Now showing items 1-20 of 9826

    • Alaska Seafood Industry: Seafood Sector Report and Summary

      Knapp, Gunnar; Smith, Terrence (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1991)
      The Alaska Seafood Industry Sector Report is a comprehensive review of Alaska's seafood harvesting and processing industry through the decade of the 1980s. This report provides an overview of the seafood industry in Alaska. We present basic information on fish and shellfish harvesting, processing,fisheries markets,seafood industry employment and income, publicrevenues and expenditures in support of fisheries,and product prices. Included under eachof these topics are separate data and discussion for salmon, shellfish, herring, halibut and bottornfish. The data presented focus on the last ten years of the fisheries,that is,1980-1989.
    • Alaska Salmon Markets and Prices

      Knapp, Gunnar (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1992)
      Since 1988, Alaska salmon fishermen have watched the bottom drop out of salmon prices. Between 1988 and 1991, the average price Alaska fishermen received for sockeye salmon fell from $2.35 per pound to $. 77 per pound, and the average price of pink salmon fell from 79 cents per pound to 13 cents per pound. The bust in salmon prices followed an equally dramatic boom in prices between 1985 and 1988. What caused the boom and bust in salmon prices, and what lies ahead for the Alaska salmon industry? This report addresses these questions, and provides basic data needed for informed discussion of policy issues related to salmon prices and markets. This report is part of a series of papers and workshops intended to provide information and encourage fishermen and others to work together to improve the salmon market.
    • Alaska Salmon Industry and Japan

      Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1993
      Until the late 1980s, Alaska and Canadian wild salmon were the only significant sources of high-quality salmon available to Japan, and Alaska and Canada accounted for an overwhelming share of Japanese salmon imports. That has changed. Japanese processors and consumers have begun to treat farmed Chilean coho as a viable substitute for sockeye. In the past few years, imports from Chile have grown substantially. Chile and other salmon farming countries have the potential to vastly expand their production and their exports to Japan. Japanese imports of salmon from Russia have also grown rapidly. As a result of these changes, the U.S. import share has fallen substantially, from 85 percent in 1987 to less than 60 percent in 1992. We have suffered a very substantial decline in our market share in just a few years. New patterns of supply are not the only changes in the Japanese salmon market. Changes are also happening in consumer demand Japanese consumers, like consumers all over the world, are increasingly demanding higher quality and more variety in the food products that they eat. They are beginning to eat more meat products. This presentation includes graphical data regarding various aspects of harvests, prices, exports for fresh and frozen salmon. Presented at a forum on the Alaska Fishing Industry and Japan at the Anchorage Museum of History and Art, Thursday, September 23, 1993.
    • Alaska Housing Markets In 1990: Report and Research Summary

      Berman, Matthew; Hill, Alexandra; Leask, Linda (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1990)
      At the beginning of the new decade, Alaska urban housing markets appear to have largely ended their four-year slide. Population and home sales are up. Residential vacancies and mortgage defaults are down. This report is one of a series prepared for the Alaska Housing Finance Corporation (AHFC) on the economy and housing markets of urban areas of Alaska. It reviews the housing markets in Alaska's major urban centers and discusses the outlook for 1990 and 1991. The geographic areas covered include Anchorage, Fairbanks, and the Mat-Su Valley.
    • Alaska Halibut Markets and the Alaska Halibut IFQ Program

      Knapp, Gunnar (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1997)
      This report provides an introduction to Alaska halibut markets and how they are changing under the Alaska halibut Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ) program, which was implemented in 1995. Appendixes to the report provide a variety of halibut market data. Several general conclusions may be drawn about the relationship between future Alaska halibut harvests and fresh and frozen production and wholesale prices: • The higher the Alaska harvest volume, the higher will be Alaska production of both fresh and frozen halibut. • The higher the Alaska harvest volume, the lower will be wholesale prices of both fresh and frozen halibut. The fresh share of halibut production is unlikely to rise to the levels seen in Canada in recent years (more than 90% ). If Alaska were to produce this volume of fresh halibut, fresh wholesale prices would be substantially lower and frozen wholesale prices would be substantially higher--reducing the incentive for processors to supply fresh halibut.
    • Alaska Fisheries and Regional Economics

