• Alaska Natives: a guide to current reference sources in the Rasmuson Library

      Goniwiecha, Mark C. (Elmer E. Rasmuson Library, University of Alaska - Fairbanks, 1985)
    • Characterization of muskox habitat in northeastern Alaska

      O'Brien, Constance Marsha (1988-12)
      In northeastern Alaska, muskoxen have been most often found in riparian habitats and proximate uplands. Vegetation was studied in nine adjacent river drainages; six of the drainages are regularly used by muskoxen. Twenty-two vegetation/land cover types were described using aerial photographs, point-intercept sampling, and ocular cover estimates. The proportion of each cover type was estimated for each drainage and compared among drainages by MANOVA. There was no significant difference among non-muskox drainages in the average proportion of cover types. A marginally significant difference was found among muskox drainages. There were no significant differences in the proportions of each vegetation type in non-muskox drainages versus muskox drainages. Five vegetation types associated with high forage quality and availability and low snow accumulation were often used by muskoxen. Four of these five vegetation types typically had <7% cover in the nine drainages and are critical habitat components in northeastern Alaska.
    • Comparative patterns of winter habitat use by muskoxen and caribou in northern Alaska

      Biddlecomb, Mark Edward (1992-09)
      Snow depth and hardness strongly influenced selection of feeding zones, (i.e., those areas used for foraging), in late winter by both muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) and caribou (Rangifer tarandus grand) in northern Alaska. Snow in feeding zones was shallower and softer than in surrounding zones. Depth of feeding craters was less than the average snow depth in feeding zones. Moist sedge tundra types were used most often by muskoxen, and their diet, based on microhistological analysis of feces, was dominated by graminoids. Moist sedge and Dryas tundra types were most often used by caribou; lichens and evergreen shrubs were the major constituents of their diet. Despite selection of moist sedge tundra types by both muskoxen and caribou in late winter, dietary and spatial overlap was minimal.
    • Effects of antimony mining on stream invertebrates and primary producers in Denali National Park, Alaska

      Wedemeyer, Kathleen (1987-12)
      Heavy metals, primarily antimony, arsenic and manganese from antimony mines in Denali National Park, Alaska impacted all levels of the stream ecosystem. Decreased algal, moss and macroinvertebrate abundance (but not changes in macroinvertebrate trophic organization) were all clearly associated with mining activity in Slate and Eldorado creeks. Crustacea, Chironomidae (Diptera), Hydracarina (Arachnida), Nemouridae (Plecoptera), and Zapada (Nemouridae) decreased in relative abundance with metal pollution while Capniidae (Plecoptera), Nemoura (Nemouridae), and Podmosta (Nemouridae) increased in relative abundance at mine sites. The data from Stampede Creek demonstrated that mineralized but unmined stream reaches may be impacted by heavy metals. Unexpectedly higher selenium levels upstream of the mine may account for the general lack of substantial differences in macroinvertebrates and periphyton upstream and downstream of the mine. However, macroinvertebrate and periphyton abundances were lower at both sites on Stampede Creek than at the unmined control stream, Jumbo Creek.
    • Elmer E. Rasmuson Papers, 1898-2000

      Morris, Lisa M. (Archives and Manuscripts, Alaska and Polar Regions Collections, Elmer E. Rasmuson Library, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 2005-12)
    • Feeding and growth of seasonal cohorts of larval walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) in Auke Bay, Alaska

      Sterritt, David A. (1989-05)
      Larval walleye pollock, Theragra chalcogramma (Pallas), typically occur in the water column in synchrony with peak densities of prey. A primary objective of this investigation was to examine and compare growth rates of larval pollock. The growth rate of a synchronous cohort (hatched 10-14 May, 1986) was found to be significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of an earlier cohort (hatched 15-19 April, 1986) . Synchronous cohorts are larvae that occur simultaneously with the maximum densities of herbivorous copepods. Growth rates were determined by otolith analysis. Prey densities and water temperature were implicated as causes of the observed differences in growth. Prey densities were approximately 3 times higher for the synchronous cohort than the early cohort. Additionally, the early cohort experienced water temperatures 2-3°C colder than the synchronous cohort. Results suggest that synchronous larval walleye pollock have higher growth rates and may have higher survival rates.
    • The feeding ecology of chum salmon fry (Oncorhynchus keta) in northern Prince William Sound, Alaska

