.
    • Impacts of storm on sea ice: from case study to climate scale analysis

      Peng, Liran; Zhang, Xiangdong; Collins, Richard; Fochesatto, Javier; Polyakov, Igor (2019-12)
      Recent studies have shown that intense and long-lasting storms potentially facilitate sea ice melting. Under the background of extratropical storm tracks poleward shift, significant reductions of Arctic sea ice coverage, and thinning of sea ice thickness over the last several decades, a better understanding on how storms impact sea ice mass balance is obviously of great importance to better predict future sea ice and the Arctic climate changes. This thesis presents a multi-scale study on how storms impact sea ice, consisting of three different parts of the effort. In the first part, we examined the impacts of the 2016 summer intense storm on sea ice changes over the Chukchi Sea using ship-borne observations. The results show that the intense storm can accelerate ice melt through enhanced upper-ocean mixing and upward heat transport. The satellite-observed long-term sea ice variations potentially can be impacted by many factors. In the second part, we first explore key physical processes controlling sea ice changes under no-storm condition. We examined and compared results from 25 sensitivity experiments using the NCAR's Community Earth System Model (CESM). We found that sea ice volume, velocity, and thickness are highly sensitive to perturbed air-ice momentum flux and sea ice strength. Increased sea ice strength or decreased air-ice momentum flux causes counter-clockwise rotation of the transpolar drift, resulting in an increase in sea ice export through Fram Strait and therefore reduction of the pan-Arctic sea ice thickness. Following four tracers released over the Arctic, we found the sea ice thickness distributions following those tracers are broader over the western Arctic and becomes narrower over the eastern Arctic. Additionally, thermodynamic processes are more dominant controlling sea ice thickness variations, especially over periphery seas. Over the eastern Arctic, dynamic processes play a more important role in controlling sea ice thickness variation. Previous studies show that thin ice responds to external perturbations much faster than the thick ice. Therefore, the impacts of storms on sea ice are expected to be different compared with the western/eastern Arctic and the entral/periphery seas. In the third part, we conduct a new composite analysis to investigate the storm impact on sea ice over seven regions for all storms spanning from 1979 to 2018. We focused on sea ice and storm changes over seven regions and found storms tend to have different short-term (two days before and after storm passage), mid-term (one-two weeks after storm passage), and long-term (from 1979 to 2018) impact on sea ice area over those regions. Over periphery seas (Chukchi, East Siberian, Laptev, Kara, and Barents Seas), storms lead to a short-term sea ice area decrease below the climatology, and a mid-term sea ice increase above the climatology. This behavior causes sea ice area to have a small correlation with the storm counts from 1979 to 2018, which suggest that storms have a limited long-term impact on sea ice area over periphery seas. Both the short term and mid-term storm impacts on sea ice area are confined within a 400 km radius circle with maximum impacts shown within a 200 km radius circle. Storms over the western Arctic (Chukchi, East Siberian, and Laptev Seas) have a stronger short-term and mid-term impact on sea ice area compared with the Eastern Arctic (Barents and Kara Seas). Storms over both Atlantic and Pacific entrance regions have a small impact on sea ice area, and storms over the Norwegian, Iceland, and Greenland Seas have the smallest impact on the sea ice area. Compared to the periphery seas, storms tend to have a stronger long-term impact on sea ice area over the central Arctic. The correlation coefficients between the storm count and sea ice area exceed 0.75.
    • The implementation and evaluation of a black carbon aerosol sampler used on an unmanned aircraft during the prescribed fire experiment RxCADRE

