Now showing items 21-40 of 8883

    • Diet composition and fate of contaminants in subsistence harvested northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) from Icy Strait, Alaska

      Brown, Kristin Lynn; Atkinson, Shannon; Andrews, Russel; Pearson, Heidi (2020-05)
      Northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) in Southeast Alaska have experienced a significant population increase since their successful reintroduction to the area after previous near extirpation owing to historic fur trading. The purpose of this study was to examine sea otter diet and metals contamination in an area of Southeast Alaska with the most robust increases in sea otter numbers, Glacier Bay/Icy Strait, with the intent of gathering baseline data for a healthy population of sea otters and as a reflection of the local coastal environmental health of the area. This research was a collaborative effort with Alaska Native subsistence hunters and the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation. In Chapter 1, sea otter stomachs (n=25) were obtained in April 2015 and April 2016 from Alaska Native subsistence hunters in Icy Strait, Alaska. There were no differences in sea otter diet between years. Bivalves dominated the sea otter diet. Northern horsemussels (Modiolus modiolus) made up the greatest proportion of the diet (0.46 ± 0.48). Fat gaper clams (Tresus capax) and northern horsemussels were found in the highest proportion of stomachs (0.64 and 0.60, respectively). There was not an apparent trend between sea otter age and the minimum number of total prey items, stomach contents mass, or mean frequency of occurrence of the top four prey species. Sea otters from this study are likely to be dietary generalists throughout their lives. In Chapter 2, brain, gonad, kidney, and liver tissues, as well as stomach contents were analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, total mercury, and selenium for the 2015-harvested sea otters that were also referenced in Chapter 1 (n=14). In general, arsenic and lead had the highest concentrations in stomach contents, cadmium and selenium were highest in the kidneys, and copper and total mercury were highest in the livers. While brains and gonads had the lowest metals concentrations of any tissue, the metal with the greatest concentration within the brain was copper, and within the gonads was selenium. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, total mercury, and lead demonstrated a relationship with sea otter length. In general, all the mean metals concentrations for these sea otters were below published effects threshold values for marine mammals. Only total mercury demonstrated biomagnification from the stomach contents (i.e., the prey) to all higher-level tissues. Selenium health benefit values were positive in all sea otter tissue types analyzed in the present study, indicating that concentrations of selenium had an overall health benefit in protecting those tissues against mercury toxicity. Evaluating how contaminants concentrate and get distributed in tissues of top trophic levels provides an indication for potential exposure to humans and demonstrates how these keystone species act as indicators of local coastal ecosystem health. The results of studies on dietary exposure and metals contamination in top trophic level consumers such as sea otters can be used in monitoring the health of sea otter populations and the local environment that they inhabit.
    • Hearing colors

      Blackwood, Adrianne; Brightwell, Gerri; Farmer, Daryl; Reilly, Terry (2020-05)
      This thesis project is the first part of a historical fiction novel. It takes place in the Outer Banks of North Carolina in 1910 and imagines the perspective of a sound-color synesthete named Bert Beasley, who witnessed the Wright brothers complete the first engine-powered flight. Bert wants to leave his home to pursue aviation but is unable to do so because he is needed to help run his family's failing general store. When Elisabeth Lavoie, a French musician, moves to town and buys a dilapidated house, Bert believes he'll be able to solve his problems by earning extra money as her repairman. However, her voice is purple--the only color he's never heard before--and her music changes colors, which shouldn't be possible. As he grows closer to Elisabeth, Bert becomes less sure that he wants to leave, but his decision is complicated once more when he learns that the Wright brothers have opened a flying school. The novel switches between the third-person points of view of Bert and Elisabeth. The dual perspectives provide insight into their individual inner conflicts--Bert longs to leave a home he loves as Elisabeth struggles to find a home she has lost--and demonstrates how their respective relationships with sound have shaped them into two people who have the potential to be a home for each other. The descriptions of synesthesia in this project present a creative interpretation of how color-sound combinations manifest themselves in synesthetes, both visually/audibly and emotionally. I conducted research to accurately portray the visual/auditory experiences of synesthesia, but I also took some artistic license in that the story implies that Bert's emotions, or the emotions of the musician playing the music he hears, has an effect on the color of the sound. This is not based on the known science of synesthesia but allowed for a deeper exploration of the characters' relationship and the question of home.
    • Stress-corrosion cracking susceptibility of polystyrene/TiO₂ nanocomposite coated thin-sheet aluminum alloy 2024-T3 with 3.5% NaCl

