Now showing items 61-80 of 10072

    • Sustainability and Subsistence in Arctic Communities

      Berman, Matthew (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1998)
      Thirty years ago, Chance (1966) wondered if hunting and fishing traditions of the people of the Arctic Slope of Alaska would survive the transition from nomadic to village life. The oil boom of the 1980s brought change to the region to an extent neither Chance nor Arctic dwellers themselves might have predicted (Knapp and Morehouse, 1991). Yet despite a vigorous wage economy fueled by two decades of oil revenues that yields a per-capita income exceeding the national average, subsistence traditions remain strong. Average per-capita harvest of subsistence foods in Alaska's North Slope Borough still exceeds a pound per day (Fuller and George, 1997). This document was prepared for presentation to the Western Regional Science Association annual meeting in Monterey, California
    • Management of Incidental Catch of Crab, Halibut, Herring, and Salmon in the Groundfish Fisheries of Alaska

      Berman, Matthew (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1997)
      The project demonstrated a new approach to modeling incidental harvest (bycatch) of the North Pacific groundfish fleet using a spreadsheet-based optimization model. The approach models industry decision as the pursuit of profit-maximization by exploiting a mixed-stock common property fishery under total allowable catch regulation for both target species and incidental harvest. Trial simulations with a small-scale version of the model suggest that the approach realistically portrays the behavior of the fleet and the implication of bycatch management choices. An interactive user interface constructed for the model guides users through the assumptions and options of the model, making them transparent to the user.
    • Long-Term Effects of Limiting Access to Alaska's Sablefish and Halibut Fisheries

      Berman, Matthew (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1997)
      The study analyzed potential long-term effects of the Alaska halibut and sablefish individual transferable quota (ITQ) program for the fishing fleet and coastal communities. The analysis focused on changes in the structure of the fleet, changes in fisheries markets, changes in fish processing and transportation, and regional shifts in the pattern of harvesting and processing activities. As a tool for projecting the combined effects of these major changes, two complementary models were developed: a fisheries impact model and a community impact model. Projections from these models for long-term scenarios of fish prices, total allowable catch by management area, and rate of inter-community quota transfers show that some communities could see large changes as a result of the program. The projected gains and losses are sensitive to assumptions about prices processors can pay in each community, suggesting a role for further research on evolving processing and transportation costs.
    • When Values Conflict: Political Accommodation of Alaska Native Subsistence

      Holleman, Marybeth; Morehouse, Thomas (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1994)
      Management of subsistence hunting and fishing in Alaska today is caught between federal law and the Alaska constitution. The federal Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act of 1980 (ANILCA) requires giving Natives and other rural residents subsistence preference-that is, first call on fish and game when they are scarce. But the Alaska Supreme Court~ McDowell decision in 1989 held that a similar state law was unconstitutional, because the state's constitution prohibits granting such preferences based solely on place of residence. As a result, the federal government now manages subsistence on federal lands, the state on state lands, and it appears to some that the two management systems are headed toward an inevitable "horrific collision." This paper argues that although the fundamental value conflict between equal rights and cultural survival cannot be resolved, it can be circumvented and at least partially neutralized. Legislators, judges, and administrators can focus on material or economic problems of resource conservation and allocation, which, unlike value conflicts, are more susceptible to compromise.
    • Kenai Peninsula Natural Gas Study: Final Report

      Foster, Mark; Colt, Steve (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1995)
      A very large industrial facility such as the proposed Midrex iron ore reduction facility would make a pipeline economically feasible, but the resulting cost of gas to consumers would still be about twice the level of current Enstar rates, due to higher local distribution costs. Also, under this scenario customers along the pipeline route would not automatically have access to cheap gas unless they were clustered in groups of at least 10 people within about one mile of the connection to the main line. This study examines the economics of bringing natural gas to Homer, Seward, and intermediate points along the Sterling Highway. We conclude that natural gas delivered by pipeline to Homer or Seward from the existing Enstar system will remain uneconomical or marginally competitive with diesel under plausible assumptions about economic growth. That's because both Homer and Seward have very small numbers of customers compared to the cost of a pipeline necessary to reach either community.
    • Management Alternatives for the Guided Sport Fishery for Halibut off Alaska

