• Evaluating interpretive programs

      Pendergrast, Donald Cameron (1998)
      In the face of budgetary shortfalls there needs to be more, not less interpretive program evaluation. Direct evaluation includes the visitor in the evaluation process. Focus groups were tested to achieve direct evaluation for three types of evaluation: front-end, formative, and summative. These tests led to a simplified focus group technique that combines the evaluation objectives, questioning schedule, data recording, analysis, and reporting into one working document resulting in a more efficient and effective method. The Synthesized Model for integrating evaluation and the program development process is presented. The model links the three types of evaluation to appropriate program development stages. It is suggested that direct evaluation with focus groups would fit the model well.
    • Mapping impacts of education for wilderness management planning

      Foster, Frederick Anthony (1998)
      Wilderness education is considered a key response to abate physical impacts caused by wilderness recreationists, but education's impacts upon the psychological values of wilderness are unknown. This investigation used a wilderness purism scale to measure how minimum impact instruction affects the intensity and quality of a student's wilderness experience and the relation of these expectations and preferences to appreciation, knowledge, and concern for the environment as a whole, i.e., environmental literacy. A wilderness purism scale, a spatial scale, and wilderness management scale measured how wilderness education affects recreationists' limits of unacceptability in wilderness conditions. Effects of wilderness education on multiple perceptions of wilderness specific to particular groups, are explained. Methods of how these can be collected, organized, and mapped using a GIS approach are demonstrated and techniques to build a wilderness experience typology are outlined. The investigation determined that environmental literacy is correlated with wilderness purism. Student's expectations and ethical perspectives toward wilderness became stronger following wilderness leadership education courses, specifically, their perceptions of wildness, experiential factors, and ethical perspectives of the wilderness experience. Educational programs increased respondents' wilderness perceptions and their desired spatial buffer distances from unacceptable conditions in wilderness. Distances from sights and sounds were found to be critical to wildemess recreationists' wilderness experience relating to sensing unacceptable conditions inside wilderness boundaries and "knowing" that unacceptable (human-made) conditions do not exist. Educators may use the findings to better design and assess their program's effectiveness. Results of the methodology could aid Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC) process for wilderness planning. Wilderness managers may use the protocol to plan for the maintenance of wilderness opportunities to meet increasing demands brought about by education. Management must be prepared to protect suitable conditions for this potentially growing population. If managers zone wilderness accordingly to wilderness purism groups, they can protect vast areas from bio/physical impacts by using the processes described in this study. It is a tool for managing wilderness areas for a range of wilderness experiences which will aid in insuring protection of wildlife, ecosystem integrity, and native biodiversity.
    • The Campaign To Establish A Last Great Wilderness: The Arctic National Wildlife Range

      Kaye, Roger W.; Gladden, James (2005)
      In 1960, after nearly a decade of controversy and failed legislative attempts, the Arctic National Wildlife Range was established by an executive order "for the purpose of preserving unique wildlife, wilderness, and recreational values." This is the story of the transformation of this little-known expanse of mountains, forest, and tundra into a place internationally recognized as one of the finest examples of wilderness. This dissertation is a political history of the conflict, examining the roles of key proponents and opponents and the sequence of actions that finally brought the Secretary of Interior to issue the order. More important, it is an exploration of the historic, cultural, philosophical, and scientific underpinnings of the campaign. It focuses upon the beliefs and values, the ideas and idealism, and the hopes and concerns for the future that inspired leaders of the effort, captured the public imagination, and galvanized the political support necessary to overcome powerful opposition. The immediate context of the campaign was the post-World War II transformation of American society. More than in any previous period, postwar America was receptive to the idea of setting an area aside for a unique combination of tangible and intangible values---cultural, symbolic, and spiritual values as well as wildlife, ecological, and recreational values. The controversy reflected growing concerns about the era's unprecedented rate of population growth; economic, industrial, and technological expansion; and consequent environmental alteration. For proponents, it came to symbolize the conflict between seemingly unbridled progress and the need to more carefully consider the environmental consequences of these trends. For opponents, the nine-million acre reservation represented a threat to the new state's economic prosperity, resented federal control of natural resources, and a restriction of the opportunity and freedom they came to Alaska seeking. Rooted in the progressive era split between utilitarian conservation and nature preservation, the campaign was, to a large degree, a contest between competing views of the appropriate relationship between postwar American society and its changing landscape. The view that prevailed reflects the successful integration of the emerging ecologically-based "environmental" perspective into the wilderness movement.
    • Walk Softly With Me: Adventures Of A Woman Big-Game Guide In Alaska

      Mcleod-Everette, Sharon Esther; Murray, John A. (1993)
      Walk Softly With Me: Adventures of a Woman Big-Game Guide in Alaska is a memoir blending adventure, description, dialogue, and humor. The animals and landscapes in Interior Alaska are revealed through the eyes of a woman tackling the male-dominated arena of big-game guiding. The thesis describes the author's evolution from hunting rabbits and tender moose for subsistence to leading clients in search of trophies. In an attempt to provide an objective view of the ethics of hunting and game management, the author explores the question of why we hunt and our relationship with the animals we pursue.<p> The thesis is written in informal first person point of view, beginning with early homesteading life and moving through scenes with hunters and other guides. The natural history of animals is woven into the narrative, as are the changes that the author experiences. The thesis culminates with the author's introspective look at why she guides and whether she will continue. <p>