Now showing items 41-60 of 10176

    • The Bias, Stigma, and Social Construct of a Disability Label: A Meta-Synthesis

      Wallace, Karen (University of Alaska Southeast, 2014)
      The current climate in education is moving toward more inclusive education which means more and more students with a special education need are attending class in the general education classroom with a general education teacher. Sadly, many general education teachers in these inclusive classrooms are not prepared to have students with special education needs in their classroom because they do not have the knowledge or experience teaching these exceptional students. Research suggests teachers hold a bias toward students with a special education label and have preconceived notions of how these students will perform in their classroom. It is unfortunate for these students because at this time is when they need help the most. School is not only about learning what a person needs to know, but also when children learn about themselves and their peers. Research suggests that students given special education labels tend to have more difficulty due to the label they are given. This presumption of a label sets students up to interacting with teachers based on the label. This meta-synthesis of the literature on labels, bias, stigmatization, and the social construct of the disability label investigates how students with special needs, and the people around them, respond to the special needs label.
    • Guide to Sources for the Study of the 1971 Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act: Volume 3

      Hawfield, Michael (Alaska Historical Society, ANCSA Committee, 2021-12-15)
      Teaching about ANCSA upon its 50th anniversary presents numerous challenges, but also several significant opportunities for developing a deeper understanding of the complex issues facing Alaska Natives, neighboring non-Native peoples, and the State of Alaska. The history of the birth of ANCSA, its passage, and its impact over the first forty years is well known and the subject of numerous studies. Since the passage of ANCSA in 1971, the Alaska Native community, the University of Alaska, Alaskool, Alaska Native Corporations, Alaska Native organizations, the Anchorage Museum at Rasmuson Center, the Alaska Humanities Forum, and the Alaska State Department of Early Education have devoted considerable professional energies and expertise developing and offering the tools for examining and teaching about this extraordinary legislation up to 2020. Currently, in 2021, there are well developed syllabi for elementary students (3rd grade), early high school students (9th grade), and for college/university students in lower as well as upper division courses. The purpose of this guide to resources for teaching ANCSA at 50 is to add to and build upon the two principle syllabi that currently exist: (1) the Alaskool online course elementary and high-school students developed by Paul Ongtagook and Claudia Dybdahl; and (2) the 2011 online upper-division university level class developed originally by Professor Gordon Pullar (UAF Alaska Native Studies and Rural Development RD 493/693 — Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act: Pre-1971 to present] and taught subsequently by Professor Dixie Dayo and Professor Diane Benson. There are other teacher guides readily available, such as “A Moment in Time--ANCSA: Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act” (the Education Department of the Anchorage Museum at Rasmuson Center), and a new syllabus for public schools has been developed by Joel Isaac on behalf of the Anchorage School District (not yet published; due in 2022, but included in the addendum to this guide). Because the topic of ANCSA at its half-century anniversary is so complex and the resources so many and varied, it seems the most helpful initial tool for teachers and/or community leaders seeking to lead discussions is to organize a resource aid useful and accessible to teachers and/or community leaders to review the historical narrative and introduce the topics. Because there are many excellent histories and syllabi devoted to understanding and teaching about ANCSA from its inception to the present, the “Guide to the Teaching Resources” seeks to focus on several “enduring critical issues” as identified by scholars, teachers, and Alaska Native leaders to add to the basic architecture for teaching ANCSA at 50. This Resource Guide is envisioned also as an introduction for instructors to the several “enduring critical issues” facing the Alaska Native and non-Native communities in the context of ANCSA legislation after half-a-century of experience. The single most important and accessible collection of materials useful for teaching about ANCSA, its origins, the drama of the passage of the Act, and many of the commentaries about the meaning and impact of ANCSA may be found in: http://www.alaskool.org/java/teachers_tour/tour1.html. NOTE: Navigate to “Revisiting the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA)” – an important resource for many basic documents and discussions about the origins and development of ANCSA.
    • Guide to Sources for the Study of the 1971 Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act : Volume 2