      Massa, James Richard (1995-05)
      A two year study of the feeding ecology of early outmigrating chum salmon fry, Oncorhynchus keta, in northern Prince William Sound, Alaska, demonstrated harpacticoid copepods and chironomid insects to be dominant food taxa with calanoid copepods, polychaete larvae, cladocerans and cirripeds also contributing. Examination of the IRI (Index of Relative Importance) values for harpacticoids and insects revealed fluctuating seasonal patterns. Low IRI values for harpacticoids and/or insects coincided with higher IRI values for calanoids, polychaetes, cladocerans and cirripeds. ANOVA analyses and t-tests results on stomach contents demonstrated spatiotemporal variations in diet. Early outmigrating chum fry inhabited tidal mudflats, rocky beaches and vertical rocky outcrops where harpacticoids and insects were prevalent. CTD data and plankton tows indicated that tidal advection supplied pelagic prey from Unakwik Inlet to Jonah Bay. Fluctuating IRI values by prey taxa suggest an opportunistic rather than selective feeding behavior for chum fry based on prey availability.
    • Guide to the Mike Gravel Papers, 1957-1980

      Tabbert, Barbara M. (Alaska and Polar Regions Department, Elmer E. Rasmuson Library, University of Alaska - Fairbanks, 1986)
    • Habitat relationships and activity patterns of a reintroduced musk ox population

      Jingfors, Kent T. (1980-12)
      A reintroduced muskox herd in arctic Alaska was studied over a 2-year period to assess seasonal changes in activity patterns and feeding behavior. This large herd showed high calving rates and early breeding in females, characteristic of a rapidly expanding population. Age- and sex-specific differences in activity budgets reflect seasonal energy demands of the different cohorts. Comparison with high arctic muskoxen shows that characteristics of suckling behavior provide a more sensitive indicator of differences in range quality than does variation in summer activity patterns. In summer, muskoxen appear to select vegetation types on the basis of abundance and phenological stage of preferred forage species; snow characteristics strongly influence habitat selection in winter. The herd remained within a limited home range with overlapping seasonal ranges and a distinct calving area. The restricted movements and conservative activity budgets permit minimization of energy expenditure and forage requirements, allowing for a year-long existence in areas of low primary productivity.
    • The petrofabrics of aufeis in a turbulent Alaskan stream

      Kreitner, Jerry D. (1969-05)
      The growth, form, and decay of ice in turbulent Goldstream Creek, Alaska, has been observed each year since 1964. Overflows which occur throughout the early part of the winter deposit layers of ice (aufeis) upon the pre-existing ice surface. Vertical and horizontal thin sections of the stream ice from the years 1965-66, 1966-67, and 1967-68 were examined and photographed under ordinary and polarized light. The c-axes of the crystals were oriented with a Rigsby four-axis stage and plotted on Schmidt equal-area nets. Examination of photographs and stereograms revealed five basic types of ice in Goldstream Creek: (1) clear, massive, original stream ice composed of elongate, tapered crystals in which the c-axes are primarily horizontal and randomly oriented; (2) bubbly overflow ice layers (aufeis) with horizontal c-axes which are sometimes aligned parallel to the stream flow; (3) skim ice layers with vertical to horizontal c-axis crystals; (4) fine-grained equigranular snow ice; and (5) underwater ice masses of slightly coherent, rounded plates with the c-axes normal to the plates and randomly oriented. During break-up the melt-water flows on top of the stream ice and slowly erodes the ice layers in the stream by a combination of melting and mechanical fragmentation. The layers are eroded away in descending order from the top to the bottom of the stream.
    • Picture Alaska: an index

      Drazan, Joseph; Burke, Joseph A. (Elmer E. Rasmuson Library, University of Alaska, 1974)
    • Porphyry copper, copper skarn, and volcanogenic massive sulfide occurrences in the Chandalar copper district, Alaska

