• Proton transport and auroral optical emissions

      Shen, Deli; Rees, M. H.; Deehr, C. S.; Lummerzheim, D.; Smith, R.; Stamnes, K.; Stenbaek-Neilsen, H. (1993)
      The hydrogen lines are the characteristic emissions of proton aurora and have been used to study the impact of protons upon the atmosphere. Observations of hydrogen emission on the long wavelength side of the unshifted lines were not explained by previous theories. To explain the observed optical emissions, a numerical code is developed to solve the one dimensional, steady state, linearly coupled transport equations of H$\sp+$/H in a dipole magnetic field. For the first time, the mirror force is included in the transport equations to produce backscattered particles which are responsible for emission at wavelengths longward of the unshifted lines. Both downward and upward particle intensities of H$\sp+$/H are calculated. The mirror reflectivities of energy and particles are defined, and their dependences on proton input spectra and pitch angle distributions are studied. The results show that the mirror reflectivity increases both with characteristic energy and with pitch angle of the input proton flux, but is more sensitive to angular distributions than to energy spectra. Energy deposition rate, ionization rate, H$\sb\alpha$, H$\sb\beta$ and Nitrogen First Negative bands emission rates and profiles are calculated. Calculated fluxes of H$\sp+$/H and emission properties of Hydrogen Balmer lines are compared with a rocket measurement. The efficiency for production of the Balmer lines and the Nitrogen First Negative bands is obtained in terms of the energy input rate and the H$\sp+$ particle flux. A Doppler shift of about 3.0 A toward the blue for magnetic-zenith profiles of H$\sb\alpha$ is obtained, compared with observational results of $6.0 \pm 2.0$ A. The calculated emissions on the red side of the unshifted hydrogen atomic emission lines when convolved with the instrumental function accounts for the observed emissions on the long wavelength side of the unshifted hydrogen Balmer lines.
    • Dependence of the ionospheric convection pattern on the conductivity and the southward IMF

      Shue, Jih-Hong; Kan, J. R.; Akasofu, S.-I.; Biswas, N. N.; Rees, M. H.; Weimer, D. R. (1993)
      Electric field measurements from the DE-2 satellite were used to determine the location of the convection reversal boundary and the potential around this boundary under a combination of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and auroral electrojet conditions. The electric potential is obtained by the integration of the electric fields. The convection reversal boundary is defined in this study as where the potential has its absolute maximum and minimum values. The data were sorted into 18 categories according to two levels of the negative IMF $B\sb{z},$ three ranges of IMF $B\sb{y},$ and two substorm phases. The data were fit with both continuous and discontinuous boundaries to get a functional representation of boundary potentials and locations. A simple model is constructed by solving the Laplace's equation in order to illustrate the obtained boundary potentials and locations. The results show that the enhanced electric field in the midnight sector is associated with an intense westward electrojet current. It can also be seen that the convection reversal boundary is found to be discontinuous near midnight. The discontinuous convection reversal boundary on the dayside is related to the merging near dayside cusp region. The discontinuous convection reversal boundary on the nightside is related to the conductivity enhancement. The intrusion of the dawn cell into the dusk cell is due to nonuniformity of the Hall conductivity in the ionosphere. Another model is constructed by solving the current continuity equation with field-aligned current and nonuniform conductivity added. It can be found that a secondary convection reversal, which is detached from the dusk-cell convection reversal, appears in the evening-midnight sector within the polar cap when the IMF $B\sb{y}$ is positive and the conductivity is nonuniform. This convection reversal is attributed to be created by the B $\times$ V dynamo. Also, the inclusion of the region 2 field-aligned current leads to an enhancement of the electric field in the region between the region 1 and region 2 currents.
    • An investigation of the dynamics of the mesopause: Fabry-Perot observations of winds and temperatures from nightglow emissions

