• 1985 Alaska Field Survey of Part-Loading of Diesel-Electric Generators

      Johnson, Ronald; Gray, John (1986-03)
      By conducting a survey by mail, by phone and in person, we obtained information on 356 diesel electric generator sets in Alaska in 1985. User groups surveyed included the Alaska Village Electric Cooperative (AVEC), public school districts, those certified by the Alaska Public Utilities Commission, the Tanana Chiefs, and the Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities. Our survey focused on part-load operation. We found that a lack of detailed site-specific data precludes making a general quantitative statement about part loading. The most detailed data, by far, are those collected by AVEC. Those data plus some other information indicate that many gensets (some for good reasons) are underloaded, especially in the summer. The simple algebraic average July and January loadings for the 44 AVEC systems surveyed are close to 35% and 50%, respectively. Minimum loads as low as 15% occurred in the summer. AVEC recognizes the potential for improvement and has increased its system-wide efficiency by 25% from 1980 to 1985.
    • 2007–2016 FATAL TRAFFIC CRASHES IN ALASKA, HAWAII, IDAHO, AND WASHINGTON AND CHARACTERISTICS OF TRAFFIC FATALITIES INVOLVING HAWAIIANS AND CSET MINORITIES

      Prevedouros, Panos; Bhatta, Kishor; Miah, M. Mintu (2019-04)
      Data for this comparative study were collected from the Fatality Analysis and Reporting System (FARS) for the years 2007 to 2016 for the states of Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, and Washington. The rates of roadway fatalities, especially those of American Indians (which include Aleuts and Eskimos), Guamanians, Samoans, and Native Hawaiians (which include part-Hawaiians) were the focus of the study; they are referred to as “CSET Minorities” in this report; all other races are referred to as “All Others.” Three main contributing factors for fatal crashes—alcohol use, speeding, and non-usage of restraint—were analyzed for each population group. CSET states are lagging behind many countries in terms of traffic safety. Significant differences in the involvement of alcohol, speeding, and non-usage of restraint were indicated between CSET Minority fatalities and All Others. For all types of crashes examined, CSET Minorities exhibited statistically significant differences, nearly all of them being higher or worse than All Others, except for motorcycle crashes. In Hawaii, the proportion of Hawaiians in the population is steady at approximately 21%, but their proportion in FARS database is at 28% and rising. Aggregate data analysis of traffic fatalities focused on three rural, indigenous, tribal, and isolated (RITI) communities in Hawaii, the entire Big Island of Hawaii, and the rural communities of Waianae and Waimanalo on the island of Oahu. All three locations are known for their relatively large number of Hawaiians and part-Hawaiians. The percentage of Hawaiians in traffic fatalities was 32% on the Big Island, 50% in Waianae, and 78% in Waimanalo.
    • Agricultural limestone demand requirements and supply production in Alaska, a thesis

      Sanusi, A.C. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1983)
      The need for agricultural limestone to neutralize acidic soils and enhance plant growth in the Agricultural Project Areas of the state has prompted this research project on limestone demand requirements and production in Alaska. Based on the possible maximum agricultural lands (500,000 acres) available for production within the next 10 years <1983-1992) and the average agricultural limestone requirements of 2 tons per acre, the maximum requirements of 1,000,000 tons or an average of 100,000 tons per year over the period have been determined. This study identifies limestone deposits in the State of Alaska and suggests three suitable outcrops for use as agricultural limestone. It further describes economic methods of mining, crushing and transporting the finished product from anyone of the selected outcrops to the agricultural areas and thereby arriving at the delivered cost per ton for each of three alternatives of $77.68, $78.00 and $91.24 respectively and $81.26 per ton when production is from one outcrop supplying all three agricultural areas. A simulation of cost benefit to Alaskan farmers under various scenarios is also presented. The evaluation of agricultural limestone production from native Alaskan limestone has shown that locally produced limestone is more economic for and attractive to Alaskan farmers than imported limestone costing $200 per ton.
    • Air Convection Embankment Experimental Feature Design

      Goering, Douglas J. (1997-12)
      Prior research work (Goering and Kumar, 1996; and Goering, 1996) has indicated that Air Convection Embankments are a promising technique for limiting the thaw settlement damage that often occurs when roadway embankments are constructed in regions of warm permafrost. These studies lead to the proposal of a full-scale experimental Air Convection Embankment (ACE) to be constructed through the Federal Experimental Features in Construction Program. A work plan for including an ACE in the Parks/Chena Ridge Interchange project (Federal Project No. I-0A4-5(7), State of Alaska Project No. 63538) was forwarded and approved in 1994. This project report discusses the design and construction of the Parks/Chena Ridge ACE expermimental feature which occurred during 1996 and 1997.
    • Air-Flow Dindows - an Evaluation of Their Potential for use in Arctic and Sub-Arctic Environments

