Now showing items 1-18 of 18

• #### Carbon And Nitrogen Flows In Zero -Water Exchange Shrimp Culture: Inferences Using Stable Isotope Tracers

Nutrient and energy flow in cultures of Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, were examined in zero-water exchange, 1200--1300 L mesocosms at the Oceanic Institute (OI), Waimanalo, Hawaii. A technique was developed for monitoring shrimp use of formulated feeds through the addition of stable isotopically labeled nutrients to the feed ingredients. Crystalline amino acid compounds were ineffective as labels due to their rapid dissolution in the tank water with feed pellet break-up. Labels which were 'packaged' as algal cells prior to addition to the feed pellets were more effectively incorporated into shrimp tissues than crystalline label (approximately 27% versus 8% for crystalline label). The 'packaged' label technique was also used to test soluble proteins from pollock processing wastes (stickwater) as a feeding stimulant for Litopenaeus vannamei. Indoor controlled condition experiments and outdoor experiments with natural pond biota compared stickwater amended feed to squid liver powder amended feed for growth and assimilation by the shrimp. Initial results indicated that pollock processing by-products might function as a feeding stimulant in shrimp aquaculture. The addition of 15N-ammonium to outdoor shrimp tanks showed that natural tank production contributed significantly to shrimp growth requirements providing between 17 and 77% of the growth nitrogen. When labeled ammonium was added to black covered tanks, shrimp had slower growth rates (0.5 g/wk as compared to 0.7 g/wk for uncovered ammonium addition tanks) but significant uptake of this label, with a tank biota contributing 23%. This finding supported a bacterial role in shrimp nutrition that will require further study. Isotopic analysis of individual amino acids in shrimp muscle from outdoor tanks with and without added 15N-ammonium further established the role of tank natural populations to shrimp nutrition. Rapid increases in delta 15N for threonine one day after label addition suggested an increased requirement for this essential amino acid. Further identification of the contribution of tank biota to shrimp amino acid profiles will require profiles of the delta 15N of specific amino acids for suspended particulate organic matter.
• #### Carbon And Nitrogen Isotope Ratios In Bowhead Whales (Balaena Mysticetus) And Their Zooplankton Prey As Indicators Of Feeding Strategy And Environmental Change.

This study details regional, seasonal and inter-annual differences in $\delta\sp{13}$C and $\delta\sp{15}$N of zooplankton in the Bering and Chukchi Seas. These isotopic variations were correlated with inter-annual and long-term variations in $\delta\sp{13}$C and $\delta\sp{15}$N of bowhead whale baleen.<p> Statistical analyses indicate significant $\sp{13}$C-enrichment in Bering/Chukchi seas zooplankton relative to Beaufort Sea zooplankton, supporting the observed trends of $\sp{13}$C-depletion at higher latitudes and enrichment at lower latitudes. Bering/Chukchi seas zooplankton show a weak trend in $\sp{13}$C-depletion between 1987-1990, possibly due to inter-annual environmental changes affecting phytoplankton $\delta\sp{13}$C. The $\delta\sp{13}$C of baleen produced in fall/winter months is inversely correlated to sea surface temperature trends in the Bering Sea. Long-term changes in baleen $\delta\sp{13}$C may be helpful in assessing past climatic change.<p> The observed $\delta\sp{15}$N oscillations in baleen may be due to changes in trophic level of prey between seasonal feeding grounds or from physiological cycles in the bowhead whale. <p>
• #### Distribution of large calanoid copepods in relation to physical oceanographic conditions and foraging auklets in the western Aleutian Islands

