Now showing items 1-20 of 10545

    • Chancellor’s Cabinet Updates 2021-09

      Carey, Karen (University of Alaska Southeast, 2021-09)
    • Chancellor’s Cabinet Updates 2022-11-21

      Carey, Dr. Karen (University of Alaska Southeast, 2022-11-21)
    • CDVSA Stakeholder Interview Project: Examining the State's Response to Domestic Violence

      Shimizu, Rei; Trawver, Kathi; Brocious, Heidi (2022-11-01)
      EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Thirty-six percent of criminal cases in Alaska are flagged as domestic violence (DV), and cases are increasing annually. Additionally, more than half of adult women in Alaska have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) and/or sexual assault at least once in their lifetime. Clearly, DV is a pervasive public health issue in Alaska, even though DV is recognized as a crime and legal mechanisms are in place to address them. Therefore, this study aimed to comprehensively understand DV in Alaska in the context of the overall judicial response to DV. Confidential interviews were conducted with victim advocates, Battering Intervention Program (BIP) providers, probation officers, law enforcement, judges, and attorneys (prosecutor and defense) from the six Alaska regions (i.e., Southeast, Southcentral, Southwest, Western, Arctic, and Interior). Three research questions guided the study: 1. What is the current state of DV in Alaska from the perspectives of the stakeholders who enforce or work within DV statutes, including court-mandated battering intervention programs? 2. What are the strengths and barriers of the legal system specific to addressing DV perpetration? 3. What are the unmet needs of the stakeholders that are important to consider in improving the response to DV perpetration? Seven themes and related sub-themes emerged. Each section ends with a summary and achievable recommendations. The findings are summarized into the following broad takeaway points: 1. Some important issues that the stakeholders in Alaska have continuously identified over the past decade have not been addressed. We compared the findings from this report to results from prior reports. Problems identified by stakeholders dating back to 2011 (and dating back further) persist today. 2. Stakeholders have varied perceptions and beliefs about those who are impacted by DV. Such variations contribute to differences in stakeholder descriptions of how DV should be addressed. 3. Stakeholders are not requesting softened justice or a reduction in DV criminality but a system that is responsive to how DV is occurring in their local context. Stakeholders emphasized the need to provide a variety of options to hold DV offenders accountable in ways that align with DV typology, co-occurring risk factors, and victim needs. 4. It is unclear whether certain issues are caused by knowledge gaps or service gaps. If knowledge gaps are causing certain issues, information should be disseminated, and confusion should be dispelled. If service gaps are causing the issues, services should be made available. 5. The state lacks a unified ideology that guides the overall response to DV crimes. Each state entity may have a strong sense of purpose, but their DV-related operations are disparate as they are not guided by a state-defined goal. Such goals would help inform how DV crimes should be addressed, how those impacted by DV should be treated by the stakeholders, and how DV dynamics should be understood. A unified ideology would subsequently specify what a successful outcome means to Alaska and the measures that should be utilized for evaluating success and efficacy.
    • Alaska Earthquake Center Quarterly Technical Report July-September 2022

      Ruppert, Natalia (2022-11-10)
      This series of technical quarterly reports from the Alaska Earthquake Center (AEC) includes detailed summaries and updates on Alaska seismicity, the AEC seismic network and stations, field work, our social media presence, and lists publications and presentations by AEC staff. Multiple AEC staff members contribute to this report. It is issued in the following month after the completion of each quarter Q1: January-March, Q2: April-June, Q3: July-September, and Q4: October-December. The first report was published for January-March, 2021.
    • Some trends in non-native adaptation in villages along the Kobuk and Koyukuk Rivers in northwest Alaska

      Keim, Frank J. (1973-05)
      Non-Natives living in isolated village settings in Alaska have traditionally been Ignored in anthropological investigations. These non-Natives are the subject of this thesis. It is a preliminary treatment of the adjustments they must make as newcomers to a cultural environment that is at first unfamiliar to them. As a result of these adjustments ,• the newcomers develop a different approach to life, one which includes a blend of elements from both their own culture and that in which they find themselves as strangers. The thesis also briefly discusses these non-Natives as change agents in the modification of the life patterns of the Native people among whom they live. Finally, the thesis suggests tentative guidelines for the recruitment of bush personnel in Alaska.
    • Chancellor’s Cabinet Updates 2021-07

      Carey, Karen (University of Alaska Southeast, 2021-07)
    • Chancellor's Cabinet Updates 2021-06