      Sherif, Sue; Antonson, Joan (Alaska Historical Society, ANCSA Committee, 2021-12-15)
      The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 USC 1601-1624) -- Public Law 92-203, approved December 18, 1971 (85 Stat. 688) has been the subject of a number of bibliographies compiled since the act was passed in 1971. They include stand-alone publications and ones that are in published books about the act. The bibliography that follows was initiated for commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the passage of the landmark legislation, especially to add sources published since the 40th anniversary and to be helpful for a researcher initiating a study. The first publications generally provided background historical context and summarized the law, although from the start critics of the legislation published works expressing their concerns. After the regional and village corporations organized and land selections started, sections of the act needed clarification, and Congress began to amend the law. Numerous articles appeared in legal journals as issues such as the extinguishment of aboriginal hunting and fishing rights, tax issues, the revenue sharing plans, and tribal sovereignty were debated and clarified. As the twenty-year implementation period neared 1991, writers assessed the law’s successes and failures. Several movement leaders wrote memoirs. Historians began to write books, with context as well as details of implementation of the act and to interpret the impact of the legislation on Alaska Native people, the State of Alaska, and federal Indian policy. In addition to printed works, radio and television programs, oral history projects, films, videoproductions, and recently, podcasts have been produced.
    • Presentation of immunodominant peptides is strongly dependent on cathepsin resistance and preliminary cleavage of antigens

      Becker, Tynan; Ferrante, Andrea; Kuhn, Thomas B.; Chen, Jack; Leigh, Mary Beth (2021-08)
      An understanding of the basis for immunogenicity (the ability of a foreign substance to induce an adaptive immune response) is critical for advancing our knowledge of infectious or autoimmune diseases, as well as contributing to the design of vaccines and biologics. A key step in the initiation of an adaptive immune response is the presentation of pathogen-derived peptides by major histocompatibility class II (MHCII) molecules on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APC) such as a dendritic cell (DC) to CD4⁺ T cells. Peptides that are superior at eliciting strong T-cell responses are termed immunodominant. The generation and selection of peptides occurs within a system of endosomal compartments that form when a DC takes up the antigen. These compartments become increasingly more acidic and reducing as proteolytic enzymes, MHCII and a peptide binding modulator human leukocyte antigen DM (HLA-DM, DM) are trafficked through to facilitate the degradation of proteins and the loading of peptides onto the MHCII. Although the general aspects of the antigen processing and presentation mechanisms are understood, important details of the endosomal machinery have yet to be determined. These studies focus on the elucidation of the pathways of antigen processing, the contribution of proteolytic cleavage to immunodominance, and the activity of four proteases in the cysteine family of cathepsins. Our findings strongly implied the existence of multiple, parallel pathways within antigen processing. These include the ability of MHCII to capture the native form of hemagglutinin (HA) from influenza A/New Caledonia 20/99 (H1N1), our model antigen, and the production of unique peptidomes through cleavage alone or through cleavage and capture by MHCII, in the presence or absence of DM, at varying pH. I demonstrate that one determinant for immunodominance is peptide resistance to cleavage by cathepsins, although it does not hold true for every immunodominant peptide. I establish that the cleavage of a protein and the generation of peptides available for binding to MHCII is strongly influenced by the pH and reducing potential of the cleavage environment as well as the flexibility of microdomains of the protein itself. Collectively, these results show that the cleavage events of antigen processing are pivotal to the generation of a broad and diverse peptidome available for binding to MHCII, and presentation to T-cells, that may lead to a more robust adaptive immune response.
    • Guide to Sources for the Study of the 1971 Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA), Volume 1: Introduction, Overview History of ANCSA, Collection Descriptions, Collection Inventories.

      Brewster, Karen; Schneider, William; Antonson, Joan (Alaska Historical Society, ANCSA Committee, 2021-12-15)
      December 18, 2021is the fiftieth anniversary of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA). The settlement of 44 million acres of land and close to a billion dollars is the largest settlement of Native land claims in American history. The Act created a new reality for Alaska Natives with greater political, social and economic power, and changed the way that the United States government settles Native land claims. The Act produced a corporate structure designed to provide economic incentives for twelve regional corporations to build equity for their shareholders. Since passage, ANCSA has transformed the economic landscape of Alaska with the Native owned regional corporations bringing wealth and providing major stimulus to the state’s economy. However, ANCSA extinguished Aboriginal title to the land and Aboriginal hunting and fishing rights, severely restricting the extent of Native control over the land ceded to them. ANCSA is often viewed as an historic movement that culminated in the 1971 settlement, but it is also a continually evolving significant part of Native life that has been amended over the years to address issues such as who owns shares, how earnings are distributed, and how provisions can be made for encouraging and facilitating Native hire. The Alaska Historical Society wanted to recognize the movement that led to ANCSA and its evolving significance. This “Guide to Resources for the Study of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA)” is the result of a year-long effort to locate primary archival, published and on-line sources useful to anyone interested in learning about ANCSA.
    • Spatio-temporal genetic structure, effective population size, and parentage simulations from contemporary genetic samples and historic demographic data of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Auke Lake, Alaska