      Hull, Dan; Goldsmith, Scott (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1994)
      This report provides profiles for several commercial fisheries and the regional markets in which they are sold within Alaska. Information on five broad fisheries includes harvest, stocks, season, managment, price, ex vessel value, processing, market, market conditions, 'general', and market outlook. Regional markets included here are Duch Harbor/Unalaska, Kodiak, Bristol Bay (Dillingham annd Naknek), Prince William Sound, Kuskokwim/Bethel, Norton Sound, and Southeast Alaska.
    • Alaska Employment with and without MarkAir: Range of Potential Effects

      Goldsmith, Scott (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1995)
      This report calculates the potential range of employment impacts on the Alaska economy from the removal of Markair and Markair Express from all its markets in Alaska and the Lower 48 states. This report presents 5 cases based on different assumptions about the two main determinants of response in each market area--proportion of flights replaced by other carriers and relative employment needed to replace these flights. The most important assumption underlying this analysis is that these air transport markets are large enough to accommodate all current competitors. If this is a valid assumption then the basis for the calculations of job loss is reasonable. However if there are too many competitors chasing too few customers in some markets, some competitors would eventually leave and employment would fall. Then current employment levels would be above sustainable levels. Since the alternatives described in the 5 cases used in this report represent sustainable market situations, the estimates of employment loss in the 5 cases would be inflated if the comparison case were not sustainable.
    • Alaska Economy: An Overview

      Larson, Eric (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1990)
      Understanding the composition of the Alaska economy is important for research, policy analysis, and project assessment. This report provides a fundamental description of the Alaska economy using basic economic principles and measures of economic activity. Measurements such as employment, income, wages, and output serve as the basis for this analysis. When used together, these measures provide a more complete view of the economy than any single economic measure. Section I of this report describes the Alaska economy as a whole by identifying the most important dimensions of economic activity, introducing the measures used to observe this activity, and describing the major changes in these measures over the past twenty years. Section II analyzes the structure of the Alaska economy by breaking the economy into its major components and describing the contribution of each sector.
    • Alaska Economic Indicators

      Goldsmith, Scott; Hill, Alexandra (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1991)
      Analysis of the economic indicators clearly shows the deceleration of the Alaska economy which has occurred in 1991. The influence of the oil spill cleanup effort is no longer a significant factor in determining the course of the economy, thus allowing the other economic drivers to reassert their influence. This report is made up primarily of tabulated and charted data with a short commentary regarding key economic indicators of employment, income, and 'miscellaneous' items such as building activity.
    • AFN Implementation Study: Proposals to the United States Congress to Implement Recommendations of the Alaska Natives Commission Pursuant To P.L. 104-270

      Fischer, Victor; Spivey, Pete (Alaska Federation of Natives, 1999)
      The AFN Implementation Project is part of a continuum of reports highlighting the critical situation of Alaska Natives and proposing actions to address problems. Each report, each hearing, each resolution, each act is built on what came before and is a step toward resolving problems and meeting the aspirations of Alaska's Native peoples.The AFN process found that although most previously identified social, cultural, and economic problems persist, progress is being made. Innovations are coming about in areas of self-governance, education, delivery of health and other services, and other endeavors. Such progress has come about through both the efforts of Alaska Natives and the support provided by the Congress and federal agencies. Yet, social and economic needs remain tremendous, and it is toward meeting these that the AFN process has been directed. This report has a strict focus on recommendations. So as not to detract from this focus, we hold explanations to a minimum. Background and related research material are not presented here. They are available and will be marshaled as needed to back up and implement specific proposals.
    • Achieving Alaska Native Self-Governance: Toward Implementation of the Alaska Natives Commission Report