      Carey, Karen (University of Alaska Southeast, 2021-06-09)
    • Chancellor's Cabinet Updates 2021-05

      Carey, Karen (University of Alaska Southeast, 2021-05-10)
    • Chancellor's Cabinet Updates 2022-03

      Carey, Dr. Karen (University of Alaska Southeast, 2022-03-02)
    • Chancellor's Cabinet Updates 2022-06

      Carey, Dr. Karen (University of Alaska Southeast, 2022-06)
    • Chancellor's Cabinet Updates 2022-10

      Carey, Dr. Karen (University of Alaska Southeast, 2022-10-19)
    • mtDNA heteroplasmy gives rise to a new maternal lineage in North Pacific humpback whales

      Pierszalowski, Sophie P.; Steel, Debbie J.; Gabriele, Christine M.; Neilson, Janet L.; Vanselow, Phoebe B. S.; Cedarleaf, Jennifer A.; Straley, Janice M.; Baker, C. Scott (Oxford University Press, 2022)
      Heteroplasmy in the mitochondrial genome offers a rare opportunity to track the evolution of a newly arising maternal lineage in populations of non-model species. Here, we identified a previously unreported mitochondrial DNA haplotype while assembling an integrated database of DNA profiles and photo-identification records from humpback whales in southeastern Alaska (SEAK). The haplotype, referred to as A8, was shared by only two individuals, a mature female with her female calf, and differed by only a single base pair from a common haplotype in the North Pacific, referred to as A-. To investigate the origins of the A8 haplotype, we reviewed n = 1,089 electropherograms (including replicate samples) of n = 710 individuals with A- haplotypes from an existing collection. From this review, we found 20 individuals with clear evidence of heteroplasmy for A-/A8 (parental/derived) haplotypes. Of these, 15 were encountered in SEAK, four were encountered on the Hawaiian breeding ground (the primary migratory destination for whales in SEAK) and one was encountered in the northern Gulf of Alaska. We used genotype exclusion and likelihood to identify one of the heteroplasmic females as the likely mother of the A8 cow and grandmother of the A8 calf, establishing the inheritance and germ-line fixation of the new haplotype from the parental heteroplasmy. The mutation leading to this heteroplasmy and the fixation of the A8 haplotype provide an opportunity to document the population dynamics and regional fidelity of a newly arising maternal lineage in a population recovering from exploitation.
    • The Level 2022-10

      Leigh, Nathan; Eby, Timothy; Lendrum, David; George, Greg; Zenger, Adam (University of Alaska Southeast, 2022-10-14)
    • Sharp decline in humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) survival and reproductive success in southeastern Alaska during and after the 2014–2016 Northeast Pacifc marine heatwave

      Gabriele, Christine M.; Amundson, Courtney L.; Nielson, Janet L.; Straley, Janice M.; Baker, C. Scott; Danielson, Seth Lombard (Springer, 2022-03-10)
      Understanding the ecosystem efects of ocean warming is increasingly important as marine heatwaves become more common and increase in severity. Here, we used Glacier Bay National Park long-term monitoring data (1985–2020) to investigate a sudden, sharp decline in humpback whale reproductive success and survival following the onset of the 2014–2016 Northeast Pacifc marine heatwave (PMH). Oceanographic data confrm a persistent warm-water anomaly in 2015–2016 in Glacier Bay, months later than the PMH was documented in the North Pacifc. We assessed changes in demographic parameters pre- and post-PMH using whale and calf counts and multi-state closed population capture–recapture models. Non-calf abundance decreased by 56% between 2013 and 2018, followed by increases in 2019–2020. The predicted proportion of females in the population declined in 2015–2017 (0.40–0.44). For 5 years during and after the heatwave (2015–2019) calf production was far lower than historic levels (0.041 calves per adult female, in contrast to 0.27 pre-PMH). Calf survival dropped tenfold beginning with calves born in 2013 (0.396–0.032) and midsummer calf losses occurred at an unprecedented rate starting in 2014. Non-calf survival declined from 0.982 pre-PMH to 0.899 post-PMH, lower than any value reported for this species. We surmise that documented changes to the forage fsh and zooplankton prey base during and after the PMH were the main driver of reduced humpback whale survival and reproductive success. Humpback whale abundance and productivity in southeastern Alaska will likely take years to recover from the PMH, assuming a return to favorable feeding conditions. Our work highlights this population’s continued vulnerability as the climate warms into previously unobserved states.
    • The Alaska Sexual Assault Kit Initiative (AK-SAKI) Research Component: A Process Improvement Analysis of the Alaska Department of Public Safety’s Sexual Assault Investigation, Prosecution, And Victim-Survivor Engagement And Support Processes