      Nicholson, Lisa; Keskinen, Mary (1990-05)
      Metamorphosed porphyry copper, copper skarn, and volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) occurrences have been found in 5 key prospects within Devonian rocks of the Chandalar copper district, Alaska. The Venus, Victor, Eva, and Evelyn Lee prospects contain "proximal" porphyry copper/copper skarn mineralization, whereas the Luna prospect contains "distal" Cu-Zn skarn and Cu-Zn VMS mineralization. Porphyry copper mineralization is recognized by granodiorite composition meta-intrusives; zoned potassic, sericitic and propylitic alteration; and del34S values of -1.5 to -0.6 per mil. Skarns consist of andraditic garnet (Ad30-100) and diopsidic pyroxene (Hd9-46), and have del34S values of -4.7 to -1.1 per mil. Alteration types in intrusive rocks and adjacent skarn are generally compatible. VMS occurrences contain chloritic and silicic alteration, and massive sulfides have del34S values of -0.8 to 6.9 per mil, consistent with values from known Devonian VMS deposits.
    • Spatial resilience and the incorporation of traditional ecological knowledge in mapping Sitka herring

      Shewmake, James W. II; Greenberg, Josh; Verbyla, Dave; Holen, Davin (2013-05)
      This project assesses the utility of Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) in conducting research on herring stocks within Sitka Sound. By considering ethnographic data of the marine environment it is possible to identify key spatial attributes associated with the resource. This information was used to construct a social-ecological systems model (SES) for analysis within a spatial resilience framework. From this SES model, resilience surrogates were identified to analyze effort and success within the fishery. These indicators provided valuable insight into how subsistence users relate to the marine environment when they participate in the harvesting of herring spawn. To collect TEK data, the researcher, employed as a graduate intern with the Division of Subsistence, Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADF & G) worked cooperatively with the Sitka Tribe of Alaska (STA). TEK data was used to identify marine habitat types, subsistence harvest locations (mapping), customary and traditional practices, and changing trends in accessibility to the resource. This information was supplemented with quantitative data including spatial habitat mapping and herring spawn distribution. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to display, analyze, and understand these variables and their measured outcomes to construct the SES model.
    • Spatial scales of muskox resource selection in late winter

      Wilson, Kenneth J. (1992-05)
      I examined resource selection by muskoxen in late winter on the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, by comparing use and availability at regional, meso, local, and micro spatial scales. Use of vegetation types for feeding appears to be based on selection of areas of shallow soft snow with high cover of sedges, dead vegetation, and total vegetation, and on selection against areas of little vegetation cover or deep hardpacked snow. Muskoxen used moist sedge, tussock sedge, and Dryas terrace tundra in proportion to availability and avoided barren ground, partially vegetated, riparian shrub, and Dryas ridge tundra. Selection for areas of shallow snow occurred within vegetation types as well as between vegetation types. Occurrence of sedges and grasses in the diet was greater than availability. Feeding zones were primarily on windblown vegetated bluffs; these areas are distributed in narrow bands along creeks, rivers, and the coastline.
    • "There are just a few of us, but we are all important": responses to a disaster preparedness survey in Interior Alaska river villages

      Jackson, Celia (2015-05)
      This survey explores individual perspectives about disaster preparedness in Interior Alaska villages. The results will be used to create a new, locally relevant preparedness outreach flyer for distribution across the Interior Alaska region. Modern Red Cross preparedness fliers use the "Be Red Cross Ready: Get a Kit, Make a Plan, Be Informed," flyer to educate people on useful preparedness behavior. This is also the standard across the United States used by the Federal Emergency Management Agency and other government agencies. But is the information contained within the "Get a Kit, Make a Plan, Be Informed" flyer really applicable to life in small, remote, Alaskan communities? Many of these communities are highly isolated according to the standards applied to the rest of the country: they experience often-extreme environmental conditions, and are composed of indigenous people who have their own worldview and concept of risk and community values. In order to effectively prepare people in villages for disasters, everything must be reconsidered to fit this Alaskan setting. Key findings from this survey project include: the importance of outdoor survival gear and cold-weather gear in emergency kits; the need for more written small community emergency plans; and the need for cultural competency training for disaster response professionals and volunteers.