      Barry, Patrick D.; Gharrett, Anthony; McPhee, Megan; Anderson, Eric; Tallmon, David (2021-08)
      Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) have great ecological, economic, and cultural importance. Accordingly, understanding the genetic diversity of Pacific salmon populations is critical for their effective management and conservation. Spatial and temporal homing fidelity, a central life-history characteristic of Pacific salmon, generates genetic structure through reproductive isolation. Within and among populations, heterogeneity in the freshwater environment should lead to selection for traits that maximize fitness resulting in local adaptation. This adaptation increases productivity of individual populations while diversity among populations can promote long-term stability. Additionally, the demographic properties (age structure, generation length, size) of a population will affect genetic structure by regulating its response to the evolutionary forces of selection, migration, and genetic drift. The scale and extent to which reproductive isolation can produce genetic structure is incompletely understood. In this dissertation, I investigated spatial and temporal trends in population genetic structure and estimated the effective population size (Ne) of Sockeye Salmon from Auke Lake in Southeast Alaska from contemporary genetic samples (2008, 2009, 2011) and historic demographic data (1980-2017). A simulation library in the R statistical environment was developed to assess the accuracy of parentage and sibship inference from genetic markers. This library proved useful in evaluating the sibship method for estimating Ne from genetic data and evaluating genetic markers for a large-scale parentage project. I detected substantial genetic differentiation between Auke Lake and other Southeast Alaska populations (average FST = 0.1137) and an isolation-by-time pattern within the Auke Lake population. A genetically distinct cluster was identified in the late portion of the 2008 return. This group may represent a spatially segregated spawning aggregation previously described in tagging studies; however, because fish were sampled as they passed through the weir, spatial structure within Auke Lake could not be evaluated. Genetic tests for demographic change within the population indicated that the Auke Lake Sockeye Salmon population underwent a historical bottleneck event but has since increased in size. Demographic estimates of Ne from a long-term dataset from the Auke Creek weir revealed that the effective population size was low in the early 1980s and has since increased. Over the six generations evaluated, the major demographic factors that determined Ne were variance in family size, variable contribution to the next generation by brood years within a generation, and fluctuations in population size. Contemporary estimates of Ne from genetic methods were smaller than those from demographic methods and indicated that Ne may be roughly the size of an individual return year. Genetic estimates of the ratio of the effective population size to the census size (Ne/Nc = 0.21) were consistent with values previously reported for other salmonids. Collectively, these chapters contribute to an improved understanding of Sockeye Salmon population genetics and provide a useful tool to assess the power of genetic markers for parentage and sibship inference.
    • Drivers of life history variation in a long-lived, marine predator: individual heterogeneity in reproductive performance of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus)

      Badger, Janelle Jean; Breed, Greg; Bowen, W. Don; Doak, Pat; Mueter, Franz; Kitaysky, Alexander (2021-08)
      Fitness variation among individuals is a key tenet of eco-evolutionary theory, as natural selection acts upon this variation to bring about evolutionary change. Our understanding of individual heterogeneity and its evolutionary consequences in wild populations is limited, particularly for long-lived animals which are difficult to observe on a biologically relevant scales. This dissertation explores the dynamics of reproductive heterogeneity in a long-lived, iteroparous animal stemming from individual variation, energetic trade-offs, and ecological conditions using over 35 years of longitudinal data on a large sample of marked female grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) breeding on Sable Island, Nova Scotia. Using mixed-effects regression and novel mark- recapture techniques, I investigate three topics. First, I evaluated the evidence for and structure of individual heterogeneity in reproductive performance and determined how this heterogeneity interacts with increasing population size. In particular, I assessed whether population density affects individual-level reproduction, and may alter or amplify differences among individuals. Next, I investigated the relative contributions of individual heterogeneity and energetic trade-offs as drivers of life history variation by exploring the relationship between age-specific reproductive performance and survival. Finally, I determined how physical characteristics in early ontogeny may be a source for individual variation in reproductive success. Overall, I showed that individual heterogeneity is a prevalent and important feature of the Sable Island breeding population that interacts with ecological conditions. Variation among individuals in reproductive ability appears to be a main driver of variation in life history trajectories, and this variation may in part stem from physical characteristics and conditions during early ontogeny. These results have important implications for future demographic and ecological analyses on this population as it reveals that individual variation cannot be ignored to accurately estimate vital rates and underlying individual trade-offs. This work is one of few on long-lived marine mammals and may provide insights into drivers of life history variation of other systems of long-lived, iteroparous animals that are not so well observed.
    • Autism: An Evolutionary Etiology: A Meta-Synthesis