      Fischer, Victor; Morehouse, Thomas; Cornell, Stephen; Taylor, Jonathon; Grant, Kenneth (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1999)
      Renewed attention recently has been focused on Alaska’s Native communities. News accounts, government reports, and academic studies make it clear that Native communities continue to struggle with serious socioeconomic problems despite extensive federal and state programs designed to address them. The public debates arising out of the U. S. Supreme Court’s decision in the Venetie case, the formation of the governor’s Rural Governance Commission (not to mention previous commissions), and continuing subsistence conflicts highlight unresolved questions about what Native, state, and federal institutions should do to address the problems of village Alaska. Finally, the recent Alaska Inter-Tribal Council (AITC)-Rural Alaska Community Action Program (RurAL CAP) Conference of Tribes and the subsequent march, rally, and declaration illustrate continuing Native resolve to address the problems them- selves. Clearly there is consensus that Native problems need urgent attention, but there is less agreement on what is to be done. A central issue in this debate concerns Native self-governance. Can Native self-governance do a better job of dealing with Native problems than non- Native efforts have done? What should be the extent of such governance? What forms should it take? This report considers these and related questions. Please note that this version of the report differs from previous version in that it removes the authors recommendations, as this task is being taken on at the organizational level by the AFN.
    • Climate Change and Alaska's Forests: People, Problems, and Policies

      Burnside, Roger; Juday, Glenn; Berman, Matthew (Center for Global Change and Arctic System Research, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 1999)
      Forests cover over one-third of the total land area of Alaska, and forests border the communities in which about 90 percent of Alaska’s residents make their homes. Climate change has begun to affect the growth and condition of these forests (Juday et al. 1998). Plausible amounts of additional climate change would likely change both the extent and the character of Alaska’s forests (Juday et al. 1998). Alaska residents and public officials would face significant challenges in coping with hypothesized global change effects in its forests. Forest managers face the dilemma of being required to implement often irreversible plans that influence or even produce future forests and yet they must do so amid many uncertainties (Pollard 1991a). Many Alaska forests regenerated today will be experiencing the climate of the year 2100 and well beyond. This paper discusses potential human effects of climate change on Alaska’s forests. It begins with a summary of the role of forests in Alaska’s economy, including both commercial and ecosystem values contributed by forests. Next, the paper discusses human dimensions of potential climate effects on forests, focusing on what one needs to know to be able to turn projections of changes in forest ecosys- tems into flows of impacts to the human environment. Then, it analyzes climate-driven change specifically hypothesized for Alaska forest ecosystems, emphasizing those effects that are likely to have a significant effect on the regional economy and society. The final section summarizes the most important short-term and long-term regional impacts that emerge from the review of climate effects, and discusses the role of institutions and public policy in reducing costs or increasing benefits of the changes. The paper concludes that hypothesized climate changes on Alaska forests are likely to impose significant short-term costs to the economy and population, and that strategies for mitigating these harmful effects should be considered.
    • A Study of Five Southeast Alaska Communities

      Colt, Steve; Gorsuch, Lee; Smythe, Charles; Garber, Bart K. (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1994)
      The Forest Service of the US Department of Agriculture and the Bureaus of Land Management and Indian Affairs of the US Department of the Interior contracted with the Institute of Social and Economic Research to prepare a report presenting the available, factual evidence on why the five studey communities of Haines, Ketchikan, Petersburg, Tenakee and Wrangell were omitted from ANCSA - and how the historical circumstances and conditions of the study communities compare with those of the Southeast communities that were recognized under ANCSA. The first two chapters ofthe report examine Congress's broad authority to settle aboriginal land claims and the development and application of Congressioal and adminstrative criteria for villages and urban communities recognized under ANCSA. Chapter 3 examines Tlingit and Haida land claims settlement. Chapter 4 assesses similarities and differences in Native population characteristics of the study communities at the time ANSCSA was passed. Chapter 5 describes historical Native use and occuption of the five study communities and of ANCSA communities in Southeast Alaska. Chapter 6 reports how ANSCA enrollment procedures were carried out in both the study communities and the recognized villages and urban communities. Chapter 7 reports on the financial benefits that shareholders of Southeast village and urban corporations have realized over the years, as compared with the benefits the at-large shareholders received. This report is accompanied by four appendices that provide the basis for summaries included in the main report. Appendix A: A History of Occupation and Use, Appendix B: List of Persons Interviewed for Study Community Histories , Appendix C: Citation Database for Chapters 1 and 2 , Appendix D: Comments of Reviewers and Related Documents
    • Alaska's Gross State Product, 1963-1996: Main Report and Research Summary