      Hartley, Marcus; Goldsmith, Scott (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1997)
      The domestic fishery for halibut in and off Alaska is managed by the International Pacific Halibut Commission (IPHC) as provided by the ""Convention Between the United States and Canada for the Preservation of the Halibut Fishery of the Northern Pacific Ocean and the Bering Sea" (Convention) signed at Washington March 29, 1979, and the Northern Pacific Halibut Act of 1982 (Halibut Act). The Convention and the Halibut Act authorize the respective North Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) established by the Magnuson-Stevens Act to: "develop regulations governing the United States portion of Convention waters, including limited access regulations, applicable to nationals or vessels of the United States, or both which are in addition to and not in conflict with regulation adopted by the Commission. Such regulation shall only be implemented with the approval of the Secretary, shall not discriminate between residents of different States, and shall be consistent with the limited entry criteria set forth in Section 303(b)(6) of the Magnuson Stevens Act. If it becomes necessary to allocate or assign halibut fishing privileges among various United States fishermen, such allocation shall be fair and equitable to all such fishermen, based upon the rights and obligation in existing Federal law, reasonable calculated to promote conservation, and carried in such manner that no particular individual, corporation, or other entity acquires an excessive share o f the halibut fishing privileges ... [Halibut Act]." This document assesses the potential economic and social impacts of a proposed catch reporting system and/or some form of limitation on the growth of the halibut charter boat industry (lodges, outfitters, guides, and charter vessels) operating in waters off Alaska's coast.
    • Who Will Pay for Balancing the Budget?

      Leask, Linda; Goldsmith, Scott; Berman, Matthew; Hill, Alexandra (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1991)
      Alaskans will pay more and get less from state government in the 1990s. But how will the burden of spending cuts and tax increases fall on richer and poorer and urban and rural households? That depends on which policies state officials choose. Alaska faces big and growing budget deficits because the petroleum revenues that mostly paid for state government in the 1980s are steadily shrinking. When those deficits will start is uncertain, but low world oil prices are erasing the budget surplus state officials had expected as a result of the Middle East war. This paper assesses how different taxing and spending policies could affect different kinds of households. As a measure of those effects we examine relative losses in disposable household income. Budget deficits will of course have other effects on households. Some households will be hurt a lot more than others by broad economic losses and reduced government services. Alaskans who lose their jobs will obviously suffer bigger losses than we describe. But relative household income loss is a good measure of the equity of various fiscal policies. We estimate losses in disposable household income by comparing how various fiscal policies reduce state transfer pay-ments and increase state and local taxes.
    • ISER Review 1994-1996

      Leask, Linda (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1996)
      Alaska has seen rapid and dramatic change since 1959, when it became a state. The Institute of Social and Economic Research (ISER)-which was established in 1961-has studied that change, examining virtually all the major public policy issues along the way. This Review reports on ISER's research between 1994 and 1996. It discusses recently completed and ongoing work. Faculty and staff are profiled on page 7, and page 8 lists selected recent publications. This summary includes Fishery Studies, Social Studies, Community Studies and Economics/Fiscal Studies.
    • Measured Energy Savings from the Alaska Low-Income Weatherization Assistance Program

      Brooks, Linda; Holleman, Marybeth; Colt, Steve (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1993)
      The Alaska Housing Finance Corporation (AHFC) asked the Institute of Social and Economic Research (ISER) to conduct a evaluation of the actual energy savings achieved by the Low-Income Weatherization Assistance Program. This effort represents one of the first formal attempts to quantify savings from weatherization programs in Alaska on a large scale. This study was limited by design to houses heated piped natural gas. We have divided our study into two phases. In Phase One, we used the PRISM software system to measure overall savings for a group of homes. In PhaseTwo, we plan to explore the effectiveness of particular weatherization measures and other sources of energy saving such as behavioral changes, new occupants, and physical changes to the housing unit. This report presents preliminary results of the Phase One PRISM analysis.
    • Petroleum Industry and Fairbanks Economy

      Huskey, Lee (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1995)
      The petroleum industry plays an important role in the economy of the Fairbanks North Star Borough, but that role is largely hidden from view. A major portion of the local economy is linked to petroleum production, and economic activity in the petroleum sector is one of the most important determinants of the size of the overall economy. The primary task of this report was to estimate the size of the Fairbanks petroleum sector. This report defines the petroleum sector to include all economic activity in the region which would not exist without North Slope oil production. The report looks at the role of the petroleum sector in 1994 and was prepared for BP (Alaska) Inc. for presentation to the State of Alaska Oil and Gas Policy Council.
    • Use and Allocation of Natural Resources in the Chukotka Autonomous District

