• Role Of Waves On The Circulation Of The Arctic Middle Atmosphere: Rayleigh Lidar Measurements And Analysis

      Thurairajah, Brentha (2009)
      Rayleigh lidar measurements of the upper stratosphere and mesosphere are made on a routine basis over Poker Flat Research Range (PFRR), Chatanika, Alaska, (65�N, 147�W). Rayleigh lidar measurements have yielded high resolution temperature and density profiles in the 40-80 km altitude. These measurements are used to calculate gravity wave activity in the 40-50 km altitude. The thermal structure of the stratosphere and mesosphere is documented using an eight year data set, and the role of small scale gravity waves on the large scale meridional circulation is analyzed in terms of the synoptic structure of the Arctic stratospheric vortex, Aleutian anticyclone, and planetary wave activity. The monthly mean temperature indicates colder January temperatures that appear to be due to the increase in frequency of occurrence of stratospheric warming events from 1997-2004. The gravity wave potential energy density is analyzed during stratospheric warming events in two experimental time periods. From the first study consisting of three winters, 2002-2003, 2003-2004, and 2004-2005, the first direct measurement of suppression of gravity wave activity during the formation of an elevated stratopause following the 2003-2004 stratospheric warming event is presented. The gravity wave potential energy density at Chatanika is positively correlated with horizontal wind speeds in the stratosphere, and indicates that the wave activity in the 4050 km altitude is partially modulated by the background flow. In the second study with more recent winters of 2007-2008 and 2008-2009, no systematic difference in the magnitude of potential energy density between the vortex displacement warming event during the 2007-2008 winter and vortex split warming event during the 2008-2009 winter is found. However, the low correlation between gravity wave potential energy and horizontal wind speed after the first warming in January 2008, and a higher correlation after the January 2009 warming suggests that while the gravity wave activity after the 2009 warming is modulated by the background flow, other wave sources modulate the gravity wave activity after the 2008 warming.