      Goldsmith, Scott; Hull, Teresa (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1997)
      The gross state product accounts are presented in 5 tables showing the value of production in current dollars by sector and payment type; the same breakout in 1996 dollars; gross product by industry in current dollars and at the 1987 US average price level respectively; and the implicit price deflators used to convert current to constant dollars. The gross state product accounts are based upon estimates derived from a variety of sources. They should be interpreted as indicative of the level and year to year change in value added by industry and sector rather than as precise amounts.
    • The Southeast Alaska Tribal Ocean Research (SEATOR) Partnership: Addressing Data Gaps in Harmful Algal Bloom Monitoring and Shellfish Safety in Southeast Alaska

      Harley, John Robinson; Lanphier, Kari; Kennedy, Esther G.; Leighfield, Tod A.; Bidlack, Allison Lynn; Gribble, Matthew O.; Whitehead, Christopher (MDPI, 2020-06-19)
      Many communities in Southeast Alaska harvest shellfish such as mussels and clams as an important part of a subsistence or traditional diet. Harmful algal blooms (HABs) of phytoplankton such as Alexandrium spp. produce toxins that can accumulate in shellfish tissues to concentrations that can pose a hazard for human health. Since 2013, several tribal governments and communities have pooled resources to form the Southeast Alaska Tribal Ocean Research (SEATOR) network, with the goal of minimizing risks to seafood harvest and enhancing food security. SEATOR monitors toxin concentrations in shellfish and collects and consolidates data on environmental variables that may be important predictors of toxin levels such as sea surface temperature and salinity. Data from SEATOR are publicly available and are encouraged to be used for the development and testing of predictive algorithms that could improve seafood risk assessment in Southeast Alaska. To date, more than 1700 shellfish samples have been analyzed for paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in more than 20 locations, with potentially lethal concentrations observed in blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus) and butter clams (Saxidomus gigantea). Concentrations of PSTs exhibit seasonality in some species, and observations of Alexandrium are correlated to sea surface temperature and salinity; however, concentrations above the threshold of concern have been found in all months, and substantial variation in concentrations of PSTs remain unexplained.
    • Sustaining USArray Capabilities in Alaska

      West, Michael (Alaska Earthquake Center, 2018-05)
    • Meals in the melting-pot: Immigration and dietary change in diversifying cities

      Rule, Nicola Frances; Dring, Colin Charles; Thornton, Thomas F. (Elsevier, 2021-09-30)
      Changes in diets and food practices have implications for personal and planetary health. As these implications have become more apparent, dietary change interventions that seek to promote healthy and sustainable transitions have proliferated, and the processes and drivers of dietary change have come under increasing scrutiny. In particular, dietary acculturation has been recognised as a driver of dietary change in the context of immigration to expanding, cosmopolitan cities. However, research has largely focused on changes in the diets of immigrants and ethnic minorities. In contrast, this study contributes to our understanding of the process of dietary acculturation among the largest population groups in Vancouver, Canada — Chinese- and European-Canadians — in the context of the rapid diversification of the population and food environments in this city. This is done through the analysis of descriptive and contextualised interview and observational data, and a focus on social practices. These data show that food practices, particularly in cosmopolitan urban contexts, are constantly in flux, as diverse ethnic groups come into contact, and new generations develop their own hybrid food cultures. By demonstrating and theorising this process of dietary acculturation, this research offers insights how cultural interactions relate to dietary transitions. It presents an exploratory model for considering how food practices change through dietary acculturation, which is relevant to the design of interventions that aim to support healthier and more sustainable dietary transitions.
    • How to Most Effectively Move Toward More Inclusive Classrooms for Students Learning Disabilities: A Meta-Synthesis