      Conner, James F.; Smith, R. W. (1994)
      This work is a study of the behavior of tidal and planetary waves in the upper-middle atmosphere near the geographic south pole. This is accomplished with a characterization of the dynamic state of these motions. I used ground-based Fabry-Perot Spectrometer (FPS) measurements of the multiple-line, $P\sb1$(2)$\sb{c,d}$, nightglow emissions from the X$\sp2$II band of the neutral OH* molecule. I developed analytical techniques to determine a space and time distribution of spectral amplitudes and phases for the dynamic parameters of kinetic temperature and neutral wind in the OH* layer. Spectral analysis of the variations in this layer indicate the existence of two groups: a planetary wave group (periods of ${\sim}$1-10 days), with eastward phase progression, and a near semi-diurnal group (periods of ${\sim}$8-13 hours), with westward phase progression. Specific periods vary slightly for different years; this is most likely due to remote propagation conditions. Further separation of each group shows the wind oscillations exhibit wave-number one behavior with associated wave-number zero temperature oscillations, (with a few exceptions). The periodicities in the planetary group neutral wind motions are consistent with the model results of Salby, 1984, for propagation to high latitudes through realistic mean flows. The characterization of the dynamics of this layer has led to the discovery of a basic azimuthal asymmetry in the distribution of spectral amplitude for a given oscillation, that is, preferred azimuths. These preferred azimuths appear to be associated with changes in the direction, not the amplitude, of a cross-polar mean wind. This finding, in conjunction with the evanescence of some features, uncovered two cases of planetary wave dissipation. These occur when oscillations attempt to maintain their preferred alignment with a changing mean wind direction resulting in a decay of wind amplitude and a burst of thermal oscillation. Both cases occur at the same time. Coincident with these decays are enhancements in the wind and thermal energy of other, longer period, oscillations which share the same azimuthal preferences. Also coincident is an acceleration of the mean wind.
    • A study of the link between cloud microphysics and climate change

      Hu, Yong-Xiang; Stamnes, Knut; Musgrave, David; Rees, Manfred; Shaw, Glenn E.; Tsay, Shee-Chee; Watkins, Brenton (1994)
      The climate related cloud radiative properties (fluxes and heating rates) are found to be determined by the second and the third moments of the cloud droplet size distribution. The detailed distribution of the cloud droplet size is unnecessary to obtain for climate purposes. An accurate parameterization of cloud optical properties suitable for climate models is developed. A new radiative-convective model has been developed and used for studying cloud-climate interactions. The energy balance at the Earth-atmosphere interface is treated in a self-consistent manner which avoids artificial tuning. The cloud radiative properties are accurately incorporated and are suitable for sensitivity studies of cloud-radiation-climate interactions. A sensitivity study of role of the cloud microphysical properties in the climate system is performed by studying the impact of cloud radiative forcing on the equilibrium state temperature. The cloud equivalent radius is found to be a very important variable in the climate system. A climate sensitivity study is performed to highlight the important role of the cloud absorption. An adjoint radiative transfer method is developed for use in the cloudy and aerosol-loaded atmospheres. The physical meaning of the adjoint radiative properties are discussed. The method is expected to be useful in climate modeling and remote sensing studies. A preliminary study of the atmospheric irreversibility is performed to elucidate the connection between cloud microphysical properties and the macrophysical direction of global climate. A variational principle which describes the macrophysical character of the climate system is established.
    • A simulation study of three-dimensional magnetic reconnection

      Ma, Zhi-Wei; Lee, L. C.; Kan, J. R.; Shaw, G. E.; Smith, R. W.; Hawkins, J. G. (1994)
      The magnetic reconnection process plays an important role in the interaction between the solar wind and the magnetosphere. It leads to the transfer of energy from the solar wind into the magnetosphere. In this thesis, we study three-dimensional (3D) aspects of magnetic reconnection based on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. First, we examine the magnetic field topology of magnetic flux ropes formed in multiple X line reconnection (MXR). It is found that the magnetic field topology depends on the relative extent and location of the two neighboring X lines. Magnetic flux ropes with either smooth or frayed ends are obtained in our simulations. For magnetic flux ropes with smooth ends, a major amount of magnetic flux is connected at each end to only one side of magnetopause. Second, the evolution of the core magnetic field in the magnetic flux tube is studied for various magnetic reconnection processes. We find that the 3D cases always lead to a larger enhancement of core field than the corresponding 2D cases since plasma can be squeezed out of the flux tube in the third direction. The MXR process gives rise to a larger increase of the core field than the single X line reconnection process. The core magnetic field can be enhanced to three times the ambient magnetic field strength in the 3D MXR process. Finally, we examine the generation and propagation of Alfven waves and field-aligned currents in the 3D reconnection process. For cases with a zero guide field, it is found that a large portion of the field-aligned currents ($\sim$40%) is located in the closed field line region. Both the pressure gradient term and inertia term contribute to the generation of field-aligned currents. For cases with nonzero guide field, one sense of field-aligned currents is dominant due to the presence of the initial field-aligned current. In these cases, the inertia term makes a major contribution to the redistribution of field-aligned currents. The influence of the initial guide field on the longitudinal shift of the current reversal site is found to be consistent with observations.
    • Magnetic reconnection in the presence of sheared plasma flow