Acoustic measurements and net sampling were used to estimate zooplankton abundance and biomass relative to water mass types and flow fields in the western Aleutian Islands during June and July, 1992 and 1993. Observations are interpreted relative to the distribution and abundance of least auklets (Aethia pusilla), which forage on zooplankton. Highest zooplankton biomass (up to 7 g m$\sp{-3}$) occurred during June 1992, in the pycnocline separating the upper mixed layer from the cold intermediate layer north of a front separating Bering Sea and Alaska Stream water. The large calanoid Neocalanus flemingeri had highest abundance but the larger Neocalanus cristatus accounted for most of the biomass. N. cristatus and N. flemingeri were absent south of the Bering Sea front, where the community was dominated by Neocalanus plumchrus and Eucalanus bungii. Auklets were foraging almost exclusively north of the Bering Sea front. Neocalanus spp. abundance in the upper mixed layer was much lower in July 1993, than in June 1992. Neocalanus occurred primarily in scattered aggregates near the pycnocline over Bering Sea Intermediate water and at the surface in Pacific water. Auklets shifted their foraging activities to passes and shelf areas among the islands, where tidally generated divergences and convergences upwelled and concentrated prey into patches in the mixed layer. Elevated densities of Neocalanus were observed in convergence zones in Delarov Pass and over a ridge south of Kiska Island. Convergence zones were identified by intense sound scattering from entrained bubbles and by deceleration of the horizontal velocity components in acoustic doppler current data, a record of current speed and direction beneath the vessel. Densities of auklet prey in the study area during June were apparently influenced by the position of the front between Bering Sea and Pacific water masses. The position of the front was influenced by Alaska Stream flow anomalies lasting for several years. Prey densities on the shelves and in the passes during July were influenced by tidal currents at spatial scales of tens of meters to ten kilometers and lasting one tidal cycle.
• #### Influences of abiotic factors on the return, ocean abundance, and maturity of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in the northern North Pacific Ocean

The fluctuations in return, ocean abundance, and maturity of sockeye salmon (O. nerka) were examined and related to wind stress curl, sea suface temperature (SST), sea level pressure, and cloudiness, in the area between 40$\sp\circ$N-60$\sp\circ$N and 160$\sp\circ$E-140$\sp\circ$W. Historical records, during two periods, 1971-76 and 1955-86, were the primary source of data. Spectral analysis of a 360-month period of mean wind stress curl during 1955-85 showed 3.1- and 5.3-year cycles. The 5.3-year cycle was correlated (r =.32 to.44, P $<$.10) with the return of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon mostly at 0- (the year of spawning migration) and 1-year lag (the first year of lake residence). The relative ocean abundance of sockeye salmon in the northwestern Northern Pacific during 1971-76 was lowest during the three periods: 1961-70, 1971-76, and 1977-85. Mature Kamchatka sockeye salmon were 24% more abundant than mature Bristol Bay sockeye salmon during 1971-76. A significant relationship was found between the May-June mean SST and abundance of sockeye salmon (r =.56 to.66, P $<$.01) during 1961-85. In the northern North Pacific, the SST was positively (r =.73 to.86, P $<$.001) related with the gonad weight of sockeye salmon. The results indicated a close relation between the return, ocean abundance, and maturity of sockeye salmon and most of the abiotic factors.
• #### Nitrogen flux in the northern Bering Sea