      Craft, Tara L.; Cahill, Caherine; Douglas, Thomas; Simpson, William (2014-12)
      Black carbon (BC) aerosols impact the earth's climate by absorbing solar radiation in the atmosphere and depositing on ice surfaces and lowering the albedo of those surfaces. Black carbon aerosols have been widely studied; however, using small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) for the airborne study of the vertical and horizontal concentrations of BC is an emerging field. Using UAS to study BC poses some challenges due to size and weight restrictions of the aircraft, as well as issues that arise when adapting ground based instrumentation for use on different aircraft. University of Alaska Fairbanks researchers successfully integrated and flew a microAeth AE-51 on a Boeing ScanEagle to measure the concentration of BC and other absorbing and scattering particles in the smoke plume from a prescribed fire experiment, RxCADRE, conducted at Eglin AFB, FL, during October and November 2012. The ScanEaglemounted microAeth successfully collected black carbon aerosols in the smoke plume. The optical particle sizing and mass loadings from an optical particle counter disagreed with the results from the microAeth, which measures absorbing aerosols. The microAeth was tested in the laboratory-using two optical particle sizers to verify the sizes and concentrations of laboratory-generated aerosols entering the instrument and determine the capabilities and limits of the instrument. The optical particle counters were used in other applications as well showing the versatility of the instruments in extreme conditions.
    • Implications for strain accommodation in an oblique subduction zone: new paleomagnetic and geologic data from the central Aleutian arc, Alaska

      Krutikov, Lena (2006-12)
      Oblique subduction results in partitioning of strain into arc-normal and arc-parallel components, and a complex pattern of upper plate deformation. Although partitioning of strain is observed in areas of oblique subduction around the world, the kinematics of strain accommodation are poorly understood. This is particularly true in the Aleutian arc because of a paucity of geologic and geophysical data. In the Aleutian arc, models previously proposed for forearc deformation have been characterized by clockwise rotation and westward translation of discrete tectonic blocks. This study utilizes two separate datasets to help constrain these mechanisms. The first step utilizes new high-resolution multibeam sonar data that provides a first detailed look at deformational structures on the seafloor. The second step is to examine the validity of paleomagnetic data previously collected from the arc, by re-measuring samples with improved methods. The multibeam sonar data reveal dense deformational patterns on the seafloor that suggest considerable diffuse strain between block boundaries. Remeasured paleomagnetic samples produce results that are similar to previous findings, but with reduced error bars and improved resolution. Younger rocks indicate little rotation, while samples from Amchtika Island indicate greater rotation than expected.
    • An improved method of ice nucleus measurement

      Shih, Chi-Fan G. (1982-09)
      Ice nuclei, which initiate the ice nucleation process at a higher temperature than the homogeneous nucleation temperature, are essential for the initiation of the ice phase in clouds. Unfortunately, no standard method has been established for the measurement of ice nucleus concentration. The filter technique is a promising candidate if the tendency for ice nucleus concentrations to decreases as the volume sampled increases can be explained. For this study, an improved ventilation method for the development of exposed filters was developed and tested. The results were compared with results obtained in a static diffusion chamber. The volume effect was observed to be less with the new dynamic system. Further work needs to be done to find the optimum flow rate in order to reduce the vapor depletion problem to a minimum. The ratio of total counts of dynamic and static system appears to be a promising evaluation index.
    • Improved Modeling Of Turbulent Transport: From Noise In Transport Models To The Parareal Algorithm Applied To Full Turbulence Codes

      Samaddar, Debasmita; Newman, David (2010)
      Turbulence and turbulent transport are ubiquitous in nature and are of fundamental importance in everything from the spread of pollution to confinement in fusion plasmas. In order to study this, turbulence models need to be as realistic as possible and one must also be able to evolve the turbulence and the profiles of the quantities of interest on transport (long) time scales. Improving turbulence simulations by the introduction of new techniques forms the basis of this research. One part of this work involved improving the performance of a 1D transport model by the addition of noise. On a more fundamental level, studying long time dynamics for turbulence simulations is very difficult even with the fastest computers available now or in the near future. To help overcome this difficulty, a new way of simulating turbulence has been presented, namely parallelizing in time. Time parallelization of a fully developed turbulent system is a new application. Parallelizing the space domain to computationally solve partial differential equations has been extensively used and is one of the most common forms of parallelization. In contrast, the Parareal Algorithm parallelizes the time domain and has been found to significantly reduce the computational wall time in many simpler systems. Despite its success in other less complex problems, it has not yet been successfully applied to a turbulent system (to the best of our knowledge). If efficiently applied, this algorithm will allow study of the turbulent transport dynamics on transport time scales - something that has heretofore been very difficult. In this work, the results of applying the Parareal Algorithm to simulations of drift wave turbulence in slab geometry in which the relative dominance of the polarization and E x B nonlinearities are tuned artificially, are presented. These turbulent systems are in many ways similar to neutral fluid turbulence models, so success of the Parareal scheme in them expands the prospect of a broader range of application to many other turbulent problems. This thesis also presents the results of a modification to the algorithm. A model to study and predict the parameters governing the convergence of the scheme is also explored.
    • An in vitro analysis of neuronal survival in response to hormones and photoperiod in the HVc of the songbird Junco hyemalis

