Now showing items 1-20 of 9874

    • Alaska's Economy and Population 1959-2020

      Hill, Alexandra; Goldsmith, Scott (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1997)
      Understanding Alaska's economy and population helps us evaluate current and future transportation needs. This report summarizes how the economy and population have changed since Alaska became a state and how they are likely to change over the next 25 years.
    • Alaska's Dependence on State Spending

      Goldsmith, Scott; Gorsuch, Lee (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1990)
      It would be hard to exaggerate Alaska’s economic dependence on state government spending. State spending supports nearly one of every three jobs. Three of every ten dollars of personal income grow out of state spending. If state officials balance the budget entirely through spending cuts, economic growth could slow dramatically over the next decade, costing Alaska 35,000 new jobs. We can’t avoid the economic slowdown that the fiscal gap will produce, but we can help ease its effects by a combination of more efficient use of our assets, spending cuts, cost containment, and new taxes or other new revenues. This paper analyzes how different state fiscal policies could reduce economic disruption from the fiscal gap in the coming years.
    • Factors contributing to post school employment for students with special needs: A Meta-Synthesis

      Haas, Tina (University of Alaska Southeast, 2019)
      As the number of students qualifying for special education services continues to grow and the demands on districts to serve these students continues to change, it is important to investigate what is working. To help these students transition out of high school and into the working world, the transition plan that includes employability (the quality of being suitable for paid work) is an area that should be investigated. The work-based learning programs that have success are the ones we should emulate as it pertains to our growing population of students we serve with special needs. Additionally, it would be helpful to know what other factors contribute to a students’ success in being employed after high school. This meta-synthesis of the literature on success factors and successful school-to-work curriculum models will help guide those of us in this field to start to engage in and begin to implement or support these different components.
    • Alaska Timber Harvest and Production - 1994

      Hill, Alexandra; Hull, Dan (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1995)
      Alaska's richest timber resource is its coastal forest, a narrow band of temperate rain forest extending from the southern border of the state north and west to Kodiak Island. Sitka spruce is a major component of this forest, with western hemlock in the southeastern area, replaced by mountain hemlock west of Prince William Sound. This report tries to provide regular and timely information about the timber and wood products industry. It includes data for the entire state and for three regions within the state, and brings together previously available data on public timber harvests and wood products exports, as well as new estimates of private timber harvests. We hope the data will be useful for both public and private planning efforts, as well as informed policy debate over timber management and development of the forest products industry.
    • Alaska Sustainable Gross State Product

      Larson, Eric (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1999)
      Over the past ten years, the idea of "sustainable development" has been promoted as a way to reconcile economic development and environmental protection. With this popularity has come many different -- and often conflicting -- definitions and interpretations of "sustainability." To help clarify the meaning of "sustainable development," this paper offers a very basic definition of sustainability. This particular definition is measurable and allows us monitor whether or not we are achieving sustainability. This paper presents the assumptions underlying the basic definition of sustainability and then describe the methods for measuring it using an indicator called "sustainable gross state product." Presented at the "Can the Last Frontier Have A Sustainable Future" conference in Anchorage, Alaska.
    • Alaska State Government Spending Since 1979: Tracing The Growth

      Goldsmith, Scott (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1990)
      During the decade of the 1980s the state of Alaska collected $46.3 billion (1989 $) in revenues, $31.8 billion from the production and ownership of petroleum resources, $8.2 billion as earnings on financial assets (the majority from the Permanent Fund), $3.2 billion from the federal government, and $3.1 billion from all other sources. Since 1979 state government has been on a spending spree of unparalleled proportions. This paper is an attempt to analyze the composition of that spending and in particular to identify the spending which is over and above a "maintenance level". It is a historical analysis but the objective is to use this information to look · into the future, to try to understand how state government will evolve in the next 2 decades. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Western Economic Association in San Diego, California July 2, 1990
    • Holding on to Listening: Applying Current Research to Emergent Literacy: A Meta-Synthesis