      La Belle-Hamer, Annette Louise; Lee, L. C. (1994)
      Classical models of magnetic reconnection consist of a small diffusion region bounded by two slow shocks, across which the plasma is accelerated. Most space plasma current sheets separate two different plasmas, violating symmetry conditions across the current sheet. One form of asymmetry is a sheared plasma flow. In this thesis, I investigate the magnetic reconnection process in the presence of a shear flow across the current sheet using two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. The results show that only for sheared flow below the average Alfven velocity of the inflow regions can steady state magnetic reconnection occur. A detailed examination of the Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions reveals that the two slow shocks of earlier models are replaced by a strong intermediate shock and a weaker slow shock in the presence of shear flow. Both symmetric and asymmetric density profiles are examined. Depending upon the direction of the flow in the adjacent inflow region, the effects from the sheared flow and the effects from the density asymmetry will compete with or enhance each other. The results are applied to the dayside and flank regions of the magnetosphere. For tailward flow in the flanks, the two asymmetries compete making the magnetic field transition layer broad with the high speed flow contained within the transition region. For the dayside region, the magnetic field transition region is thin and the accelerated flow is earthward of the sharp current layer (magnetopause). These results are consistent with the data. A velocity shear in the invariant direction was examined under otherwise symmetric conditions. With the magnetic field initially only in the $x-y$ plane, $B\sb{z},$ and consequently field-aligned current, is generated by the initial $v\sb{z}.$ The field-aligned current depends on the velocity profiles in all directions. For a velocity sheared in both the z and the y direction, the results show a very localized region of large field-aligned currents.
    • Magnetospheric imaging of EUV emissions at 83.4 and 30.4 nm wavelengths

      Garrido, Dante Espino; Smith, R. W. (1994)
      Magnetospheric images are constructed from resonant scattering of emissions by He$\sp+$ 30.4-nm and O$\sp+$ 83.4-nm ions from different spatial locations to study the structure of the intensities and its relation to the distribution of He$\sp+$ and O$\sp+$ ions around the Earth. The image intensities at these EUV wavelengths were obtained from a knowledge of ion scattering rates and available data on ion densities. This particular approach is called forward modelling and consists of the calculation of simulated EUV images of the magnetosphere. Different regions in the magnetosphere have been considered in this study to determine the dependence of the image intensities on ion energies and ion drift speeds with respect to the Sun-Earth line. Hot O$\sp+$ ions in the energy range from 1 keV to 50 keV are present in the plasma sheet with typical densities of the order of 0.1 ions cm$\sp{-3}$ arising during disturbed times. Image intensities of the order of a few millirayleighs were obtained in our simulations for these densities. During quiet times the densities are of the order of 0.05 ions cm$\sp{-3}.$ The reduction of the image intensities as a result of Doppler shifts caused by ion motion relative to the Sun-Earth line is discussed in detail and the effects of ion dynamics (particle acceleration) in the polar cap on the image intensities have also been analyzed for both He$\sp+$ and O$\sp+$ ions. The possibility of detecting polar outflows may also depend on the location of the imager. Simulated images of the plasmasphere and trough regions in both 30.4-nm and 83.4-nm wavelengths have been obtained to reflect the relative abundance of the ions in these regions. Photometric intensities of He$\sp+$ at 30.4 nm were obtained from a spinning rocket at an altitude of 435 km. The different viewing angles covered a wide range of regions in the magnetosphere, and this particular rocket geometry offered the possibility of obtaining the He$\sp+$ ion distribution from the measured intensities. This method (forward inversion) can be applied to 2-D images and it is shown that it is possible to extract 3-D ion distributions from the images.
    • Nitrogen oxides in the arctic stratosphere: Implications for ozone abundances