      Baart, Brian V.; Chen, Cheng-fu; Ahn, Il Sang; Zhang, Lei (2020-05)
      This thesis reports an investigation into the performance of nanocomposite coatings, which consist of titanium dioxide nanoparticles within a polystyrene matrix, on the resistance to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). The coatings are applied to compact tension specimens subject to conditions that promote failure by (SCC). It has been well documented in the literature that high-strength aluminum alloys such as 2024- T3 are prone to SCC when exposed to chloride media and sufficient levels of stress. The use of polymerbased nanocomposite coatings to protect aluminum alloy 2024-T3 has recently been shown to exhibit anticorrosion properties, which has been motivation for further study. The performance of such coatings on SCC is thus investigated here, using a fracture mechanics approach with compact tension specimens. The specimens are subject to a slow strain rate test using a constant displacement rate of 1.25 nm/s while exposed to periodically supplied 3.5% wt. sodium chloride solution. Measurements of load and crackmouth opening displacement data are recorded from the specimen throughout the test and used to characterize the response of the material to the applied mechanical loading in a corrosive environment. Results from the methods used herein showed a quantitative influence derived from the test results for several criteria of interest such as maximum load, time-to-failure, and fracture toughness. In total, four different coatings were applied; three with different titanium dioxide nanoparticle aspect ratios, and one without any titanium dioxide nanoparticles present in the polystyrene matrix. Characterization of the results showed that the shape of the titanium dioxide nanoparticle is a dominant factor that influences the susceptibility of aluminum alloy 2024-T3 to SCC.
    • Misseri

      Aubuchon, David; Farmer, Daryl; Soos, Frank; Schell, Jen (2020-05)
      The nine stories in Misseri deal with the following themes: poverty, childhood abuse, sexism, and racism. These are the most obvious destructive components of what I will refer to as white trash culture. This thesis strives to honestly depict characters who have grown into adulthood in a white trash culture, regardless of whether they are white or male. The characters of these stories wrestle with destructive acts they have performed (or feel the impulse to perform), destructive acts they have witnessed, and destructive acts they have fallen victim to. Characters struggle for the self-awareness needed to give their actions agency: actions that follow a character's own sense of morals, rather than actions that are merely learned responses. The stories of Misseri are ordered by protagonists in the following way: from least selfaware male to most self-aware male, then from least self-aware female to most self-aware female. The collection starts with five first-person male narrators, hinges on a third-person omniscient narrator, and ends with three first-person female narrators. Half of the first-person stories are written from a close past-tense perspective. These narrators may not yet have the reflective distance or skills to contextualize and understand and respond to the story's events in helpful ways. The other half of the first-person stories are written with a present tense reflective voice. These present tense narrators recontextualize, explain, and often depart from their past perspective and past actions. These narrators model the act of learning from the past. It is my hope that the escalation of reflection and self-awareness throughout the collection can not only better contextualize the lives of white trash people but also show the progression one must often take to move away from socialized actions and reactions and toward agency, even if few of the characters perform monumental acts.
    • Preliminary Summary of Barry Arm Seismic Installations

      West, Michael (2020-09-18)
      In September 2020, the Alaska Earthquake Center installed two seismic stations, one webcam, and a repeater in the Barry Arm region of Prince William Sound. This preliminary summary includes descriptions of the instrumentation as well as some very early observations in the data.
    • Shorebirds and other stories