      Frisque, Susan (University of Alaska Southeast, 2017)
      This meta-synthesis investigates connections between listening and emergent literacy. Recent articles in the fields of educational research and educational neuroscience are reviewed and summarized. Seven themes emerged from this analysis of 48 articles, included in this meta- synthesis. These emergent themes, or theme clusters, include: (a) the development, or lack of development of a left hemisphere “reading network”; (b) links between sensory and literacy skills; (c) correlations between language and musical abilities; (d) environmental factors impacting language and literacy; (e) vocabulary acquisition; (f) aural and oral strategies, or strategies involving listening and speaking; and (g) computer aided instruction.
    • The History of Special Education: The Changes That Made Special Education: A Meta-Synthesis

      (Simonsmeier) Pereira, Emily (University of Alaska Southeast, 2015)
      For centuries we have been documenting the world around us, taking note of every change. Most of the changes are small and over looked, but once they are coupled with a few other small changes they become something big and meaningful. Special education has a history just like that, it started with people wanting change, people advocating, acts and laws being wrote and pushed through Congress. Before the world knew it all these small tasks combined together in history to create a momentous event in history. No longer were students with disabilities forced to stay at home, they could now attend public school, and with the years to follow rights. Rights to have education just the same as any other student. The right to learn in environment that is best for them. The right to funding to help provide the services they need. The right to learn. This meta-synthesis of the literature on history of special education investigates the changes that took place throughout education to create special education and the services and programs that help better our students.
    • His and Her Brains? Effectively Educating Our Boys: A Meta-Synthesis

      Auldridge, Gina (University of Alaska Southeast, 2019)
      The statistical data from the U.S. Department of Education shows a decline in the performance and graduation rates for boys since 1967. By contrast, performance and graduation rates for girls has steadily increased and actually passed the boys in 1981. As reading scores for boys with disabilities continues to be among the lowest in the nation, girls are becoming more competitive in math, science, and AP courses. As this trend has continued in these opposing directions for some time, it has come to the attention of administrators, educators, and even reporters when more schools fail to make adequate yearly progress towards student performance measurements. This meta-synthesis of the literature on the academic achievement of boys as compared to girls examines the effectiveness of brain-based instruction and what impact it has on those outcomes.
    • Deconstructing Asperger Syndrome: A Meta-Synthesis

      Herron, Douglas (University of Alaska Southeast, 2015)
      This meta-analysis of the literature examines the unique attributes of Asperger’s syndrome (AS), the uncertainty that has been created with the newly revised Diagnostic Statistical Manual (DSM-5), and what these changes mean. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to use the analysis as a platform to question and “deconstruct” the pre-conceived notions and beliefs about the disorder. Asperger’s syndrome is conceptualized as a disability. This way of thinking can cause one to miss the hidden strengths or abilities that those with Asperger’s syndrome possess. What is often considered a disability may in fact be viewed as ability.
    • Climate change, moose, and subsistence harvest in Arctic Alaska