      Slusser, James Robert; Stamnes, Knut; Shaw, Glenn; Benner, Richard; Watkins, Brenton; Filyushkin, Victor; Smith, Roger (1994)
      In the high latitude winter stratosphere, NO$\sb2$ sequesters chlorine compounds which are extremely efficient at destroying ozone. During the nighttime, NO$\sb2$ reacts with ozone to form $\rm N\sb2 O\sb5$ which acts as a reservoir of NO$\sb2$. Under heavy aerosol loading, $\rm N\sb2O\sb5$ may react with water on aerosol surfaces to form HNO$\sb3$, a reservoir more resistant to photolysis. This heterogeneous reaction results in reduced NO$\sb2$ concentration when the sun returns at the end of the winter. A spectrograph system has been developed to measure scattered zenith skylight and thereby determine stratospheric NO$\sb2$ slant column abundance. Conversion of the measured slant column abundance to vertical column abundance requires dividing by the air mass. The air mass is the enhancement in the optical path for the scattered twilight as compared to a vertical path. Air mass values determined using a multiple scattering radiative transfer code have been compared to those derived using a Monte Carlo code and were found to agree to within 6% at a 90$\sp\circ$ solar zenith angle for a stratospheric absorber. Six months of NO$\sb2$ vertical column abundance measured over Fairbanks during the winter 1992-93 exhibited the daylight diminished and increased as the sunlight hours lengthened. The overall seasonal behavior was similar to high-latitude measurements made in the Southern Hemisphere. The ratios of morning to evening column abundance were consistent with predictions based on gas-phase chemistry. The possible heterogeneous reaction of $\rm N\sb2O\sb5$ on sulfate aerosols was investigated using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer measurements of $\rm HNO\sb3$ column abundance and lidar determinations of the aerosol profile. Using an estimated $\rm N\sb2O\sb5$ column abundance and aerosol profile as input to a simple model, significant $\rm HNO\sb3$ production was expected. No increase in $\rm HNO\sb3$ column abundance was measured. From this set of data, it was not possible to determine whether significant amounts of $\rm N\sb2O\sb5$ were converted to $\rm HNO\sb3$ by this heterogeneous reaction. Better estimates of the $\rm N\sb2O\sb5$ and aerosol profile, and a more continuous set of $\rm HNO\sb3$ measurements, are needed to determine if $\rm HNO\sb3$ was actually produced.
    • The generalized Ohm's law in collisionless magnetic reconnection

      Cai, Heng-Jin; Lee, L. C.; Jiang, T. M.; Morack, J. L.; Sentman, D. D.; Swift, D. W. (1995)
      Magnetic reconnection is an important process in space environments. As a result of magnetic reconnection, the magnetic field topology changes, which requires the breakdown of the frozen-in condition in ideal magnetofluids. In a collisional plasma, the resistivity associated with Coulomb collisions of charged particles is responsible for the breakdown of frozen-in condition. In a collisionless plasma, however, the cause of the breakdown of frozen-in condition remains unanswered. We address this problem by investigating the generalized Ohm's law and the force balance near magnetic neutral lines based on two-dimensional particle simulations. In a particle simulation with one active species, it is found that a weakly anisotropic and skewed velocity distribution is formed near the magnetic X line, leading to the presence of off-diagonal elements of plasma pressure tensor. The gradients of the off-diagonal pressure terms transport plasma momentum away from the X line to balance the reconnection electric field. The presence of the reconnection electric field results in the breakdown of frozen-in condition. The importance of both electron and ion off-diagonal pressure tensor terms in the generalized Ohm's law near neutral lines is further confirmed in full particle simulations. The generation of the off-diagonal pressure terms can be explained in terms of the thermal dispersion of particle motions and the response of particle distribution function in the electric and magnetic fields near the neutral lines. In the particle simulations, we also find the presence of a new dynamo process, in which a large amount of new magnetic flux near the magnetic O line is generated. This dynamo process is not allowed in resistive magnetofluids. However, in a collisionless plasma, the plasma inertia and momentum transport due to the off-diagonal plasma pressure terms can lead to E $\cdot$ J < 0 near the magnetic O line and make the dynamo process possible.
    • Formation of solar prominences and eruption of solar magnetic arcade systems