      Amore, Martha; Coffman, Chris; Evans, Mei Mei; Lampman, Claudia; Brightwell, Gerri (2020-05)
      Shorebirds and Other Stories is a collection of original feminist gothic short fiction set in Alaska. A critical introduction to the creative portion situates the work within the historical context of feminist gothic literature, feminist theory, and contemporary feminist psychology, while rejecting an application of Julia Kristeva's theory of the abject. Kristeva's theory is commonly cited in gothic analyses of female monsters, but this introduction argues that her ideas position women in an essentialist, misogynist Freudian-based psychology, which is in stark contrast to feminist gothic literature's project of asserting women's subjectivity. Each short story in the creative portion reflects themes of maternal subjectivity, ambivalence, or abortion, while drawing inspiration from classic and contemporary feminist gothic literature. Moreover, the collection includes works of realism and the fantastic, the former genre revealing the deep humanity of women deemed monstrous by a patriarchal society, while the latter celebrates radical feminist difference in such monstrous tropes as the vampire, werewolf, and witch. In the tradition of feminist gothic literature, Shorebirds and Other Stories features "monstrous" women as protagonists, offering their perspectives, histories, complex emotions, and perseverance in the struggle for subjecthood.
    • Lidar and satellite studies of noctilucent clouds over Alaska

      Alspach, Jennifer H.; Collins, Richard; Bossert, Katrina; Thorsen, Denise; Fochesatto, Javier (2020-05)
      This thesis presents studies of noctilucent clouds (NLCs) occurring in the summer polar mesosphere over Alaska. Lidar observations of NLCs conducted at Poker Flat Research Range in Chatanika, Alaska (65° N, 147° W) from 1998-2019 are analyzed. The NLCs detected by lidar are characterized in terms of their brightness properties and duration. NLCs were detected on ~51% of the nights when lidar observations have been conducted during NLC season. The brighter NLCs are found to exist at lower altitudes, indicating a growth-sedimentation mechanism. Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) data from the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) satellite is used to examine NLC occurrence and brightness over the Alaska region (60-70° N, 130-170° W). In general, high frequency and brightness in the CIPS data corresponds to positive detections of NLCs by the lidar. Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) temperature and water vapor data from the Aura satellite is used to investigate the meteorological environment of the NLCs observed by lidar at Chatanika. The occurrence of NLCs at Chatanika is found to be driven by the temperature relative to the frost point. Low temperatures relative to the frost point (> 4 K below) correspond to observations when NLCs were present. High temperatures relative to the frost point (> 8 K above) correspond to observations when NLCs were absent. The MLS data is also used to investigate the stability of an ice cloud at different latitudes (64.7°-70.3° N) relative to the equilibrium water vapor mixing ratio. The stability study suggests that the weakest NLCs detected by lidar at Chatanika were in subsaturated conditions, and it is likely that the NLCs formed over several hundred kilometers to the north of Chatanika. The Rayleigh three-channel receiver system was used to conduct NLC measurements during 2019. A technical overview of the three-channel system and the density and temperature retrieval methods is presented at the end of the thesis using observations from the winter of 2018 and the summer of 2019.
    • Stakeholder needs and information use in cryospheric hazard planning and response: case studies from Alaska

      Abdel-Fattah, Dina; Trainor, Sarah; Hock, Regine; Hood, Eran; Mahoney, Andrew (2020-05)
      The global cryosphere is experiencing rapid change, which potentially impacts the severity and magnitude of various cryospheric hazards. Alaska is home to a number of different communities that experience cryospheric hazards. These types of hazards can have potentially devastating impacts on surrounding biodiversity, communities, and infrastructure. However, there is a gap in understanding regarding what are stakeholder information needs for different cryospheric hazards, as well as what are the resources stakeholders use to meet these needs. This dissertation investigated stakeholder use of various information products and resources in three cryospheric hazard-prone communities in Alaska, which experience glacial lake outburst flood events (Juneau and the Kenai Peninsula) or anomalous high-speed sea ice motion events (Utqiaġvik). In addition, a clear need exists to understand how further cryosphere change affects cryospheric hazards. Therefore, I tested whether a structured decision-making methodology can be pertinent in a cryospheric hazard context, which has previously never been done before. Specifically, I tested whether structured decision-making can be employed by decision-makers to better understand the planning needs necessary to adequately prepare for future, but uncertain glacial surges from Bering Glacier, Alaska. I found that identifying distinct stakeholder needs as well as stakeholder use of currently available information products and resources was particularly beneficial for information providers to understand how and why their products and resources are or are not used. This opened up opportunities for existing products to be enhanced or for new products to be developed. However, one of the main findings from the case study research is that there is no single information product that meets all stakeholder needs. Different stakeholders have different information needs, which need to be addressed in different ways. The structured decision-making approach tested in this dissertation was also found to be useful and applicable in a cryospheric hazard context. It can therefore be utilized as a methodological framework by decision-makers to integrate varying stakeholder needs in such a context. The findings from this research provide a unique contribution to the literature by displaying how social science and decision analysis research can support the development of information tools and resources that are both useful and relevant to those affected by cryospheric hazards.
    • Transportation Equity for RITI Communities in Autonomous and Connected Vehicle Environment: Opportunities and Barriers