      Zhou, Jiake; Kielland, Knut; Kofinas, Gary; Tape, Ken D.; Prugh, Laura (2020-08)
      Arctic climate is resulting in transformative changes to Arctic social-ecological systems. With warming-induced increases in tall-shrubs, moose are expanding their range northwards. However, the socio-economic implications of this ecological change are unclear. Using field surveys, interviews, and modeling, I assessed the impact of climate change on moose harvest by hunters of Nuiqsut, an Inupiat community in arctic Alaska. Based on a 568 km transect of field sampling on shrubs and herbivore browsing levels, I estimated that the minimum shrub height for moose occurrence was ≥ 81 cm (95% CI: 65 - 96 cm). Patterns of moose geographic distribution mirrored tall-shrub distribution in arctic riparian areas. I also found that snowshoe hares may impact moose habitat via potential resource competition. Habitat suitability models, using Maxent and simpler temperature-threshold models, predicted that moose habitat may more than double by 2099 if current warming trends continue. The model outputs also suggested that climate warming will likely increase habitat connectivity, enhancing range expansion of moose in the Arctic. Finally, I used a coupled social-ecological systems (SES) framework to assess the implications of changes in tall-shrub habitat to moose harvest under future warming. Despite the expected increase in moose habitat and distribution, simulations of an agent-based model showed that the future may not translate into greater harvest opportunities, largely due to the limitation of river navigability for hunters. These findings provide an example in which rapid landscape and resource change may not translate into increased harvest. The integrated assessment with a SES framework revealed new and surprising outcomes, not evident when evaluating social and ecological components separately. This analysis highlighted how a coupled social-ecological framework can be used to assess the effects of climate change on ecosystem services.
    • Sea urchin ecology: effects of food-web modification, climate change, and community structure

      Weitzman, Benjamin P.; Esler, Daniel; Konar, Brenda H.; Hardy, Sarah M.; Johnson, Mark A.; Tinker, Martin T. (2020-08)
      Ecosystem structure and function of temperate rocky reef habitats are subject to change as a result of food-web modification, climate change, and changes in biological community interactions. Sea urchins are a global driver of change in nearshore marine habitats though their ability to heavily graze marine vegetation and force rocky reef ecosystems from kelp forest to sea urchin barren ground states. The Aleutian Archipelago in southwest Alaska provided an ideal natural laboratory to study sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus spp.) ecology following the functional loss of the keystone predator, the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) during the 1990s. The objectives of this dissertation were to 1) determine the important drivers of sea urchin demographics following the functional loss of their keystone predator; 2) determine how projected ocean warming and acidification may affect sea urchin physical condition; and 3) identify biological drivers of sea urchin recruitment in both kelp forest and barren ground habitats. To determine demographic drivers, I used a time series of benthic habitat, sea urchin demographic, and environmental data, dating back almost forty years. In the absence of sea otters, environmental conditions, specifically ocean temperatures, became more important to sea urchin demographics, but recruitment was the primary process affecting the resultant abundance and size class structure over time. To understand how predicted ocean warming and acidification could impact S. polyacanthus survival, growth, calcification, gonad development, and energy content, a 108-day laboratory experiment was conducted. This experiment determined that temperature caused a greater reduction in survival than acidification, and that projected changes in temperature and acidification will result in investment trade-offs between reproduction and maintenance or growth of somatic and calcified tissues. To determine how recruitment varied between kelp forest and sea urchin habitats, fine-scale surveys of benthic community structure found that specific taxa, and not overall community structure, correlated with sea urchin recruitment. Results from this dissertation will allow managers to make predictions about how sea urchin demography will change as a result of keystone predator loss and climate change and how that will affect nearshore community structure and function. Overall, my dissertation establishes likely pathways by which coastal habitats may change over time, in a system no longer under strong top-down control.
    • In pursuit of harm reduction in the Alaskan context: patient cultural explanatory models of addiction and treatment outcomes for a medically-assisted program utilizing a buprenorphine/naloxone formulation