      Tichotsky, John (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1991)
      Chukotka Autonomous District (Okrug) comprises the northeastern-most area of that part of the Soviet Union known as the "Far East". Chukotka can be used to refer to three different areas: the Chukotka Autonomous District (Okrug) is the entire North East half of the Magadan Province (oblast); the Chukotka Peninsula (sometimes written Chukotskyi) describes a geographic unit that is the northeastern peninsula of the Chukotka Autonomous District; and the Chukotka Region is an administrative unit equivalent to a county occupying the northern part of the Chukotka Peninsula. There has been a significant amount of American and Western travel on business, educational, cultural, medical and scientific exchanges in the past two years. Communications have been improved by the increased travel between the regions and the direct microwave link that provides for telephone calls between Alaska and the Soviet Far East at half the rate for calls between the rest of the United States and the Soviet Union.The United States and the Soviet Union have signed an agreement providing for visa-free travel by Soviet and Alaska Eskimos. Currently, the agreement has not been fully implemented and permission for Soviet natives for visa-free travel has been extended only to St.Lawrence Island, Kotzebue and Nome. This report provides geographic, demographic, historical, political, and resource development information that was current in 1991. A short summary report (ISER Research Summary No. 48) was developed based on this report.
    • Planning The First American-Soviet Park

      Tichotsky, John (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1991)
      The proposed Beringian Heritage International Park is tentatively to include the Bering Land Bridge National Preserve in Alaska and the Chukotka and Provideniya districts of the Chukotka Autonomous Republic. The National Park Service and the National Audubon Society asked ISER to examine resource development, political organization, and other factors that will influence the Societ Union's designation of land for the international park. This research summary provides an overview of the recent report on ISER's recent report on Chukotka - "Use and Allocation of Natural Resources in the Chukotka Autonomous District" by John Tichotsky.
    • Hunting and Fishing in Southeast Alaska

      Kruse, Jack; Holleman, Marybeth (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1991)
      In most southeast Alaska towns, households that don't hunt and fish are unusual. A recent survey of 30 southeast communities found that about 85 percent of households get at least some of their food by hunting and fishing. But among the thousands of households that hunt and fish, there are significant differences. Figure 1 shows that while 34 percent of survey households annually harvest just 1 to 80 pounds of fish and game per household member, nearly 10 percent harvest more than 500 pounds per household member. And while some households do not eat any wild fish and game, nearly a third of survey households get half or more of their total meat and fish by hunting and fishing. These are among the findings of the Tongass Resource Use Cooperative Study (TRUCS), a 1988 survey carried out jointly by the Institute of Social and Economic Research, the Alaska Department of Fish and Game, and the U.S. Forest Service. The study documents hunting and fishing for household use in all permanent southeast Alaska communities except the largest, Juneau and Ketchikan. This Review presents the findings of that survey. It also discusses how this kind of information could be useful to state policymakers trying to define who should be classified as subsistence users, and to federal and state land managers charged with protecting subsistence uses on public lands.
    • The Alaska North Slope Inupiat and Resource Development: Why The Apparent Success?

      Kruse, Jack (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1991)
      The apparently positive experience of the Alaska's North Slope Inupiat Eskimo with the massive Prudhoe Bay and Kuparuk oil field developments stands out among the generally grim experiences of indigenous peoples. The North Slope experience would thus seem to offer an excellent comparative case. To the extent that the positive image of the North Slope experience holds up, we can turn to the factors which appear to shape the relationship between resource development and indigenous people. The primary objective of the comparison is to take a small step towards the construction of a general conceptual framework.
    • How Would a Road Affect Cordova?

      Kruse, Jack (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1995)
      The proposed road to Cordova has created controversy for more than 30 years. Several time work has been started and stopped on what is known as the Copper River Highway. In 1992 the Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities hired ISER to study the potential economic and social effects of a road to Cordova. ISER's report provided information for a draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on the road. That EIS was not released at the time of publication, however, the four volumes of the ISER report were released in 1993. Major findings of the report are outlined in this summary research report.
    • Russian Salmon Industry: An Initial Review