Much of the primary production occurring over the Bering Sea continental shelf is thought to be associated with both ice edge and spring blooms. The nature of summer production over the shelf is now being addressed. A general model is presented for summer phytoplankton production along the Bering Sea shelf break front and subsequent transport of phytodetritus into the northern Bering Sea. Production associated with the shelf break front is estimated to be 200 g $\cdot$ C $\cdot$ m$\sp{-2}$ over a 120-day growing season and is supported by nutrients from the Bering Slope Current. A portion of the biomass accumulating over the front is advected into the Chirikov Basin, supplying 26% of the daily carbon demand of the benthos. The Bering Slope Current bifurcates at Cape Navarin and one branch, referred to as the Anadyr Current, flows north through Anadyr and Bering Straits. Nutrients in the Anadyr Current support an intense surface bloom over the western Chirikov Basin where total nitrogen uptake rates are $>$6.0 mg-at N $\cdot$ m$\sp{-2} \cdot$ h$\sp{-1}$ and nitrate contributes up to 50% of the total nitrogen uptake. Modified Bering Shelf water contains phytoplankton at two depths: both a surface accumulation and a deep layer. Nitrate contributes $<$35% to total nitrogen uptake rates of 1.80 mg-at N $\cdot$ m$\sp{-2} \cdot$ h$\sp{-1}$ in this water. Nitrogen productivity is lowest in Alaskan Coastal water (1.0 mg-at N $\cdot$ m$\sp{-2} \cdot$ h$\sp{-1}$) where nitrate uptake averages only 15% of the total. A simple nitrogen budget suggests that 29% and 62% of the annual nitrogen productivity in modified Bering Shelf and Anadyr waters, respectively, is exported through Bering Strait into the southern Chukchi Sea for deposition. Improved estimates of the rates of urea production and uptake by phytoplankton in the northern Bering Sea were made after determining the change in $\sp{15}$N-atom % enrichment of urea during incubations. Estimates of uptake rates increased by up to 83% using a $\sp{15}$N accumulation model and by $>$210% using a $\sp{15}$N disappearance model. However, a discrepancy exists between the $\sp{15}$N-urea removed from the aqueous phase and the $\sp{15}$N accumulated in the particulate phase. The ability to find in the particulate fraction the $\sp{15}$N removed from solution as $\sp{15}$N-urea was improved by 72% following removal of the $>$20-$\mu$m particulate fraction.
• #### Physiology of the endocrine, cardiorespiratory and nervous systems in pinnipeds: Integrative approach and biomedical considerations

This thesis explored several aspects of the hormonal and cardiovascular physiology in pinnipeds (seals and sea lions). Plasma concentrations of the vasoactive hormones angiotensin II (Ang II), arginine vasopressin (AVP, the antidiuretic hormone) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) were studied in six species of seals and sea lions. Resting levels of AVP, ANP and Ang II in these pinnipeds were similar to those reported for other vertebrate species, including humans. Age-related differences were found in the concentrations of these hormones in seals and sea lions. Geographic differences in hormone concentrations were found in Steller sea lions and harbor seals. To address the endocrine and cardiovascular responses to breath-holding (apnea) in marine mammals, heart rates and plasma levels of Ang II, AVP and ANP were studied in Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii) and northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) pups during periods of spontaneous breathing (eupnea) and apnea. Ang II, AVP, and ANP, as well as the autonomic nervous system, were found to contribute differently to the control of heart rate in seal pups, depending whether the respiratory system was in eupnea or apnea. Because of changes in seals of different ages, it appeared that the integration of cardiorespiratory and hormonal function is not fully mature at birth, but develops post-natally, probably simultaneously to the development of diving behavior. These studies also suggested that the factors affecting cardiorespiratory function, including hormones, may differ by species. Plasma concentrations of AVP, ANP and Ang II were measured during food limitation and fasting in captive Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) and compared to levels in free-ranging conspecifics. The results suggest that Steller sea lions have a remarkable capacity to maintain hydrosmotic and endocrine balance during short-term food limitation and fasting. Hormonal studies did not provide conclusive evidence that Steller sea lions in Alaskan waters are currently affected by long-term food limitation.
• #### Seasonal Migration And Distribution Of Female Red King Crabs In A Southeast Alaska Estuary.

Seasonal movements and distribution of primiparous and multiparous red king crabs (Paralithodes camtschaticus) were monitored approximately weekly for one year in Auke Bay, Alaska, using ultrasonic biotelemetry. Patterns of seasonal movements were generally similar for all crabs, although movements of multiparous crabs were more conservative and coordinated between individuals. Groups of crabs remained in relatively discrete areas for several weeks before moving, usually as a group, to a different area. The annual range of primiparous crabs (x = 11.9 km$\sp2$) exceeded (P $<$ 0.025) that of multiparous crabs (x = 3.6 km$\sp2$). All crabs displayed distinct seasonal shifts in depth distribution and habitat use. Depth distribution was significantly correlated with photoperiod and the abrupt, synchronous movement of crabs between habitats was coincident with thermohaline mixing. Females displayed a highly aggregated distribution, especially during winter in shallowwater areas. Podding behavior of adult crabs was documented for the first time. Possible causes and functions of this highly specialized behavior are discussed. <p>
• #### Seasonal sea ice, the cold pool and gadid distribution on the Bering Sea shelf