      Vasquez, Ángel R.; Campbell, Kendra; Lopez, Ellen; Gifford, Valerie; Gonzalez, Vivian (2020-08)
      This study explored the process of completing a private-for-profit medically-assisted treatment (MAT) program which treats opioid use disorder in a semi-rural community in Alaska. The goal of the study was to answer two broad research questions: (a) did patients get better during the medically-assisted treatment program, and (b) what characterized patient experiences participating in the MAT program? Limited research has been conducted to understand patient experiences of completing medically-assisted treatment in small communities and how various factors may impact treatment outcomes and recovery trajectories. To achieve this goal, a mixed methods case study approach was conducted to evaluate changes in symptom distress and characterize the experience of patients who participated in the program. Three Phases were implemented. Phase I involved archival data analysis of a 22 patient dataset was conducted to assess pre-post treatment outcomes. In Phase II three participants were interviewed who initiated in the program to explore patient treatment themes. Phase III involved co-interpretation of preliminary findings MAT program providers to synthesize findings and gain insights into systemic factors that may have impacted participant experiences. The three-phase research study revealed three major findings. First, MAT patient program completers in our sample who utilized buprenorphine/naloxone in conjunction with counseling experienced a statistically significant reduction in psychological distress with a large observed effect size (Phase I). Second, themes that emerged from semi-structured interviews suggest motivation and treatment process factors play an important role in treatment success (Phase II). Finally, community stakeholders on the provider treatment team were consulted to more deeply understand why it is important to assess patient needs and co-interpret key study findings (Phase III).
    • Trophic structure of rocky intertidal communities in contrasting high-latitude environments

      Siegert, Danielle; Iken, Katrin; Konar, Brenda; Lindeberg, Mandy (2020-08)
      Coastal ecosystems in high latitudes are increasingly impacted by glacial melt and river discharge due to climate change. One way to understand ecosystem responses to these stressors is assessing trophic relationships. The goal of this study was to better understand how hydrographic conditions influence trophic structure in high-latitude rocky intertidal systems. I compared the trophic structure of rocky intertidal assemblages in two regions in the northern Gulf of Alaska that comprise the same regional species pool but are hydrographically distinct, one glacially influenced and one primarily marine influenced. Common macroalgal and invertebrate taxa, as well as particulate organic matter (POM) were sampled at three rocky intertidal communities in each region in 2017 and 2018. Food web structure was compared using trophic metrics based on the distribution of shared taxa in isotopically-derived (delta¹³C and delta¹⁵N) trophic niche space. I found that trophic niche space in the glacially-influenced rocky intertidal system was larger, driven by larger ranges in both carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values. In particular, the lower delta¹³C values in Kamishak Bay suggest that an additional food source, most likely terrestrial organic material from glacial discharge, was incorporated into the food web. This supported the hypothesis that patterns in food web structure differed based on hydrographic influences to maintain overall stability. Isotopic evenness, i.e., the distribution of the shared taxa within trophic space, did not differ between the two regions. Macroalgae were overall a more important food source than POM in both regions, and even more so in the glacially-influenced region, where macroalgae may be an energetically beneficial food source compared to silt-laden glacial inputs. This study showed that common intertidal taxa have high tropic flexibility enabling them to respond to variable food sources under a variety of environmental conditions. As hypothesized, taxa in food webs occupying a larger trophic niche space engaged in more heterogeneous trophic pathways and used diverse resources depending on local environmental conditions, making these systems more stable to perturbations affecting a single resource. The common taxa of high-latitude rocky intertidal systems studied here are responding to current levels of glacial input with more diverse resource use, but it remains to be seen how well those systems are suited to maintain trophic stability with an expected increase in glacial stress from climate warming.
    • Safety analysis of off-highway vehicles use within public rights-of-way in Alaska