      Choe, Gwang-Son; Lee, Lou-Chuang; Akasofu, Syun-Ichi; Roederer, Juan G.; Swift, Daniel W.; Watkins, Brenton J. (1995)
      Formation and eruption of solar prominences, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and solar flares are the most magnificent phenomena among solar activities. Observations show that there is an interrelationship among these events and that their manifestation is conditioned by certain common photospheric signatures. One of them is the increase in magnetic shear. In this thesis, the evolution of the solar atmosphere is studied by numerical simulations with photospheric motions as boundary conditions. Firstly, mechanisms of prominence formation are investigated. It is found that prominences can be formed by the development of a thermal instability (1) in a rapidly expanding magnetic arcade, (2) in a magnetic island created by magnetic reconnection or (3) in the current sheet between two bipolar arcades. Secondly, the quasi-static evolution of a magnetic arcade subject to footpoint shearing is studied under the ideal MHD condition. Three distinct evolutionary phases are found, in the last of which a current layer develops and grows indefinitely with the increasing shear. Force-free field solutions are also constructed and compared with dynamic solutions. Finally, resistive evolutions of magnetic arcades are investigated imposing resistivity on the pre-sheared magnetic fields. It is found that there is a critical amount of shear, over which magnetic reconnection can take place to create a magnetic island. The effects of different values and spatial patterns of resistivity are studied. With a localized resistivity, most of principal features in solar eruptive processes are reproduced. A comparative study is made between the numerical results and observations.
    • Observations and generation mechanisms of slow-mode waves in the magnetosheath

      Yan, Ming; Lee, Lou; Craven, John; Hawkins, Joseph; Sentman, Dave; Watkins, Brenton (1995)
      The interaction of solar wind with the geomagnetic field leads to the formation of the bow shock, magnetosheath, and magnetopause. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) slow-mode structures with a plasma density enhancement and magnetic field depression have been observed to appear frequently in the inner magnetosheath. In addition, the slow-mode structures usually consist of slow-mode waves with a smaller length scale. These slow-mode structures and waves are studied in this thesis through satellite observations and numerical simulations. We find, through satellite observations, that some of the slow-mode structures are associated with Alfven waves in the solar wind. On the other hand, simulations show that slow-mode waves are generated through the interactions between the bow shock and interplanetary shocks, magnetosonic waves, rotational discontinuities, or Alfven waves. The generated slow-mode waves stay in the inner magnetosheath for a long time (about 15 minutes) before the wave energy is convected away tailward. Of particular importance are the interactions between the bow shock and interplanetary rotational discontinuities or Alfven waves. These interactions generate a region with an enhanced plasma density and depressed magnetic field, which is very similar to the slow-mode structures observed in the inner magnetosheath. Based on observations and simulations, it is suggested that the interactions of various types of solar wind fluctuations with the bow shock may lead to the frequent appearance of slow-mode structures and waves in the inner magnetosheath. The generated slow-mode structures have strong pressure variations, and may impinge on the magnetopause as strong pressure pulses.
    • Ozone depletion and biologically relevant ultraviolet radiation

      Zeng, Jun; Stamnes, Knut; Benner, Richard; Bowling, Sue Ann; Eslinger, David; Kawasaki, Koji; Watkins, Brenton (1995)
      An atmospheric radiative transfer model is used to calculate surface spectral ultraviolet irradiance under cloud-free conditions, and compared with measurements made at Lauder, New Zealand (45$\sp\circ{S}$, 170$\sp\circ{E})$ before and after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo, and including a snow-covered surface. The ratios of diffuse to direct irradiance depend critically on solar elevation, surface albedo, and aerosol extinction. Ozone changes have pronounced effects on the global UVB irradiance, but have only a minor effect on these ratios. The comparison suggests that the ultraviolet radiation exposure can be computed with confidence for clear sky conditions, if the appropriate atmospheric pressure and temperature profiles, ozonesonde data, surface albedo, and aerosol optical properties are available. The total ozone abundances are derived by using ground-based UV irradiance measurements and compared with TOMS in Antarctica and the Arctic from 1990 to 1994. The comparisons show that they are generally in good agreement. Possible reasons for the discrepancies between the two methods are discussed. The equivalent cloud optical depths are also inferred from these data. Ozone depletion can also increase the penetration of ultraviolet radiation into the aquatic system. A coupled atmosphere-ocean radiative transfer model is used to investigate the effect of ozone depletion on UV penetration through the atmosphere and into the underlying water column. Comparisons between model computations and in situ measurements of irradiances made in Antarctic water show good agreement in the UV spectral range between 300 and 350 nm. The ratio of UVB (280-320 nm) to total (280-700 nm) irradiance also compared well. For a given ozone reduction the largest relative increase of UVB radiation arriving at the surface and penetrating to various depths in the ocean occurs at large solar zenith angles. At high latitudes the most pronounced increase in UVB exposure due to an ozone depletion occurs in the early spring, when ozone depletion is expected to be the most severe. The sensitivities of irradiance reflectance and diffuse attenuation coefficients to solar zenith angle, sky conditions, and chlorophyll concentration are discussed by using a coupled atmosphere-ocean radiative transfer model. The irradiance reflectance is sensitive to solar zenith angle, cloud cover, and chlorophyll concentration; the diffuse attenuation coefficient is sensitive to solar zenith angle and chlorophyll concentration, but less sensitive to sky conditions.
    • Cloud condensation nuclei