      Day, Mary (University of Alaska Southeast, 2017)
      Educating students with disabilities in the least restrictive environment possible has been part of federal law for educating students with disabilities since 1975. The most common term for implementing this mandate is inclusion. While this term and its practice have been used for years, there is still great diversity in how it is viewed, adopted, and implemented. This has led to varying degrees of success and the effective use of inclusion has proven elusive. This meta-synthesis looks at what the literature says about this controversial issue, and in particular what the barriers are to successful inclusion, what are the features of successful inclusion programs, and how to best set the stage for success in a school as it plans to move toward more inclusion than it currently practices.
    • If women were dragons: a study of the conquest of women and dragons in Ragnar's saga, the Volsunga sagas, and the Nibelungenlied

      Baalke, Claire-Elise A.; Harney, Eileen; Stanley, Sarah; Riley, Terry (2020-08)
      This thesis is a study displaying the connections between female characters and dragons in Old Norse and Middle High Germanic literature. The main associations that I examine are the ways that female characters and dragons share the characteristics of greed or hoarding, prophetic sight or supernatural power, and "monstrosity" or "Otherness." The fundamental argument is that the women and dragons have common characteristics which define them as dangerous and thereby cause the men or heroes of the tale to feel the need to silence or depower them through conquest. Typically, the dragon is the barrier between the woman and the hero in these kinds of stories and thus the dragon is violated or slain in a manner that represents quashing of feminine power. I argue that the dragon is defeated as proxy to the defamation or depowering of deviant female characters, non-conforming women who do not follow socially accepted gender roles. The texts used to present these arguments are The Poetic Edda, The Volsunga Sagas and its prequel Ragnar's Saga, and The Nibelungenlied. In the majority of dragon stories there is a direct relationship between a dragon and a female character, commonly a princess who is being protected or arguably kept captive by the dragon. I argue, however, that these characteristics of the dragon, which are imitated by female characters, can manifest metaphorically as well. In the texts considered in which there are no "real" or physical dragons, a woman stands in as the metaphorical dragon that must be defeated.
    • Limited Progress in Improving Gender and Geographic Representation in Coral Reef Science

      Ahmadia, Gabby N.; Cheng, Samantha H.; Andradi-Brown, Dominic A.; Baez, Stacy K.; Barnes, Megan D.; Bennett, Nathan J.; Campbell, Stuart J.; Darling, Emily S.; Estradivari; Gill, David; et al. (Frontiers in Marine Science, 2021-09-29)
      Despite increasing recognition of the need for more diverse and equitable representation in the sciences, it is unclear whether measurable progress has been made. Here, we examine trends in authorship in coral reef science from 1,677 articles published over the past 16 years (2003–2018) and find that while representation of authors that are women (from 18 to 33%) and from non-OECD nations (from 4 to 13%) have increased over time, progress is slow in achieving more equitable representation. For example, at the current rate, it would take over two decades for female representation to reach 50%. Given that there are more coral reef non-OECD countries, at the current rate, truly equitable representation of non-OECD countries would take even longer. OECD nations also continue to dominate authorship contributions in coral reef science (89%), in research conducted in both OECD (63%) and non-OECD nations (68%). We identify systemic issues that remain prevalent in coral reef science (i.e., parachute science, gender bias) that likely contribute to observed trends. We provide recommendations to address systemic biases in research to foster a more inclusive global science community. Adoption of these recommendations will lead to more creative, innovative, and impactful scientific approaches urgently needed for coral reefs and contribute to environmental justice efforts.