      Sayre, Tristan; Belz, Nathan; Barnes, David; Falchetto, Augusto (2020-08)
      Many Alaskans own and operate off-highway vehicles (OHVs) for recreational purposes or for use as primary and secondary modes of transportation. However, the reported crash rate shows that 80 on-road crashes, resulting in five fatalities, occur each year statewide. As a result, the use of OHVs has been identified as a safety concern in the Alaska State Highway Safety Improvement Plan. Minimal research dedicated to understanding OHV use in Alaska exists which limits the potential for improvements that address safety concerns in an equitable fashion. The research presented here contributes to better understanding of on-road OHV use through observational and retrospective analysis. Field-based observations were conducted within highway rights-of-way in 14 strategic locations across Alaska to quantify OHV use and the risk-taking behaviors of riding without helmets, passengers riding without a designated seat, and riding unlawfully on the road. Additional risk factors from the field observations and Alaska Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) crash data for the period from 2000 through 2016 were identified using the Chi-Square test for independence. Spatial analysis of the Alaska DMV crash data for the period from 2009 through 2016 tested for complete spatial randomness of crashes and identified clusters of crashes by frequency and severity using neighborhood point density statistics. Frequent OHV use was observed with daily traffic volumes exceeding 40 vehicles per day in three field study locations. Several risk-tolerant behaviors were observed including users riding without helmets and vehicles carrying passengers without a designated seat an average of 70 and 20 percent of the time, respectively. Additionally, over half the OHV users were observed to be riding unlawfully using the road. Risk-tolerant behaviors were most frequently observed in communities where on-road use is legal and happened to be coincident with the highest on-road use rates. Overrepresented risk factors for high crash severity incidents included riding at night, in summer, on unpaved roads, on local roads or collectors, in rural areas, for single-vehicle crashes with the occupant not using safety equipment and riding under the influence of alcohol. Crashes were observed to be clustered around towns with the highest frequencies occurring near town centers. The prevalence of risk-tolerant riding behaviors and unlawful on-road riding indicates the need for improvements to existing laws and the education and enforcement thereof. Changes must address the unique needs of users while also considering local jurisdiction such that safety can be improved while also maintain transport equity for residents of rural and isolated communities in Alaska.
    • Sea otters in Southeast Alaska: subsistence harvest and ecological effects in seagrass communities

      Raymond, Wendel W.; Eckert, Ginny L.; Beaudreau, Anne H.; Galloway, Aaron W.E.; Mueter, Franz J. (2020-08)
      The recovery of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) to Southeast Alaska is a conservation success story, but their increasing population raises questions about sea otter population dynamics and the ecological role of this top-level predator. In Chapter 1, we addressed these questions by investigating patterns and population effects of subsistence sea otter harvest. Subsistence harvest reduced populations at a small scale, with potential to slow or stop population growth, but across Southeast Alaska the population continues to grow, even with an average 3% subsistence harvest rate. In Chapters 2 and 3 we investigated the ecological role of sea otters in seagrass (Zostera marina) communities. When we tested for generality in a sea otter - seagrass trophic cascade across a large spatial scale in Southeast Alaska, we found a positive relationship between sea otters and seagrass. However, we found no evidence of a relationship between crabs and epifauna, suggesting that the ecological mechanisms in Southeast Alaska may differ from other regions. Our comparison of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes (SI) to assess the role of sea otters on trophic structure and energetic pathways of seagrass beds found little effect of sea otters in overall community trophic niche space, suggesting similar carbon sources and food chain length in seagrass meadows regardless of sea otters. Conversely, the FA profiles of diverse consumer suggest variation in dietary sources with and without sea otters. This result suggests that the trophic cascade may not be the only or primary energetic pathway in Southeast Alaska seagrass communities. In all, our studies have revealed that sea otters in Southeast Alaska are linked to both people and a common Southeast Alaska nearshore habitat, seagrass. These results describe the varied interactions of a recovering top predator and highlight a need to consider these diverse interactions in resource management, conservation, and ecological research.
    • Life cycles of the kelps Saccharina latissima and Alaria marginata: implications for mariculture and ecology in Alaska