      Ji, Qiang; Shaw, Glenn E.; Stamnes, Knut; Bowling, Sue Ann; Benner, Richard; Kienle, Juergen; Watkins, Brenton (1995)
      In this study the supersaturation spectra of Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) and the size distribution spectra of aerosols were investigated. These studies were conducted because it is believed that atmospheric aerosols, especially CCN, can affect the climate of the Earth. First, the size distributions of aerosols and the number concentrations of CCN were measured at different times in different meteorological airmass systems. The results indicate that the CCN supersaturation spectrum can be calculated from the size distribution of aerosols in only a few cases, suggesting that the direct measurement of CCN is of importance. Second, based on the measurements, a new general equation is proposed to describe the CCN supersaturation spectrum for some types of aerosols. The corresponding equation for CCN size distribution is derived. It is also shown theoretically that, with certain assumptions, the aerosol size distribution in the accumulation mode can be described by a bell-shaped distribution, in agreement with our measurements. The new equations are compared with actual data. Finally, a new method is devised to facilitate the measurement of CCN. The new instrument, which we call the "CCN Remover", separates CCN from the rest of aerosols by activation and removal. Together with a particle sizer, a new CCN measurement system, the CCN Remover Spectrometer, can provide information on both the supersaturation spectrum and the size distribution of CCN. Preliminary laboratory tests show close agreement between measurement results and theoretical predictions. The Remover Spectrometer was successfully tested in the NASA SCAR-B (Smoke, Clouds, and Radiation-Brazil) biomass burning experiment.
    • Radiation transport in the atmosphere - sea ice - ocean system

      Jin, Zhonghai; Stamnes, Knut; Lynch, Amanda; Rees, Manfred H.; Shaw, Glenn E.; Tsay, Si-Chee; Weeks, Wilford F. (1995)
      A comprehensive radiative transfer model for the coupled atmosphere-sea ice-ocean system has been developed. The theoretical work required for constructing such a coupled model is described first. This work extends the discrete ordinate method, which has been proven to be effective in studies of radiative transfer in the atmosphere, to solve the radiative transfer problem pertaining to a system consisting of two strata with different indices of refraction, such as the atmosphere-ocean system and the atmosphere-sea ice-ocean system. The relevant changes (as compared to the standard problem with constant index of refraction throughout the medium) in formulation and solution of the radiative transfer equation, including the proper application of interface and boundary conditions, are presented. This solution is then applied to the atmosphere-sea ice-ocean system to study the solar energy balance in this coupled system. The input parameters required by the model are observable physical properties (e.g., the profiles of temperature and gas concentrations in the atmosphere, and the profiles of temperature, density, and salinity in the ice). The atmosphere, sea ice and ocean are each divided into a sufficient number of layers in the vertical to adequately resolve changes in their optical properties. This model rigorously accounts for the multiple scattering and absorption by atmospheric molecules, clouds, snow and sea water, as well as inclusions in the sea ice, such as brine pockets and air bubbles. The effects of various factors on the solar energy distribution in the entire system have been studied quantitatively. These factors include the ice salinity and density variations, cloud microphysics as well as variations in melt ponds and snow cover on the ice surface. Finally, the coupled radiative transfer model is used to study the impacts of clouds, snow and ice algae on the light transport in sea ice and in the ocean, as well as to simulate spectral irradiance and extinction measurements in sea ice.
    • Remote sensing of surface albedo and cloud properties in the Arctic from AVHRR measurements