      Lemon, Frank L. (1986-06)
      Air-flow windows, developed in Scandinavia, are being considered for application in arctic and sub-arctic environments. Air-flow windows consist of a double or triple-glazed outer sash and a single glazed inner sash. Room air is returned to the building heating, ventilating and air-conditioning system through the window every cavity existing between the inner and outer sashes, thus warming the inner pane of glass. Air-flow windows have the potential of improving room comfort and reducint building heat losses, particularly if the outdoor air requirement is greater than or at least can be matched to the air extracted through the windows. A sample air-flow window was tested in a guarded hot box at various air flow rates at cold side temperatures ranging from -50(degrees)F to +10(degrees)F. Based on the test results, U-values were calculated for winter night time conditions. The economics of this window system are discussed. The energy balance of an air-flow window is established.
    • Air-to-Air Heat Recovery Devices for Small Buildings

      Zarling, John P. (1981-01)
      With the escalation of fuel costs, many people are turning to tighter, better insulated buildings as a means of achieving energy conservation. This is especially true in northern climates, where heating seasons are long and severe. Installing efficient well sealed vapor barriers and weather stripping and caulking around doors and windows reduces cold air infiltration but can lead to damaging moisture buildup, as well as unpleasant and even unhealthy accumulations of odors and gases. To provide the necessary ventilation air to maintain air quality in homes while holding down energy costs, air-to-air heat exchangers have been proposed for residential and other simple structures normally not served by an active or forced ventilation system. Four basic types of air-to-air heat exchangers are suited for small scale use: rotary, coil-loop, heat pipe, and plate. The operating principles of each of these units are presented and their individual advantages and disadvantages are discusses. A test program has been initiated to evaluate the performance of a few commercial units as well as several units designed and/or built at the University of Alaska. Preliminary results from several of these tests are presented along with a critique on their design.
    • Air-to-Air Heat Recovery Devices for Small Buildings

      Zarling, John P. (1982-05)
      With the escalation of fuel costs, many people are turning to tighter, better insulated buildings as a means of achieving energy conservation. This is especially true in norther climates, where heating seasons are long and severe. Installing efficient well sealed vapor barriers and weather stripping and caulking around doors and windows reduces cold air infiltration but can lead to damaging moisture buildup, as well as unpleasant and even unhealthy accumulations of odors and gases. To provide the necessary ventilation air to maintain air quality in homes while holding down energy costs, air-to-air heat exchangers have been proposed for residential and other simple structures normally not served by an active or forced ventilation system. Four basic types of air-to-air heat exchangers are suited for small scale use: rotary, coil-loop, heat pipe, and plate. The operating principles of each of these units are presented and their individual advantages and disadvantages are discussed. A test program has been initiated to evaluate the performance of a few commercial units as well as several units designed and/or built at the University of Alaska. Preliminary results from several of these tests are presented along with a critique on their design.
    • Alaska coal-a bibliography

      Triplehorn, J. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1982)
      Coal has been mined and used in Alaska for more than a century, and still is the principal source of energy for power generation for the interior Alaska region. Recent events that have caused increases in the cost of energy have spurred new world-wide interest in greater use of lower cost coal in place of oil. In the past few years, there has been increased interest in Alaska coal by private investors, evidenced by stepped-up exploration activity. Interest from the Pacific Rim nations is shown by the signing of contracts between Korean buyers and the Usibelli Coal Mine; and the entrance of Korean capital into exploring the Bering River Field. Japan is continuing pilot plant testing of Beluga coal. All of this indicates a rapidly growing interest in Alaska's coal and it seemed appropriate to have a comprehensive bibliography of Alaskan coals available to help the emerging coal mining industry in Alaska. Since a literature search is the first task of every company that wants to enter the Alaskan coal. mining industry, the time seemed appropriate to compile a comprehensive bibliography of Alaskan coal to eliminate duplication of effort and guarantee the industry the most comprehensive source of information. Julia Triplehorn is uniquely qualified for this task. She is a reference librarian by profession, with background in both geology and library science, and long experience in bibliographic searches on numerous other subjects. She has done an admirable job in searching all available sources, and has added an inclusive index that took time, dedication, and patience--a job well done. The School of Mineral Industry, Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, is pleased to make this bibliography available to industry and all those involved in research working toward the development of Alaskan resources.
    • Alaska Marine Highway Systems Analysis

      Metz, Paul; Taylor, Mark; Brigham, Tom; Larocque, Shephane; Pierce, Jana; Arledge, Ashleigh; Calvin, Jim; Harrington, Erin; Miller, Scott; Lingwood, Bob; et al. (Alaska University Transportation Center, 2011)
    • Alaska mining and water quality