      Raymond, Annie E.T.; Stekoll, Michael S.; Eckert, Ginny L.; Bergstrom, Carolyn A. (2020-08)
      Kelp farming has the potential to economically diversify coastal communities of Alaska while offering other ecosystem services, including carbon sequestration and mitigation of eutrophication. Two bottlenecks to the expansion of the industry are understanding the natural kelp life cycle and manipulating the life cycle to produce seed. We address these questions with specific research aimed to increase knowledge of the expected natural variability of the kelp life cycle and test methods to effectively manipulate storage of kelp seed string to add flexibility to the kelp farming industry. First, in Chapter 1, we documented the patterns of sporophyte fertility for two commercially important kelp species, Saccharina latissima and Alaria marginata, in the wild. We found S. latissima exhibited both annual and perennial life history varying by location and year, with an increasing proportion of fertile sporophytes present in the fall and winter season. In contrast, A. marginata displayed a predictable annual life history, recruiting in spring with the proportion of fertile sporophytes increasing into the fall. Results from Chapter 1 suggest A. marginata has a more reliable brood stock availability and, therefore, has the potential to be a suitable commercial crop. Ecologically, Chapter 1 results suggest A. marginata may contribute consistently to habitat across Alaska in spring and summer months. In Chapter 2, we tested how different culture conditions, including light, temperature, and culture media, affected gametophyte growth with the goal of developing storage methods for kelp seed string. We found that low temperature is effective in slowing gametophyte growth and reducing gametogenesis and is the best condition for seed storage. Further experiments tested how storage in cold temperatures affects seed quality, leading to the development of a method called "cold banking," which enables extended seed storage or staggering of seed string for at least an additional thirty-six days in a storage setting without adverse effects to sporophyte density and length at the time of outplanting and up to three weeks after outplanting. Ecologically, Chapter 2 results demonstrate the diversification of microscopic stages used as an overwintering strategy by S. latissima. As the kelp mariculture industry is expected to grow in Alaska and around the world, we hope this information will be a jumping-off point for research promoting productive and sustainable commercial kelp production.
    • Long-term shifts in community structure, growth, and relative abundance of nearshore Arctic fishes: a response to changing environmental conditions

      Priest, Justin T.; Sutton, Trent M.; Mueter, Franz J.; Raborn, Scott W. (2020-08)
      Environmental conditions influence the presence, species composition, abundance, and growth of fish species in the nearshore Arctic ecosystem. With ongoing shifts in Arctic conditions due to climate change, how fish communities and individual species respond to such changes to environmental variability more broadly is unknown. This study analyzed catch and length data from a long-term fish monitoring project near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, 2001-2018, to quantify the effects of environmental variables on the overall fish community and on the juveniles of two important whitefishes, Arctic Cisco Coregonus autumnalis and Broad Whitefish Coregonus nasus. Abundance data (n = 1.78 million fish) from daily sampling (July-August) at four stationary sampling locations showed distinct shifts in fish community metrics. Since 2001, annual species richness has significantly increased by one species per decade while water temperature warmed by over 1.4°C. The species composition based on biweekly catch data has significantly changed across years, with distinct variations among sample locations and throughout the season. Species composition was significantly affected by both salinity and water temperature. The effects of environmental conditions on growth showed that water temperature was positively and linearly associated with increases in growth for juvenile whitefish, while salinity negatively affected growth of age-0 Arctic Cisco. Changes in the abundance of juvenile whitefishes were related to both water temperature and salinity. Results from all analyses suggest that species positively associated with observed warming in the aquatic environment are generalist species such as Broad Whitefish. This study concluded that continued climate change, and especially Arctic warming, will likely increase growth, change the species composition, and alter abundance in the Arctic nearshore ecosystem. These changes will have impacts on subsistence harvests and on upper trophic level species that prey on nearshore fishes.
    • Growth and reproductive rates of calanoid copepods in the northern Bering and southern Chukchi Seas