      Humphries, Catherine Martin (2003-12)
      The ability of songbirds to sing is essential for their survival, proper reproductive behavior, and territorial establishment. Male and female juvenile passerine songbirds learn their song through the formation of a song template in their earliest days of life, first by listening to their parents, and then followed by auditory feedback against their own templates to crystallize their individual songs. However, in most passerine species, only the adult males actually sing on a seasonal basis with little to no singing during winter, followed by a phase of song production in the spring in correlation with increased plasma testosterone concentration and extended photoperiods. While the production of new neurons in the song system of adult males is continuous throughout the year, a counterbalancing turnover of these neurons must exist until the spring, when a three- to four-fold decrease in dying HVc (hyperstriatum pars ventralis caudale or higher vocal center) neurons in males initiates song production. We hypothesized that testosterone, under the influence of increased photoperiod, attenuates the rate of programmed cell death (apoptosis) of newly generated neurons migrating into the HVc song nucleus in the wild arctic songbird Junco hyemalis. Using an organotypic culture system, we examined the effect of testosterone and [beta]-estradiol on the degree of apoptosis in the HVc obtained from photo stimulated and non-photo stimulated male and female juncos. We employed a TUNEL assay and BrdU-labeling to detect and quantify apoptosis. We found that hormonal treatment with testosterone, and [beta]-estradiol in photostimulated birds only, extends the lifespan of cells within the HVc compared to controls, as shown by BrdU labeling, and decreasing apoptosis, as shown by TUNEL assay.
    • In-Situ monitoring of sea ice dielectric properties and implications for the tracking of seasonal evolution of microstructure

      O'Sadnick, Megan; Eicken, Hajo; Truffer, Martin; Pettit, Erin (2015-08)
      The microstructure of sea ice evolves throughout the seasonal cycle, from ice formation in the fall through melt in the summer. Observations of this seasonal evolution and its effect on the interaction between sea ice and the surrounding environment face fundamental challenges, however. Any removal of ice cores to obtain data on ice properties results in the loss of brine and alterations of microstructure. The remoteness of field sites also limits observations. Methods to monitor sea ice microstructure continuously and non-destructively are therefore being explored. This thesis examines the potential for the electric properties of sea ice, highly sensitive to the brine distribution within the ice, to serve as a proxy for microstructure and hence other ice transport properties. Throughout the Spring of 2013 and 2014, measurements of low frequency complex dielectric permittivity in the range of 10 Hz to 95 kHz were made in landfast ice off the coast of Barrow, Alaska. Temperature and salinity measurements and ice samples were collected for ice microstructure characterization. Results reveal a significant correlation between measurements of complex dielectric permittivity, brine volume fraction, and microstructural characteristics including pore volume and connectivity. The influence of temperature and salinity variations and further explanation of the relationships between ice properties, microstructural characteristics, and dielectric behavior are explored through multivariate analysis of the combined data set. The findings are discussed in terms of future research directions and promising approaches for in-situ ice property monitoring based on dielectric measurements.
    • Increases And Fluctuations In Thermal Activity At Mount Wrangell, Alaska (Volcano, Glacier)