      Titus, Cristina Bruketta (University of Alaska Southeast, 2014)
      This meta-synthesis attempts a detailed look at how Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) evolved from Kanner’s initial identification in 1943 to today’s current understanding. Emphasis will be placed on characteristic change, prevalence increase, causality, and evolution of treatments, techniques, and methods. Equal weight will also be placed on what the best overall treatments, techniques, and methods should be used with an individual with autism.
    • The Fundamental Disconnect Between Understanding of Autism Spectrum Disorder Cognition: Implications of Empathy: A Meta Synthesis.

      Busch, Kathleen (University of Alaska Southeast, 2015)
      This meta-synthesis reviews literature on the Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in relationship with empathy. Specific areas addressed within this meta-synthesis include perspective taking, Theory of Mind, affective vs. cognitive empathy, mirror neurons, imitation/mimicry all in how it relates to those with ASD and their understandings to those typically developing. This meta-synthesis addresses those with high-functioning ASD more so than those who are lower functioning as research and literature did not have a significant amount of information on those lower functioning. The goal is to provide a better understanding of the disconnect that we share from one to another.
    • Building Resiliency: A Meta-Synthesis

      Stalder, Rebecca (University of Alaska Southeast, 2017)
      This meta-synthesis of the literature on children who experience trauma, and what we can do in the school setting to support children and teach them to build and shore up their resiliency factors. It takes a closer look at what is working, what educators can do to support children, and assist their families overcome the impact of trauma in their lives.
    • Writing Difficulties of Students with Learning Disability: A Meta-Synthesis

      York, Kimberly (University of Alaska Southeast, 2013)
      This meta-synthesis of the literature of special education students with handwriting difficulties analyzed factors that affect handwriting. A number of students with learning disabilities have handwriting difficulties. Legible handwriting continues to be an important skill for children to develop in elementary school and difficulty with this area can affect any child’s proficiency at school work. Many factors affect handwriting proficiency. Many areas of the brain are accessed when handwriting activities take place. With purposeful and sequential handwriting instruction including occupational therapy as well as evidence-based practices was the key areas that helped students improve their handwriting skills in addition to on-task behavior. This meta-synthesis of the literature on special education students with handwriting difficulties investigates the challenges of handwriting.
    • People with Disabilities and the Justice System: A Meta-Synthesis

      West, Erica C. (University of Alaska Southeast, 2016)
      Individuals with disabilities are overrepresented in the criminal justice system. This meta-synthesis explores the experiences of juveniles and adults with disabilities in the criminal justice system. Topics discussed include rates and characteristics of offenders with disabilities in the criminal justice system, experiences of offenders with disabilities within the justice system, recidivism risk factors for offenders with disabilities, and recommendations and needed changes for the criminal justice system.
    • Response to Intervention and Students with Emotional and/or Behavior Disorder: A Meta-Synthesis

      Price, Vicki R. (University of Alaska Southeast, 2014)
      The reauthorization of IDEA in 2006 mandated RTI programs would be implemented for students with academic and behavioral problems. The multi-tiered approach uses assessments, data collection, and observation to develop and employ appropriate supports and interventions. Students with EBD benefit from RTI data collected using PBIS. Professional development is essential for the success of PBIS. The data collected from RTI using PBIS helps IEP teams who provide support to students with EBD, to develop goals and objectives by designing instructional strategies to help students develop pro-social behaviors. This meta-synthesis of the literature of RTI/PBIS and students with EBD reviews the ways data collected using these interventions are used for professional development and instructional strategies
    • Generational Silence: Impact on the Over-Identification of Alaskan Native Students with Learning Disabilities: A Meta-Synthesis

      Van Flein, Barbara (University of Alaska Southeast, 2017)
      This meta-synthesis investigates the research and literature on the connections between historical trauma and the over-identification of Alaska Native students receiving special education services under the specific learning disability category. Historical trauma is defined. Intergenerational transmission is explained. The silence surrounding trauma and the loss of language fluency is explored and contextualized as a problematic factor in the disproportionate number of Alaska Native students being labeled as having a learning disability. The implications of misidentifying students, as well the life-long impact of receiving a disability label are discussed. Suggestions are reviewed with a focus on the ongoing development and practice of a special education teacher through the lenses of multiculturalism, critical theory and postmodernist thought. Not addressed in this meta-synthesis are issues of identity as they relate to and connect with historical trauma, colonialism and language.
    • The School-to-Prison Pipeline: How Education Has Failed Our Most Vulnerable Students: A Meta-Synthesis