      Knapp, Gunnar; Johnson, Terry (Alaska Division of Economic Development, 1995)
      Alaska's share of the world salmon market has declined substantially over the last five years. In most cases market share has been lost to increased farmed salmon production, however, Alaska's wild salmon competitors have made inroads as well. Because Russian salmon runs are the world's only other source of wild salmon comparable in scale to Alaska's, it is important that we better understand this new competitor to the world salmon market. Where once nearly all of Russia's salmon was consumed within the borders of the former Soviet Union, significant changes in the political and economic structure of Russia have caused an increase in salmon exports to Japan and Europe. But despite Russia's emergence as a new competitor in the world salmon market, Russia and Alaska share common interests in international fishery management issues as well as in research, technology and investment opportunities. This report is an attempt to better understand Russian salmon production, management, regulation, and harvesting and processing organizations. It also tries to quantify Russian salmon product forms and export markets as well as threats caused by over-harvesting and pollution.
    • Teaching Economics to Russian Students: Some Preliminary Observations

      Knapp, Gunnar (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1993)
      In February 1993, I taught a one-week intensive course in "Fundamentals of Market Economics" to thirty-four first and second-year students at Magadan International Pedagogical University in Magadan, Russia. The students, who were enrolled in a new degree program in "Economics and Management," had had only limited previous exposure to the topics usually covered in introductory economics courses in America. My preliminary conclusion from this brief experience in teaching economics to Russian students is that basic principles of economic theory can be taught to Russian students in much the same way as they are taught to American students. Russian students were very interested in concepts of market economics, and seemed able to learn and apply them no less well than American students. Their attitudes towards market mechanisms appear to be generally positive, if slightly less so than for American students. However, their experience with market economics is much more limited than that of American students, at both the macroeconomic and microeconomic levels. In particular, it is difficult to teach about fiscal and monetary policy and institutions to students in a country where both policy and institutions are highly unstable or nonexistent. Nevertheless, Russian students are able to recognize the market forces which are increasingly becoming part of Russian life. Asked to suggest a new product or service which had come into existence in Russia as a result of market signals, one student answered: "Now you can telephone for home delivery of vodka."
    • Salmon Markets 1992

      Knapp, Gunnar (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1992)
      This report was prepared by fisheries specialists from several units of the University of Alaska: the Marine Advisory Program, the Institute of Social and Economic Research, the Alaska Center for International Business, and the University of Alaska Fairbanks Department of Economics. The Alaska Department of Fish and Game, the Alaska Office of International Trade, the Alaska Seafood Marketing Institute, and the University of Washington Fisheries Research Institute also contributed articles and information. This work was funded by the University of Alaska's Natural Resources Fund and the Alaska Sea Grant Program.The articles in the report discuss current salmon market conditions. The appendix presents a variety of regularly published market data showing trends over time. We believe this marks the first time such comprehensive material on Alaska salmon market conditions has been published in one place.
    • Salmon Industry: Twenty-seven Predictions for the Future

      Knapp, Gunnar (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1998)
      What does the future hold for the salmon industry? The past decade has brought dramatic change. What further changes might we expect in the coming decade, and beyond? This paper was prepared for submission to the Alaska Fisherman's Journal. It is a revised version of a paper prepared originally for a presentation to the Northwest Salmon Canners Association in October of 1997. I have offered a brief discussion of the reasoning underlying each prediction. A far more detailed discussion of the arguments for and against each prediction would be possible--and preferable--but space here does not permit that. A stronger case can be made for some predictions than for others. Keep in mind that these are not predictions for what will happen this year or next year, but rather for changes that are likely to occur gradually over the next decade and beyond.
    • Price Formula Options for Alaska Pink Salmon

      Knapp, Gunnar (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1992)
      The wide swings in fishermen's prices for Alaska pink salmon in recent years has reawakened interest in the possibility of introducing price formulas under which fishermen's prices would be based on the wholesale prices received by processors. There are a wide variety of possible formulas which would have different implications for fishermen and processors. This paper presents a simple framework for thinking about price formula options. To illustrate historic trends in wholesale prices and fishermen's prices, and to illustrate how different price formula options would have worked during the period 1980-1991, I used Alaska statewide data for average wholesale case prices, average fishermen's prices, and statewide harvest volumes. I used the Anchorage consumer price index--the only price index available for Alaska--to adjust prices from nominal to "real 1991 dollars". None of these data necessarily reflect the situation of salmon fishermen or processors in specific regions of Alaska, since wholesale prices, harvest prices, harvest volumes, and inflation rates differ for different regions. However, whether or not these data accurately represent what happened in specific regions does not matter for this paper: the main purpose is to illustrate how different price formulas work and their advantages and disadvantages for fishermen and processorsPrepared for discussion at a conference on Toward Prosperity Through Stability: Making the Most of Alaska's Pink Salmon October 30-31, 1992 in Ketchikan, Alaska.