• Radiation transport in cloudy and aerosol loaded atmospheres

      Kylling, Arve; Stamnes, Knut; Shaw, Glenn E.; Weeks, Wilford W.; Rees, Manfred H.; Smith, Roger W. (1992)
      The equation for radiation transport in vertical inhomogeneous absorbing, scattering, and emitting atmospheres is derived from first principles. It is cast in a form amenable to solution, and solved using the discrete ordinate method. Based on the discrete ordinate solution a new computationally efficient and stable two-stream algorithm which accounts for spherical geometry is developed. The absorption and scattering properties of atmospheric molecules and particulate matter is discussed. The absorption cross sections of the principal absorbers in the atmosphere, H$\sb2$O, CO$\sb2$ and O$\sb3,$ vary erratically and rapidly with wavelength. To account for this variation, the correlated-k distribution method is employed to simplify the integration over wavelength necessary for calculation of warming/cooling rates. The radiation model, utilizing appropriate absorption and scattering cross sections, is compared with ultraviolet radiation measurements. The comparison suggests that further experiments are required. Ultraviolet (UV) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) is computed for high and low latitudes for clear and cloudy skies under different ozone concentrations. An ozone depletion increases UV-B radiation detrimental to life. Water clouds diminish UV-B, UV-A and PAR for low surface albedos and increase them for high albedos. The relative amount of harmful UV-B increases on overcast days. The daily radiation doses exhibit small monthly variations at low latitudes but vary by a factor of 3 at high latitudes. Photodissociation and warming/cooling rates are calculated for clear skies, aerosol loaded atmospheres, and atmospheres with cirrus and water clouds. After major volcanic explosions aerosols change O$\sb3$ and NO$\sb2$ photodissociation rates by 20%. Both aged aerosols and cirrus clouds have little effect on photodissociation rates. Water clouds increase $(\sim$100%) photodissociation rates that are sensitive to visible radiation above the cloud. Solar warming rates vary by 50% in the stratosphere due to changing surface albedo. Water clouds have a similar effect. The net effect of cirrus clouds is to warm the troposphere and the stratosphere. Only extreme volcanic aerosol loadings affect the terrestrial warming rate, causing warming below the aerosol layer and cooling above it. Aerosols give increased solar warming above the aerosol layer and cooling below it.