      Zemansky, Gil M.; Tilsworth, Timothy; Cook, Donald J. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1976-06)
      The Institute of Water Resources has sought financial assistance for some time in an attempt to initiate research relative to the impact of mining on water quality. Attempts were made as early as 1971 by Dr. Timothy Tilsworth and later by Dr. Donald Cook and Dr. Sage Murphy. These investigators anticipated growth in placer gold mining and the development of natural resources in Alaska during a period of national and environmental concern. The subsequent energy "crisis," the major increase in the price of gold on the world market, and dwindling nonrenewable resource supplies have resulted in large-scale mineral exploration in Alaska. This exploration, coupled with development of the trans-Alaska oil pipeline, has attracted considerable capital for potential investment and development in Alaska. Expected industrial growth has already started and major new projects are "just around the corner." Yet, as of 1976, no major research effort has occurred to determine the extent of or potential for water quality impacts from mining operations in Alaska. Recently a series of interdisciplinary research projects have been completed in Canada; however, the application of Canadian data to Alaskan problems is uncertain. Although, state and federal government agencies have been advised and are aware of this potential problem and lack of baseline data they have not sought out new information or rational solutions. Even now, with deadlines of Public Law 92-500 at hand, some regulatory agencies give the impression of attempting to ignore the situation. Interim limitations are proposed and permits are issued with no discernible rationale or basis. Data have not been obtained relative to the Alaskan mining operations and thus are not available for use in seeking solutions compatible with mining and environmental protection. Numbers appear to have been arbitrarily assigned to permits and water quality standards. When permits are issued, self-monitoring requirements are negligible or nonexistent. Nor have regulatory agencies demonstrated the ability or inclination to monitor mining operations or enforce permits and water quality standards. It was hoped that the project would bring together miners, environmentalists, and regulators in a cooperative effort to identify the problems and seek solutions. The investigators recognized the political sensitivity of the subject matter but proceeded optimistically. Relatively good cooperation, though not total, occurred early in the project. In April 1976, a symposium was held to exchange ideas and determine the state-of-the-art. Although the symposium had good attendance and an exchange of information occurred, the symposium itself was somewhat of a disappointment. With few exceptions, the participants aligned on one side or the other in preconceived fixed positions. Some even chose not to attend and were therefore able to avoid the issues. Little hard data was presented. Optimistically, some of the miners, environmentalists, and regulators are prepared to resolve their differences. This report, hopefully, will be of benefit to them. It is our experience that miners and environmentalists share a love of the land that is uniquely Alaska. We feel that technology is available for application to this problem for those who care about doing the job right in the "last frontier." Whether or not it will be effectively applied to protect Alaska's water resources is a question which remains unanswered.
    • Alaska Mining and Water Quality: Proceedings of the Symposium

      University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1979-04
      Very little information on Alaska mining activities and resulting environmental changes has been available. The objectives of this research were to: 1) review the literature pertinent to water quality deterioration resulting from mining activities, and 2) conduct a symposium, "Alaska Mining and Water Quality," in Fairbanks, Alaska. Alaska Mining and Water Quality (IWR Report 74) was published in June 1976. The report covers effluent limitations and water quality standards, physical parameters, chemical/biological parameters, and effects of Alaska mining on water quality. Over 300 references are cited, and a description of settling pond theory is appended. The literature review Focused primarily on mining activities in Canada and the contiguous portion of the United States. The main emphasis of the literature review was directed at gold mining and coal mining operations; however, other mining activities relevant to Alaska were examined. The April 9, 1976, symposium was meant to achieve: 1) information dissemination, 2) increased and more effective communication, 3) env1ronmental awareness, and 4) identification of environmental problems and potential solutions associated with mining activities in Alaska. Although there was good attendance and an exchange of information, the other objectives of the symposium were not attained. With few exceptions, both speakers and participants were aligned in extreme positions, and they presented little actual data to support their conclusions. The purpose of this publication is to present differing viewpoints on important and controversial issues in Alaskan water resources with the hope that effective solutions can be achieved through consideration of all facets of the problems.
    • Alaska Road Weather Project | Technical Performance Assessment Report | Fairbanks Field Demonstration 2013-2014

      Chapman, Mike; Linden, Seth; Burghardt, Crystal (Alaska University Transportation Center, Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities, 2014)
    • Alaska University Transportation Center 2007 Annual Report

      Alaska University Transportation Center; University of Alaska Fairbanks (Alaska University Transportation Center, 2007)
    • Alaska University Transportation Center 2008 Annual Report

      Alaska University Transportation Center; University of Alaska Fairbanks (Alaska University Transportation Center, 2008)
    • Alaska University Transportation Center 2009 Annual Report

      Alaska University Transportation Center; University of Alaska Fairbanks (Alaska University Transportation Center, 2009)
    • Alaska University Transportation Center 2010 Annual Report

      Alaska University Transportation Center; University of Alaska Fairbanks (Alaska University Transportation Center, 2010)
    • Alaska University Transportation Center 2011 Annual Report

      Alaska University Transportation Center; University of Alaska Fairbanks (Alaska University Transportation Center, 2011)
    • Alaska University Transportation Center 2012 Annual Report

      Alaska University Transportation Center; University of Alaska Fairbanks (Alaska University Transportation Center, 2012)
    • Alaska University Transportation Center 2013 Annual Report

      Alaska University Transportation Center; University of Alaska Fairbanks (Alaska University Transportation Center, 2013)