      Motyka, Roman John (1983)
      The objectives of this study were to document and interpret changes in thermal activity at two of three craters located on the rim of the ice-filled summit caldera of Mount Wrangell, an active glacier-clad shield volcano in south-central Alaska. The technique of "glacier calorimetry" was developed, through which changes in the volume of glacier ice in the craters and caldera were measured and related to changes in heat flow. Chemical analyses of gases and acid-thermal waters provided information on the underlying heat source. In 1965, thermal activity began increasing at both the North and West Craters. During the ensuing years, heat flow increased significantly at the North Crater, although in a highly fluctuating manner, while gradually declining at the West Crater. Pulses in heat flow at the North Crater occurred in 1966-68 and 1972-74, with both pulses followed by a four-year decline in activity. Increases in heat flow began again in 1978-79 and have continued unabated through the summer of 1983. Over 80 percent of the 4.4 x 10('7)m('3) ice volume within the crater in 1966 was melted by 1982, and the meltwaters have drained or evaporated from the crater. The subsequent rapid development of numerous fumaroles, the large dry-gas proportion of SO(,2) (27 percent), and the inferred presence of gaseous HCl indicate that a shallow degassing magma body is the source of heat driving the thermal system. Seismically induced fracturing above the magma body is hypothesized to explain the initial increases in thermal activity. The resulting massive influx of meltwaters into the subsurface is suggested as the cause of the fluctuations in heat flow. The continued increase in activity since 1979 suggests that the volume of meltwater being generated is no longer sufficient to quench the heat source beneath the crater.
    • Induction of heat shock proteins in cold- adapted and coldacclimated Fishes

      Teigen, Laura Elizabeth; O'Brien, Kristin; Taylor, Barbara; Podlutsky, Andrej (2014-05)
      I examined the effects of oxidative stress and changes in temperature on heat shock protein (Hsp) levels in cold-adapted and cold-acclimated fishes. Adaptation of Antarctic notothenioids to cold temperature is correlated with high levels of Hsps, thought to minimize cold-induced protein denaturation. Hsp70 levels were measured in red- and white-blooded Antarctic notothenioid fishes exposed to their critical thermal maximum (CTMax), 4°C warm acclimated, and notothenioids from different latitudes. I determined the effect of cold acclimation on Hsp levels and the role of sirtuins in regulating Hsp expression and changes in metabolism in threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, cold-acclimated to 8°C. Levels of Hsps do not increase in Antarctic notothenioids exposed to their CTMax, and warm acclimation reduced levels of Hsp70. Hsp70 levels were higher in Antarctic notothenioids compared to a temperate notothenioid and higher in white-blooded notothenioids compared to red-blooded notothenioids, despite higher oxidative stress levels in red-blooded fish, suggesting Hsp70 does not mitigate oxidative stress. Cold acclimation of stickleback resulted in tissue-specific increases in some Hsps and sirtuins. My research indicates that cold acclimation increases Hsp levels, and moderate increases in temperature reduce Hsp levels in cold-adapted fishes. Together, these data lend support to the hypothesis that cold denatures proteins.
    • Infection rates, parasitemia levels, and genetic diversity of hematozoa in New World waterfowl

      Smith, Matthew M.; Lindberg, Mark; McCracken, Kevin; Winker, Kevin; Pearce, John (2014-12)
      Blood parasites can limit the productivity of birds and increase the vulnerability of isolated and naïve populations to extinction. I examined 804 blood samples collected from 11 species of South American waterfowl to assess infection by Haemoproteus, Plasmodium and/or Leucocytozoon parasites. In addition, I strove to develop a new molecular tool to quickly and accurately determine relative parasitemia rates of Leucocytozoon parasites in avian blood. I used samples collected from waterfowl in interior Alaska (n = 105) to develop and optimize a real-time, quantitative PCR methodology using TaqMan fluorogenic probes. Molecular screening produced an apparent prevalence rate of 3.1% for hematozoa infections in South American waterfowl samples, and analysis of hematozoa mitochondrial DNA produced 12 distinct hematozoa haplotypes, four of which were identical to hematozoa lineages previously found infecting waterfowl in North America. Phylogenetic analyses of hematozoa DNA revealed close relationships between parasite lineages infecting waterfowl on both continents. Our qPCR assay showed high levels of sensitivity (91%) and specificity (100%) in detecting Leucocytozoon DNA from host blood when compared to results from a well-used nested-PCR protocol. Additionally, statistical results of a linear regression supported correlation between relative parasitemia estimates from our qPCR assay and greater numbers of parasites observed on blood smears (R2 = 0.67, P = 0.003).