      Han, Wei; Stamnes, Knut; Bowling, Sue Ann; Harrison, William; Li, Shusun; Lubin, Dan; Watkins, Brenton (1996)
      Based on a comprehensive radiative transfer model, algorithms suitable for arctic conditions are developed to retrieve broadband surface albedo and water cloud properties from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) narrowband measurements. Reflectance anisotropy of snow surfaces is first simulated by an discrete ordinates radiative transfer formulation, and is then included in the comprehensive model for the retrieval. Ground-based irradiance measurements made by NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) in Barrow, Alaska are compared with retrieved albedo and downwelling irradiances computed from retrieved cloud optical depth and effective radius. Good agreement is found between satellite estimates and ground-based measurements, which indicate that the retrieval algorithms proposed in this thesis are suitable for arctic conditions. It is found that the effects of snow bidirectional reflectance on the retrieval of the broadband albedo are significant, and that the Lambertian approximation could lead to a 30% underestimate of the surface albedo. It is also found that cloud effective radius in the Arctic is generally smaller as compared with mid- and low-latitudes.
    • Two- and three-dimensional study of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, magnetic reconnection and their mutual interaction at the magnetospheric boundary

      Chen, Qinxue; Otto, Antonius; Watkins, Brenton; Sentman, Davis; Smith, Roger (1997)
      Magnetic reconnection and the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability regulate the transport of magnetic flux, plasma, momentum and energy from the solar wind into the magnetosphere. In this thesis, I use two-dimensional and three-dimensional MHD simulations to investigate the KH instability, magnetic reconnection, and their relationship. Two basic flow and magnetic field configurations are distinguished at the Earth's magnetopause: (1) configurations where the difference in plasma velocity between the two sides of the boundary $\Delta$v (velocity shear) is parallel to the difference of the magnetic field $\Delta$b (magnetic shear), and (2) configurations where the velocity shear is perpendicular to the magnetic shear. For configuration (1), either magnetic reconnection is modified by the shear flow, or the KH instability is modified by the magnetic shear and resistivity. The evolution of the basic configuration (2) requires three dimensions. In this case, both processes can operate simultaneously in different planes. If the KH instability grows faster initially, it can wrap up the current layer and thereby initiate a very fast and turbulent reconnection process. The resulting magnetic turbulence can provide the first explanation of often very turbulent structures of the magnetopause current layer. For the first time, it is quantitatively confirmed that the KH instability operates at the magnetospheric boundary at low latitudes.
    • Characteristics of dayside auroral displays in relation to magnetospheric processes

      Minow, Joseph I.; Smith, Roger W. (1997)
      The use of dayside aurorae as a ground based monitor of magnetopause activity is explored in this thesis. The origin of diffuse (OI) 630.0 nm emissions in the midday auroral oval is considered first. Analysis of low altitude satellite records of precipitating charged particles within the cusp show an unstructured electron component that will produce a 0.5-1 kR 630.0 nm emission throughout the cusp. Distribution of the electrons is controlled by the requirement of charge neutrality in the cusp, predicting a diffuse 630.0 nm background even if the magnetosheath plasma is introduced into the magnetosphere in discrete merging events. Cusp electron fluxes also contain a structured component characterized by enhancements in the electron energy and energy flux over background values in narrow regions a few 10's of kilometers in width. These structured features are identified as the source of the transient midday arcs. An auroral model is developed to study the morphology of (OI) 630.0 nm auroral emissions produced by the transient arcs. The model demonstrates that a diffuse 630.0 nm background emission is produced by transient arcs due to the long lifetime of the O$(\sp1D)$ state. Two sources of diffuse 630.0 nm background emissions exist in the cusp which may originate in discrete merging events. The conclusion is that persistent 630.0 nm emissions cannot be interpreted as prima facie evidence for continuous particle transport from the magnetosheath across the magnetopause boundary and into the polar cusp. The second subject that is considered is the analysis of temporal and spatial variations of the diffuse 557.7 nm pulsating aurora in relation to the 630.0 nm dominated transient aurora. Temporal variations at the poleward boundary of the diffuse 557.7 nm aurora correlate with the formation of the 630.0 nm transient aurorae suggesting that the two events are related. The character of the auroral variations is consistent with the behavior of particle populations reported during satellite observations of flux transfer events near the dayside magnetopause. An interpretation of the events in terms of impulsive magnetic reconnection yields a new observation that relates the poleward moving transient auroral arcs in the midday sector to the flux transfer events.
    • Equilibrium structure and dynamics of near-earth plasma sheet during magnetospheric substorms