      Vandivier, Andrew (University of Alaska Southeast, 2018)
      Beginning in the 1980’s, America began a ‘war on crime’, taking a tougher stance with longer sentencing on minor crimes. During this same time, and acting in concert, federal educational legislation began the policy of Zero Tolerance within schools. This meant that disciplinary issues, previously handled within schools, were now being addressed as criminal charges. This increased harshness and severity in punishment for school aged youth created a school-to-prison pipeline in which tens of thousands of students became incarcerated in juvenile and adult correctional facilities. The unintended consequence of creating safer school environments was that a disproportionate number of economically disadvantaged, minority, and youth with emotional disturbances were excluded from their learning environments and locked away in correctional institutions. Over the past four decades increased awareness about this disproportionality, along with a better understanding of mental health issues, has caused an upward trend in alternative educational strategies for our most at-risk and vulnerable student populations. Many of these alternative school settings still lack appropriate behavioral management interventions, social services, and mental health clinicians necessary to deal with root cause issues, but we are gradually trending back away from exclusionary, restrictive, and punitive punishments.
    • Response to Intervention Effective Practices: A Meta-Synthesis

      Clement, Tracy (University of Alaska Southeast, 2014)
      The purpose of this meta-synthesis is to assess the effectiveness of the Response to Intervention (RtI) framework. This paper reviewed research articles and other literature that explored effective practices within the RtI program, in an effort to properly implement interventions, and expedite the identification of a learning disability. After reviewing the research it was concluded that the RtI process, if implemented correctly could benefit students who are at risk academically and behaviorally. The research indicates that there are many components to RtI, including fidelity of instruction, proven curriculum, effective leadership, and regular progress monitoring, training and professional development. All of these factors are key to the efficiency of the RtI program. Some other components identified for the consideration of an effective RtI program was teacher collaboration, teacher self-efficacy and teacher perceptions; the inclusion of the family were also noted as important.
    • Social Stories™ for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta Synthesis

      Walton, Carolyn (University of Alaska Southeast, 2015)
      Throughout the last decade, the popularity of Social Stories™ by Carol Gray (or if deviated from Gray’s story prescriptions, social stories) to help decrease challenging behaviors and to increase positive social skills has risen. This strategy has been used primarily for individuals under the umbrella of Autism Spectrum Disorder. Despite the widespread approval by teachers, many limitations affect the validity of the Social Story™ or social story intervention and what skills people (i.e. receptive and expressive language, reading skills, cognitive abilities) need in order for this approach to be successful. Further research is needed in order to solidify the findings from several research studies. This meta-synthesis of the literature on Social Stories™ and/ social stories examines the effectiveness of this type of intervention for individuals on the Autism Spectrum.
    • FASD

      Sampley, Tina (University of Alaska Southeast, 2017)
      Regardless of our current knowledge base on the consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, the mistake continues to be made with the result being children born with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. As these children move through their public education, it is often the case that their challenges are not met and they do not receive adequate help to overcome their difficulties with academics and social skills. When these students begin to transition into their adult lives, secondary conditions often arise from our failure as a support network to intervene on their behalf earlier on. This meta-synthesis of the literature on individuals with FASD investigates the current realities of the difficulties surrounding prenatal alcohol consumption as it relates to children, their families and communities.
    • Chess Instruction in the Mathematics Classroom: Implications for Critical-Thinking and Academic Skills: A Meta-Synthesis

      Gates, Russel L. (University of Alaska Southeast, 2015)
      Chess instruction during the school day or in a club format has been shown to increase achievement in mathematics, science, and reading comprehension. Students of all achievement levels experience positive growth in achievement within a relatively short period of time. Critical thinking skills, perseverance, and motivation to learn are also increased with the implementation of chess instruction. This meta-analysis of the literature on chess instruction and critical thinking skills investigates the increasing mathematics, science, and reading comprehension for students, particularly those who experience learning disabilities.
    • Working with Individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Synthesis

      Rehmer, Shelby (University of Alaska Southeast, 2014)
      This meta-synthesis of the literature on working with individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) examines the characteristics of individuals with FASD and the need for supports and services for these individuals in the classroom. There are behavior characteristics unique to FASD and these behaviors coupled with sensory processing deficits lead to distinctive challenges for individuals with FASD. Early identification, supports and services are critical to address challenges for individuals with FASD in the classroom, yet are often unavailable or unidentified.