The variability in winter seasonal sea ice cover, its impact on the summer hydrography of the Bering Sea shelf, and the consequences to the demersal distributional patterns of walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) and Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) were investigated. Winter ice conditions acquired by remote sensing techniques were compared to the following summer's hydrographic conditions and fish distributions acquired from fisheries surveys between 1972-1993. Linkages among atmospheric, oceanic, and biological interactions occurred on two scales, an interannual mode of warm or cold conditions and multi-annual regimes of warm, cold or mixed conditions. The southernmost extent of sea ice as measured along meridian 169$\sp\circ$W (P$\sb{\rm S}$) can be used to identify warm or cold conditions on the shelf. Warm conditions occurred when P$\sb{\rm S}$ extended southward, between 60$\sp\circ$-$57\sp\circ30\sp\prime$N, bottom temperatures were 3.8$\sp\circ$-4.6$\sp\circ$C and the subsurface cold pool of water extended eastward, between meridians 170$\sp\circ$-166$\sp\circ$W. Cold conditions occurred when P$\sb{\rm S}$ extended southward, between $57\sp\circ30\sp\prime$-56$\sp\circ$N, bottom temperatures were 1.2$\sp\circ$-3.0$\sp\circ$C and the subsurface cold pool of water extended eastward, between meridians 163$\sp\circ$-158$\sp\circ$W. During the 20 year time series of climatic conditions, three regimes occurred: a cold regime prevailed from 1972-1977, a warm regime from 1978-1984, and a mixed regime from 1985-1991. Age-1 and age-2 and older walleye pollock were primarily in the outer domain during cold conditions and in the middle and inner domain during warmer conditions. Arctic cod were present during cold conditions. Shifts in distribution of these species have ecosystem-wide consequences and can occur on either interannual scales or on the time-scale of regime shifts. Changes in the level of piscivorous predation on age-1 pollock, including cannibalism, occurred on the annual scale while prey species of seabirds and marine mammals fluctuated on the regime scale. Warm or cold summertime conditions were predictable from the previous winter's ice extent, which provides basic information on the level of environmental variability that affects biological systems and can be utilized in modeling this system. The results predict that older pollock will be concentrated in the outer domain following winters with extensive ice, information which could be useful to the fishing industry.

• #### Structure and growth of Pacific halibut otoliths: Identifying spatial and temporal variation

Otoliths are polycrystals of calcium carbonate and protein that grow through the process of biomineralization within the otic capsule of teleost fish. Otoliths of Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis) are routinely collected to provide age information, but other information has not been examined in detail. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether otolith structural patterns reveal information about otolith growth, and by inference, about fish growth and habitat during its early life. Variation in the increment widths of the first five annuli of adult halibut otoliths over a 26 year period were partitioned in two ways: the year the growth took place and the year-class to which the fish belonged. The year of growth explained temporal variation in the youngest ages and was attributed to changes in temperature which may influence recruitment success, while the year-class of growth explained temporal variation in older juveniles, but could reflect sampling bias. An analysis of microstructure increments indicated that relative otolith growth rate was an indicator of larval somatic growth. Young halibut from the Gulf of Alaska exhibited similar larval growth histories, though individual and nursery area differences were apparent. Specimens from the Bering Sea had slower larval growth rates than halibut from the Gulf of Alaska. Trace levels of strontium within otoliths were associated with ontogenetic changes of larvae and winter annuli formation of adults. Levels of potassium and sodium varied by nursery area of capture suggesting some utility for stock separation, though there was indication of significant interannual variation. The shape of the larval crystal within the otolith microstructure of young halibut was found not to be associated with nursery area of capture, and thus is not a good candidate as a stock separation tool. The high variation within individuals suggests that the shape of the crystal is not determined by external events. Overall, several patterns preserved in otoliths can provide insight into processes that influence the growth of halibut and distribution of individuals and these patterns can be recovered from adult fish. However careful interpretation is still required to separate meaningful information from spurious data.
• #### The Effects Of Oil-Contaminated Prey On The Feeding, Growth, And Related Energetics On Pink Salmon, Oncorhynchus Gorbuscha Walbaum, Fry

Pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Walbaum, fry were exposed to oil-contaminated prey (OCP) in a series of experiments to determine the effects of oil exposure via the diet on the ability of pink fry to survive. Brine shrimp, Artemia salina, nauplii were contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons by exposure to the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of Cook Inlet crude oil and fed to the fish. Feeding rates were measured for 10 days using OCP and for 5 days using uncontaminated prey (post-exposure period). In a separate experiment, fry growth was measured over a 50 day period. In another experiment, fry oxygen consumption, food absorption and utilization, and ammonia excretion was measured to determine the effects of OCP on fry metabolic activity. Fry feeding rates were reduced by exposure to OCP, and remained suppressed during the post-exposure period. Chronic exposure to OCP for 50 days reduced fry growth. OCP were not lethal to the fry. There was no change in fry oxygen consumption or ammonia excretion from exposure to OCP, but the fish exposed to OCP absorbed less food than controls and continued to absorb less food for 7 days after exposure. Results indicate that exposure to OCP can reduce fry growth primarily by reducing food intake, but additional nutrition is lost from the non-absorption of ingested food. Reductions in growth could decrease fry survival, and thereby reduce the number of returning adult pink salmon.
• #### The paradox of pelagic food webs on the Bering-Chukchi continental shelf

Prolific primary production and spectacular populations of marine birds and mammals in the northern Bering Sea were for many years considered to be a paradox of an environment that should have had low production, as is typical of shallow continental shelves elsewhere. However, a "river" of oceanic water, Anadyr Water, originating along the continental slope of the Bering Sea carries a perpetual supply of nutrients and biota onto this northern shelf that transforms part of the region into one that is extremely productive at all trophic levels. Diatoms grow profusely throughout the ice-free season and, together with oceanic zooplankton advected in the Anadyr stream, provide the energy base for rich pelagic and benthic food webs. Contrasting with the highly productive pelagic regime is one associated with Bering Shelf Water and Alaskan Coastal Water. Both of these water masses originate over the shallow shelf of the northern and eastern Bering Sea, and are typically nutrient-poor following the spring phytoplankton bloom. Terriginous nutrients introduced by the Yukon and other rivers are not sufficient to elevate primary production above a low level typical of inner shelf regions. The oceanic zooplankton are excluded from this environment, and populations at higher trophic levels are small. The consequence of these contrasting physical regimes is that discrete oceanic and inner shelf food webs coexist in a small geographic region where only a coastal ecosystem is expected.
• #### The red king crab fishery: handling effects, bait efficiency, and pot behavior

Red king crabs (Paralithodes camtschaticus) are caught by pots in a male-only fishery in Alaska. The objectives of this research were: (1) to examine impacts of the commercial fishery on discarded female and sublegal male crabs; (2) to examine bait efficiency; (3) to document crab behavior to pots; and (4) to develop a model describing catch versus soak time. I estimated from observer data that 64.6% of crabs in the Bering Sea fishery were females and sublegal males; I simulated commercial crab handling procedures in the laboratory to test effects on discarded crabs. Although body damage increased significantly with increased handling, there were no significant effects on righting time, feeding rate, weight gain, carapace length increment, or survival. I examined the efficiency of five potential baits (squid, herring, mussel, king crab muscle, and king crab ovary) by observing chemoreception and feeding behavior of the crabs. Chemosensory threshold varied between $10\sp{-4}$ to $10\sp{-6}$ g.L$\sp{-1}$, and feeding threshold ranged from $10\sp{-2}$ to $10\sp{-3}$ g.L$\sp{-1}.$ Crabs were most sensitive to the extract of conspecific muscle, while herring was most effective in arousing feeding behavior. Little difference existed between males and females in chemoreception and feeding behavior. Behavioral responses of the crabs to crab pots were observed by time-lapse video. Crabs approached the pot from downstream, and 78.3% of crabs searched less than 90$\sp\circ$ before leaving or entering the pot. The entry success rate was 8.1%. Only large males could begin escape from the bottom panel. Crabs had difficulties in accessing the pot and in escaping from inside the pot. The standard pot appeared inefficient in catching legal males, while it retained many non-legal crabs. I constructed a general model to describe the relationship between catch and soak time for trap fisheries. The model is expressed as $C\sb{t}=ab+a(t-b)\ e\sp{-ct},$ where $C\sb{t}$ is the catch per trap haul at soak time t, and a, b, and c are parameters to be estimated. This model is suitable for both short and long soak times.
• #### Tracing Amino Acid Metabolism Of Harbor Seals (Phoca Vitulina) Using Stable Isotope Techniques