      Zhang, Lin; Otto, Antonius; Sentman, Davis; Smith, Roger; Watkins, Brenton (1997)
      A magnetofrictional method and MHD simulation are used to study MHD equilibria and dynamic evolution of the Earth's magnetosphere during a substorm growth phase. I suggest that the new "entropy anti-diffusion instability" associated with plasma transport across field lines leads to an enhanced entropy gradient and accelerates the formation of a thin current sheet during the final substorm growth phase. Based upon the MHD simulations with a pressure diffusion term, I confirm that entropy anti-diffusion instability can lead to a very thin current sheet with $B\sb{z} < 0.5nT$ and thickness $<$1000km in the near-earth magnetotail ($x \sim -8$ to $-20R\sb{e}$) during the growth phase of substorm. The formation of the thin current sheet can explain the observed explosive growth phase of substorms. In the study of magnetotail equilibrium configurations, it is found that the profile of the magnetic field strength B$\sb{z}$ component in the equatorial plane is mainly determined by the entropy $S(A)\ (S = pV\sp\gamma)$ on magnetic flux tubes. I obtain self-consistent equilibria of the Earth's magnetosphere with very strong lobe fields and a monotonically increasing $B\sb{z}$ component towards the Earth. It is also confirmed that an enhancement of the lobe flux favors the formation of a current sheet during the early substorm growth phase. However, my results do not support the notion that a critical amount of the lobe flux is required for a collapse of the tail current sheet.
    • Radiative transfer modeling in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system and its application to the remote sensing of ocean color imagery

      Yan, Banghua; Stamnes, Knut; Nielsen, Hans; Watkins, Brenton; Olson, John (2001-08)
      Ocean color is the radiance emanating from the ocean due to scattering by chlorophyll pigments and particles of organic and inorganic origin. Thus, it contains information about chlorophyll concentrations which can be used to estimate primary productivity. Observations of ocean color from space can be used to monitor the variability in marine primary productivity, thereby permitting a quantum leap in our understanding of oceanographic processes from regional to global scales. Satellite remote sensing of ocean color requires accurate removal of the contribution by atmospheric molecules and aerosols to the radiance measured at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). This removal process is called 'atmospheric correction.' Since about 90% of the radiance received by the satellitee sensor comes from the atmosphere, accurate removal of this portion is very important. A prerequisite for accurate atmospheric correction is accurate and reliable simulation of the transport of radiation in the atmosphere-ocean system. This thesis focuses on this radiative transfer process, and investigates the impact of particles in the atmosphere (aerosols) and ocean (oceanic chlorophylls and air bubbles) on our ability to remove the atmospheric contribution from the received signal. To explore these issues, a comprehensive radiative transfer model for the coupled atmosphere-ocean system is used to simulate the radiative transfer process and provide a physically sound link between surface-based measurements of oceanic and atmospheric parameters and radiances observed by satellite-deployed ocean color sensors. This model has been upgraded to provide accurate radiances in arbitrary directions as required to analyze satellite data. The model is then applied to quantify the uncertainties associated with several commonly made assumptions invoked in atmospheric correction algorithms. Since Atmospheric aerosols consist of a mixture of absorbing and non-absorbing components that may or may not be soluble, it becomes a challenging task to model the radiative effects of these particles. It is shown that the contribution of these particles to the TOA radiance depends on the assumptions made concerning how these particles mix and grow in a humid environment. This makes atmospheric correction a very difficult undertaking. Air bubbles in the ocean created by breaking waves give rise to scattered light. Unless this contribution to the radiance leaving the ocean is correctly accounted for, it would be mistakenly attributed to chlorophyll pigments. Thus, the findings in this thesis make an important contribution to the development of an adequate radiative transfer model for the coupled atmosphere-ocean system required for development and assessment of algorithms for atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery.
    • The interaction of Io and the Jovian magnetic field: Io's Alfven wings and particle acceleration

      Dols, Vincent (2001-08)
      Conditions for the formation of an electric field along the field lines of Jupiter crossing the satellite Io are investigated by examining the properties of Io's Alfven wave. A three-dimensional self-consistent MHD model, using a simplified magnetosphere description, illustrates the formation of this electric field and of Io's related auroral emission in the Jovian ionosphere. The Alfven wing properties between Io and Jupiter are studied with a one-dimensional MHD model and a realistic magnetosphere. Any change in the Io/Jupiter system affects the structure of the Alfven wing and likely affects the structure of Io's auroral emissions. This emission is likely structured in multi-spots and the angle between the first spot and the instantaneous projection of Io is less than 3°. In the limited context of the 1D approximation, the acceleration mechanism is expected close to Jupiter.