      Sorour, Sameh; Abdel-Rahim, Ahmed; Swoboda-Colberg, Skye (2020-08)
      This report summarizes the results of a study conducted to document the safety and mobility needs of Rural, Isolated, Tribal, or Indigenous (RITI) communities and to identify autonomous and connected vehicle technology that have the potential of addressing these needs. A review of the administrative structure for the five Native American Tribes in Idaho revealed that none of the tribes has a department dedicated to transportation services. Two of the five tribes, however, have a department dedicated to Information Technology (IT) services. Based on the results of focus group discussions and the follow up in-depth interviews, some of the major transportation safety and mobility problems and need areas for RITI communities include: safety of school-age children walking to school, lack of safety pedestrians facilities (sidewalks) in the community, inefficient emergency response services, issues with paratransit scheduling and reliability of service, roadway maintenance issues, aggressive driving in community roadways, struggle of low-income families with no car ownership, snow removal and clean up especially for local roads, and not having enough driver education programs available for the community. In terms of major barriers to Autonomous and Connected Vehicle implementation in RITI communities, the interviewed citizens believe that lack of communication infrastructures, cost of smart phone use, difficulties to use internet and/or smart phones, lack of electrical power coverage in some roadway areas, privacy and safety issues in car sharing operations, cost of expanding communication and power networks, and the lack of human resources in the community to support these technologies are some of the major barriers to the wide-spread implementation of such advanced technology.
    • Who Benefits from an Oil Boom? Evidence from a Unique Alaskan Data Set

      James, Alexander; Guettabi, Mouhcine (Elsevier, 2020-08-26)
      Oil booms have been shown to increase local employment and wages. But these effects reflect the aggregated experience of residents, commuters, and recent migrants alike. This paper takes advantage of a unique data set that identifies a rich set of labor market outcomes by place of residence, rather than by place of work. Exploiting this feature of the data, we examine the effect of a major oil boom on employment and wage outcomes in the North Slope Borough of Alaska. This analysis is juxtaposed with a more conventional one that uses place-of-work data collected from the Bureau of Economic Analysis. Using the Synthetic Control Method, we find that the oil boom of the late 2000s significantly increased non-residential employment. While the boom caused residential employment to shift from the public to the private sector, total residential employment was unaffected. There is weak evidence that residential wages increased in response to the boom. These results are important as drilling decisions are often negotiated locally by interest groups that might be less concerned with general equilibrium effects.

      Duque de Medeiros, Flavia; Barros, Rafaela De Melo; Prevedourous, Panos (2020-07)
      Five transportation equity questions were developed for this assessment. Question 1 addressed EMS response in urban and rural areas. People with a bachelor’s degree or higher thought slightly more that rural response is worse. Rural residents believed it is worse and half of urban residents agreed. CSET minority respondents thought that rural response is slightly worse. These groups have a perception that reflects reality, according to FARS data, but the overall response to the question “Compared to urban areas, in rural areas emergency response is?” is “about the same.” Every demographic group did not support the proposal of question 2 for the government to increase gasoline taxes to collect money to invest in EMS response improvements in rural areas of Hawaii. The overall result for question 3 is that respondents were divided when it comes to converting rural roads into high standard roads in Hawaii. No demographic group had a majority response, pro, against or neutral. The response to question 4 was much clearer: all demographic groups disagreed with the proposition that the government should raise gasoline taxes to collect funds for the purpose of making rural roads safer by converting them to high standard roads. Question 5 addressed the urban-rural road funding balance: “Should more money, less money or about the same amount of money be provided to support urban road and highway improvements?” The response was mostly divided between same amount and more money, suggesting that an equal share should be allocated between urban and rural roads. Overall, the results suggest a lack of awareness of conditions on rural roads.

