• Quasi-static granular flow of ice mélange

      Amundson, Jason M.; Burton, J. C. (American Geophysical Union, 2018-09-11)
      We use Landsat 8 imagery to generate ice mélange velocity fields at Greenland’s three most productive outlet glaciers: Jakobshavn Isbræ, Helheim Glacier, and Kangerdlugssuaq Glacier. Winter velocity fields are generally steady and highly uniform. Summer velocity fields, on the other hand, tend to be much more variable and can be uniform, compressional, or extensional. We rarely observe compressional flow at Jakobshavn Isbræ or extensional flow at Helheim Glacier, while both are observed at Kangerdlugssuaq Glacier. Transverse velocity profiles from all three locations are suggestive of viscoplastic flow, in which deformation occurs primarily in shear zones along the fjord walls. We analyze the transverse profiles in the context of quasi-static flow using continuum rheologies for granular materials and find that the force per unit width that ice mélange exerts on glacier termini increases exponentially with the ice mélange length-to-width ratio and the effective coefficient of friction. Our estimates of ice mélange resistance are consistent with other independent estimates and suggest that ice mélange may be capable of inhibiting iceberg calving events, especially during winter. Moreover, our results provide geophysical-scale support for constitutive relationships for granular materials and suggest a potential avenue for modeling ice mélange dynamics with continuum models.