Compound specific isotope techniques were used to trace amino acid metabolism in captive harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) through a two-year controlled feeding trial with either Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi ) or walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma). Techniques were developed for measuring carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of individual amino acids. Carbon and nitrogen trophic enrichments in serum of captive harbor seals varied with the two fish diets, which might have resulted from the changes in metabolic pathway due to the differing dietary protein intake between herring and pollock. Data on serum free amino acid compositions also showed, from a different perspective, that changes in seal metabolism occurred in response to these different feeding regimes. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of individual amino acids varied much more within an organism than across trophic levels, reflecting the distinct amino acid biosynthetic pathways. The similar patterns in relative amino acid carbon isotopic composition at different trophic levels indicated a conservative transfer of delta13C from primary producers to top predators. Nitrogen trophic enrichments in different amino acids were not uniform, depending upon the extent to which a given amino acid was transaminated or deaminated, with several essential amino acids showing lesser variations than most non-essential and branched-chain amino acids. The differences in amino acid isotope ratios among phocids from the North Pacific or Atlantic and their counterparts from the Antarctic reflected the geographic variations in isotopic composition of phytoplankton. The striking similarities in relative amino acid isotopic composition among phocids from the three distinct geographic locations indicated that phytoplankton worldwide had similar biosynthetic pathways during initial amino acid biosynthesis. This has important implications for using individual amino acid isotope ratios in studies of modern and prehistoric marine organisms. Amino acid metabolic pathways governed the varying patterns of 15N enrichments following 15N-labeled amino acid tracer infusions. Tracer experiments further confirmed that phenylalanine, threonine, lysine and probably histidine may be useful as relatively conservative natural biomarkers. This study provided new insight into mechanisms of isotopic trophic dynamics in food web studies and improved our understanding of seal protein metabolism.
• #### Trophic Dynamics In Marine Nearshore Systems Of The Alaskan High Arctic (Kelp, Laminaria, Carbon Isotope, Productivity)

This dissertation describes two ecological studies in the arctic Alaskan nearshore zone: the productivity and growth strategies of arctic kelp and the use of natural carbon isotope abundances to examine food web structure and energy flow in the marine ecosystem. Linear growth of the kelp, Laminaria solidungula is greatest in winter and early spring when nutrients are available for new tissue growth. Since over 90% of this growth occurs in complete darkness beneath a turbid ice canopy, the plant draws on stored food reserves and is in a carbon deficit during the ice covered period. Annual productivity of L. solidungula under these conditions is about 6 g C m('-2) compared to about 10 g C m('-2) if light penetrates the ice canopy. Carbon isotope abundances were used to assess food web structure and energy flow in the Boulder Patch, an isolated kelp bed community, and in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea fauna. Isotopic analyses of the resident fauna of the Boulder Patch revealed that kelp carbon contributes significantly to the diet of many benthic animals, including suspension feeders. Some crustaceans, such as mysids and euphausiids (which are key prey species for fishes, birds and marine mammals), also incorporate large amounts of kelp carbon into their tissues when resident in the Boulder Patch. Across the shelf of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, a distinct gradient in the isotopic composition of marine zooplankton and benthic fauna was related to the intrusion of the Bering Sea water and upwelling in the eastern Beaufort Sea near Barter Island. The ('13)C depletion in fauna of the eastern Beaufort Sea is presumed due to the cycling of ('13)C depleted inorganic carbon into the euphotic zone.