Browsing Physics by Subject "ionized gases"
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Two-dimensional Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal modes in a magnetized plasma with kinetic effects from electrons and ionsElectrostatic structures are observed in various of space environments including the auroral acceleration region, the solar wind region and the magnetosphere. The Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal (BGK) mode, one of the non-linear solutions to the Vlasov-Poisson system, is a potential explanation to these phenomena. Specifically, two dimensional (2D) BGK modes can be constructed through solving the Vlasov-Poisson-Ampère system with the assumption of a uniform ion background. This thesis discusses the existence and features of the 2D BGK modes with kinetic effects from both electrons and ions. Specifically, we construct electron or ion BGK modes with finite temperature ratio between ions and electrons. More general cases, the electron-ion 2D BGK mode with the participation of both non-Boltzmann electron and ion distributions are constructed and analyzed as well.