      Johnson, Ingrid (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2022-04-29)
      The research component of the Alaska Sexual Assault Kit Initiative (AK-SAKI) was designed to guide the Alaska Department of Public Safety (DPS) and their agency partners in making recommendations to improve sexual assault investigations, prosecutions, and victim-survivor engagement and support processes. Using qualitative interview data from key stakeholders including victim-survivors, quantitative survey responses from victim-survivors, and agency records from DPS and the Alaska Department of Law, three questions are answered in this report: 1. What are key stakeholders’ experiences with sexual assault investigations, prosecutions, and victim-survivor engagement and support, and how do those experiences compare to their perceptions of just outcomes? 2. How common are the experiences and just outcomes identified by key stakeholders? 3. What factors shape the likelihood of achieving those just outcomes?
    • EXTRACTING RURAL CRASH INJURY AND FATALITY PATTERNS DUE TO CHANGING CLIMATES IN RITI COMMUNITIES BASED ON ENHANCED DATA ANALYSIS AND VISUALIZATION TOOLS (PHASE II)

      Zhang, Guohui; Yang, Hanyi; Yu, Hao; Li, Zhenning; Zou, Rong; Yuan, Runze; Ma, Tianwei (2022-09)
      This report documents the research activities to investigate the traffic crashes in Rural, Isolated, Tribal, or Indigenous (RITI) communities involving considerable incapacitating injuries and fatalities. The traffic crashes occurring in RITI communities, are different from urban traffic crashes, and are related more to the features like speeding, low application of safety devices (for instance, seatbelt), adverse weather conditions and lacking maintenance and repairs for road conditions, and inferior lighting conditions. Thus, it is necessary to study the properties and attributes of traffic crashes at the RITI area using data analysis methods, such as statistical methods, and data-driven methods. This project is trying to analyze the rural crash injury and fatality patterns caused by changing climates in RITI communities based on enhanced data analysis using latest mathematical method. The mixed logit model to examine the risk factors in determining driver injury severity in four crash configurations in two-vehicle rear-end crashes on state roads based on seven-years of data from the Washington State Department of Transportation. The differences between the MLM and the LCM are investigated for exploring the relationships between driver injury severity in the rain-related rural single-vehicle crash and its corresponding risk factors. Moreover, this project develops a latent class mixed logit model with temporal indicators to investigate highway single-vehicle crashes and the effects of significant contributing factors to driver injury severity. The results of this research will be beneficial to transportation agencies to propose effective methods to improve rural crash severities under special climate and weather conditions and minimize the rural crash risks and severities.
    • Long-period variability in ice-dammed glacier outburst floods due to evolving catchment geometry

      Jenson, Amy; Amundson, Jason M.; Kingslake, Jonathan; Hood, Eran (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2022-01-25)
      We combine a glacier outburst flood model with a glacier flow model to investigate decadal to centennial variations in outburst floods originating from ice-dammed marginal basins. Marginal basins can form due to the retreat and detachment of tributary glaciers, a process that often results in remnant ice being left behind. The remnant ice, which can act like an ice shelf or break apart into a pack of icebergs, limits a basin’s water storage capacity but also exerts pressure on the underlying water and promotes drainage. We find that during glacier retreat there is a strong, nearly linear relationship between flood water volume and peak discharge for individual basins, despite large changes in glacier and remnant ice volumes that are expected to impact flood hydrographs. Consequently, peak discharge increases over time as long as there is remnant ice remaining in a basin, and peak discharge begins to decrease once a basin becomes ice-free. Thus, similar size outburst floods can occur at very different stages of glacier retreat. We also find that the temporal variability in outburst flood magnitude depends on how the floods initiate. Basins that connect to the subglacial hydrological system only after reaching flotation depth yield greater long-term variability in outburst floods than basins that are continuously connected to the subglacial hydrological system (and therefore release floods that initiate before reaching flotation depth). Our results highlight the importance of improving our understanding of both changes in basin geometry and outburst flood initiation mechanisms in order to better assess outburst flood hazards and their impacts on landscape and ecosystem evolution.
    • Long-period variability in ice-dammed glacier outburst floods due to evolving catchment geometry