      Abdel-Rahim, Ahmed; Swoboda-Colberg, Skye; Mohamed, Mohamed; Gonzalez, Angel (2020-08)
      This project documents the characteristics of traffic crashes in rural, isolated, tribal, and indigenous (RITI) communities in Idaho and establishes an in-depth understanding of the baseline traffic safety conditions in RITI communities. Different sources of crash data for RITI communities in Idaho was used to conduct an in-depth ten-year crash analysis (2007-2016) to document the characteristics of traffic crashes in rural roads that serve RITI communities in Idaho. The results of analysis of fatal and severe injury crashes on unpaved roads clearly shows that ATVs and pickup trucks and the two most common vehicle types involved in crashes in these roads. The results also showed that the majority of fatal and severe injury crashes on unpaved roads involved male drivers and occupants 24 years or younger with considerable number involving occupants younger than 14 years old. A comparative safety analysis was conducted to identify and document the differences in characteristics between crashes that occurred on unpaved and paved rural roads in Idaho. The results of the analysis show that the percent of fatal and severe injury crashes where no restraining device was used is much higher in unpaved roads (50.4% and 38.3% in unpaved roads compared to 37.9 and 22.8 on paved roads). The same trend also exists in helmet use which shows the critical need for a much more aggressive seat belt and helmet use enforcement among communities who use rural unpaved roads in Idaho. The results also show a substantial difference in ATV crashes on unpaved versus paved. Teenagers or children that are 14 years or younger are more susceptible to fatal and severe injuries on unpaved roads compared to paved roads. Crash injuries for age groups from 15 to 44 are also higher on unpaved roadways. The results also clearly highlight the fact that unpaved roads have higher percentages of crashes where alcohol impairment was a major contributing circumstance. The same is true for speeding and inattention related crashes. A proportion statistical test results show that many of these results have a calculated p-value less than 0.05, indicating that these results are statistically significant at the 95% confidence level.
    • The Last Great Indian War (Nulato 1851)

      Wright, Miranda Hildebrand; Black, Lydia T.; Schweitzer, Peter P.; Morrow, Phyllis (1995-04)
      In this study, I review the causes of an Athabaskan conflict in western Alaska which occurred in 1851. This hostility is known in published sources as the Nulato Massacre. In oral tradition the same incident is referred to either as the Last Great Indian War or simply "The Nulato War". Critical reading and analysis of primary and secondary historical source materials offer insight into external pressures on the indigenous population, the analysis of oral tradition the resulting internal pressures. The combination of historic documentation and oral tradition provide a basis for the analysis of the Nulato Massacre as an internecine conflict. The Koyukon point of view reveals this conflict to be the result of a shamanistic power contest. While it may be argued that the conflict was precipitated ultimately by economic and social post-contact dislocations, the Koyukon perceive it as a disturbance of their concept of universal psychic unity, an overarching conceptualization which encompasses all aspects of Koyukon worldview. It was imperative in their view to regain control of their lives. The role of the shaman in such restoration was paramount.
    • Author and UAA Professor E. J. R. David.

      David, E. J. R. (University of Alaska Anchorage. Bookstore, 2018-04-12)
      E. J. R. David is Associate Professor of Psychology at UAA and Director of the Alaska Native Community Advancement in Psychology (ANCAP) program. He earned his Bachelor's degree in psychology from UAA and his Master of Arts and doctoral degrees in clinical-community psychology from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. In the new book, We Have Not Stopped Trembling Yet, Letters to My Filipino-Athabascan Family, E. J. R. David shares intimate letters written to his Fili-Baskan (Koyukon Athabascan and Filipino) family. In these letters, he addresses the need to nurture connectedness, strength, freedom, and love, in order to heal the injuries endured from historical and contemporary trauma and oppression.
    • University Reporter, Vol. 6, Issue 4.

      University of Alaska Anchorage, 1979-05-02
    • University Reporter, Vol. 6, Issue 3.

      University of Alaska Anchorage, 1979-03-06
    • University Reporter, Vol. 6, Issue 1.

      University of Alaska Anchorage, 1979-01-30
    • University Reporter, Vol. 6, Issue 2.

      University of Alaska Anchorage, 1979-02-13
    • University Reporter, Vol. 5, Issue 3.

      University of Alaska Anchorage, 1978-10-31
    • University Reporter, Vol. 5, Issue 2.

      University of Alaska Anchorage, 1978-10-17