      Poje, Alexandra; Hopcroft, Russ; Coyle, Kenneth; Danielson, Seth (2020-08)
      Egg production and copepodite growth rates were measured for the calanoid copepods Pseudocalanus spp., Calanus marshallae/glacialis, and Metridia pacifica in the northern Bering and southern Chukchi Seas during June of 2017 and 2018. For all taxa, instantaneous growth rates generally decreased with increasing copepodite stage, though the differences between most stages was not significant. The growth rates for Pseudocalanus spp. averaged 0.03 ± 0.002 day⁻¹, Calanus spp. 0.09 ± 0.004 day⁻¹, and M. pacifica 0.05 ± 0.03 day⁻¹. Egg production rates increased with prosome length for all species, but when standardized to body weight this trend reversed. All Pseudocalanus species had similar weight-specific egg production (SEP): 0.18 ± 0.01 for P. acuspes, 0.15 ± 0.00 for P. newmani, and 0.11 ± 0.02 for P. minutus. The SEP for Calanus was considerably lower, 0.09 ± 0.01, while for M. pacifica it was 0.11 ± 0.01. These rates suggest considerable discrepancies between growth rates and egg production weights that we propose are due to differences in life history strategies. Pseudocalanus reproduce nearly year round, they appear to invest less in somatic growth, preferring to quickly reach their adult stage where they invest heavily into reproduction. Calanus spp. have 1 or possibly 2 generations per year in this region, they invest more into somatic growth in order to ensure their population is ready for a reproductive season timed to the spring phytoplankton bloom. The more omnivorous M. pacifica is also likely limited to 1 or 2 generations, although their ability to thrive on a wider range of food sources than Calanus seems to allow for relatively higher investment in reproduction and perhaps lower investment in somatic growth. Consistent with other studies, global growth models do not match our observations particularly well, likely because they are dominated by egg production estimates at lower latitudes.
    • Control of internal transport barriers in magnetically confined tokamak fusion plasmas

      Panta, Soma Raj; Newman, David; Wackerbauer, Renate; Ng, Chung Sang; Sanchez, Raul (2020-07)
      In the Tokamak plasma, for fusion to be possible, we have to maintain a very high temperature and density at the core at the same time keeping them low at the edge to protect the machine. Nature does not favor gradients. Gradients are source of free energy that causes instability. But we require a large gradient to get energy from plasma fusion. We therefore, apply a huge magnetic field on the order of few Tesla (1 T-10 T) that confines the plasma in the core, maintaining gradients. Due to gradients in density of charged particles (ions and electrons), there is an electric field in the plasma. Heat and particle transport takes place from core to edge mainly through anomalous transport while the E x B velocity sheer acts to reduce the transport of heat and particles. The regime at which the E x B velocity shear exceeds the maximum linear instability growth rate, as a result, the transport of particles and heat gets locally reduced is termed as the formation of a transport barrier. This regime can be identified by calculating the transport coefficients in the local region. Sometimes it can be observed in the edge where it is called an edge barrier while if it is near the core it is an internal transport barrier. There is a positive feedback loop between gradients and transport barrier formation. External heating and current drives play an important role to control such barriers. Auxiliary heating like neutral beam injection (NBI) and radio frequency (RF) heating can be used at a proper location (near the core of the plasma) to trigger or (far outside from the core) to destroy those barriers. Barrier control mechanism in the burning plasmas in international thermonuclear test reactor (ITER) parameter scenarios employing fusion power along with auxiliary heating source and pellets are studied. Continuous bombardment with pellets in the interval of a fraction of a second near the core of the burning plasma results in a stronger barrier. Frozen pellets along with auxiliary heating are found to be helpful to control the barriers in the tokamak plasmas. Active control mechanism for transport barriers using pellets and auxiliary heating in one of tokamaks in United States (DIII-D) parameter scenarios are presented in which intrinsic hysteresis is used as a novel control tool. During this process, a small background NBI power near the core assists in maintaining the profile. Finally, a self-sustained control mechanism in the presence of core heating is also explored in Japanese tokamak (JT-60SA) parameter scenarios. Centrally peaked narrow NBI power is mainly absorbed by ions with a smaller fraction by the electrons. Heat exchange between the electron and ion channels and heat conduction in the electron channel are found to be the main processes that govern this self control effect. A strong barrier which is formed in the ion channel is found to play the main role during the profile steepening while the burst after the peaked core density is found to have key role in the profile relaxation.