      Jenson, Amy; Amundson, Jason M.; Kingslake, Jonathan; Hood, Eran (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2022-01-25)
      We combine a glacier outburst flood model with a glacier flow model to investigate decadal to centennial variations in outburst floods originating from ice-dammed marginal basins. Marginal basins can form due to the retreat and detachment of tributary glaciers, a process that often results in remnant ice being left behind. The remnant ice, which can act like an ice shelf or break apart into a pack of icebergs, limits a basin’s water storage capacity but also exerts pressure on the underlying water and promotes drainage. We find that during glacier retreat there is a strong, nearly linear relationship between flood water volume and peak discharge for individual basins, despite large changes in glacier and remnant ice volumes that are expected to impact flood hydrographs. Consequently, peak discharge increases over time as long as there is remnant ice remaining in a basin, and peak discharge begins to decrease once a basin becomes ice-free. Thus, similar size outburst floods can occur at very different stages of glacier retreat. We also find that the temporal variability in outburst flood magnitude depends on how the floods initiate. Basins that connect to the subglacial hydrological system only after reaching flotation depth yield greater long-term variability in outburst floods than basins that are continuously connected to the subglacial hydrological system (and therefore release floods that initiate before reaching flotation depth). Our results highlight the importance of improving our understanding of both changes in basin geometry and outburst flood initiation mechanisms in order to better assess outburst flood hazards and their impacts on landscape and ecosystem evolution.
    • Seismic Mapping of Subglacial Hydrology Reveals Previously Undetected Pressurization Event

      Labedz, Celeste R.; Bartholomaus, Timothy, C.; Amundson, Jason M.; Gimbert, Florent; Karplus, Marianne; Tsai, Victor C.; Veitch, Stephen A. (American Geophysical Union, 2022-02-11)
      Understanding the dynamic response of glaciers to climate change is vital for assessing water resources and hazards, and subglacial hydrology is a key player in glacier systems. Traditional observations of subglacial hydrology are spatially and temporally limited, but recent seismic deployments on and around glaciers show the potential for comprehensive observation of glacial hydrologic systems. We present results from a high-density seismic deployment spanning the surface of Lemon Creek Glacier, Alaska. Our study coincided with a marginal lake drainage event, which served as a natural experiment for seismic detection of changes in subglacial hydrology. We observed glaciohydraulic tremor across the surface of the glacier that was generated by the subglacial hydrologic system. During the lake drainage, the relative changes in seismic tremor power and water flux are consistent with pressurization of the subglacial system of only the upper part of the glacier. This event was not accompanied by a significant increase in glacier velocity; either some threshold necessary for rapid basal motion was not attained, or, plausibly, the geometry of Lemon Creek Glacier inhibited speedup. This pressurization event would have likely gone undetected without seismic observations, demonstrating the power of cryoseismology in testing assumptions about and mapping the spatial extent of subglacial pressurization.
    • Subglacial Discharge Reflux and Buoyancy Forcing Drive Seasonality in a Silled Glacial Fjord

      Hager, Alexander O.; Sutherland, David A.; Amundson, Jason M.; Jackson, Rebecca H.; Kienholz, Christian; Motyka, Roman J.; Nash, Jonathan D. (American Geophysical Union, 2022-04-19)
      Fjords are conduits for heat and mass exchange between tidewater glaciers and the coastal ocean, and thus regulate near-glacier water properties and submarine melting of glaciers. Entrainment into subglacial discharge plumes is a primary driver of seasonal glacial fjord circulation; however, outflowing plumes may continue to influence circulation after reaching neutral buoyancy through the sill-driven mixing and recycling, or reflux, of glacial freshwater. Despite its importance in non-glacial fjords, no framework exists for how freshwater reflux may affect circulation in glacial fjords, where strong buoyancy forcing is also present. Here, we pair a suite of hydrographic observations measured throughout 2016–2017 in LeConte Bay, Alaska, with a three-dimensional numerical model of the fjord to quantify sill-driven reflux of glacial freshwater, and determine its influence on glacial fjord circulation. When paired with subglacial discharge plume-driven buoyancy forcing, sill-generated mixing drives distinct seasonal circulation regimes that differ greatly in their ability to transport heat to the glacier terminus. During the summer, 53%–72% of the surface outflow is refluxed at the fjord's shallow entrance sill and is subsequently re-entrained into the subglacial discharge plume at the fjord head. As a result, near-terminus water properties are heavily influenced by mixing at the entrance sill, and circulation is altered to draw warm, modified external surface water to the glacier grounding line at 200 m depth. This circulatory cell does not exist in the winter when freshwater reflux is minimal. Similar seasonal behavior may exist at other glacial fjords throughout Southeast Alaska, Patagonia, Greenland, and elsewhere.