Solitary confinement can be summarized as the state of being alone in a prison cell for 22 to 24 hours a day with minimal human interaction, little to no natural light, property restrictions, visitation constraints, and the inability to participate in group activities and communal meals. Solitary confinement can go by many names; it can be referred to as lockdown, Security or Special Housing Units (SHU), Special Management Units (SMU), administrative segregation, disciplinary or punitive segregation, restrictive housing, or "the hole". Solitary confinement is utilized for many purposes, primarily for the health and safety of themselves and others. It was first intended as a means of rehabilitation. However, instead, it has contributed to negative psychological and physiological effects on prisoners. There is argument for and against the use of solitary confinement and reformation efforts are being made to reduce solitary confinement. In an attempt to provide programming to segregated prisoners and reduce the amount of time that prisoners are in their cells, various correctional institutions have implemented nature imagery programs to reduce violent behavior and physiological states. Nature Imagery in Prisons Project (NIPP) was the first program of its kind and has laid the groundwork for other correctional institutions to follow. Programs such as this are designed for segregated prisoners and are used as a means of rehabilitation for these individuals as they prepare for their return to the community or to general prison population.
Master's Project (M.A.) University of Alaska Fairbanks, 2018
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