Now showing items 81-100 of 10181

    • Influence of environmental attributes on intertidal community structure in glacial estuaries

      McCabe, Mary K.; Konar, Brenda; Iken, Katrin; Kelley, Amanda (2021-05)
      High-latitude coastal environments are experiencing dramatic changes due to climate warming. Increased glacier discharge rates modulate downstream environmental conditions in coastal watersheds. These fast-changing environments are predicted to influence the structure of nearshore marine communities. Here, rocky intertidal community structure, recruitment of key organisms, and environmental correlates were examined at nine watersheds in two regions (Kachemak Bay and Lynn Canal) that bookend the Gulf of Alaska, which were separated by approximately 1000km. Each watershed was part of a gradient in each of the regions that spanned 0-60% glacial coverage. Percent cover, biomass surveys, and recruitment of intertidal organisms, along with environmental monitoring of salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, river discharge, turbidity, and nutrient loading were completed from April - September 2019 in each watershed. Biological community structure and variance were analyzed by taxa and by ecological group (i.e., primary producer, filter feeder, omnivore, grazer, predator) and then in relation to the local environmental spatiotemporal profiles. In general, larger watersheds with more glacial coverage and river discharge resulted in higher cover of primary producers and less cover of filter feeders. This pattern was more apparent in the region with more oceanic influence as compared to the other region located within an inlet. In relation to specific environmental drivers, salinity was negatively correlated with primary producer cover (r = -0.52), but positively associated with barnacle cover (r = 0.40). Additionally, turbidity was positively correlated with primary producer biomass (r = 0.50), but negatively correlated with mussel cover (r = -0.30). In contrast, there was a positive relationship among mussel recruitment and discharge and turbidity. There was variability in within-ecological group response between regions that could be a response to local circulation and oceanic influences. Barnacles were the main filter feeder species driving patterns in the more saline region located close to the open ocean, while mussels drove patterns in the other less oceanic region. As glaciers recede, environmental conditions, such as salinity, will increase and turbidity will decrease, which may alter future intertidal community assemblages dominated by filter feeders.
    • Trend analysis of temperature, precipitation, and stream flow in the National Petroleum Reserve Alaska

      Marshall, Sara; Toniolo, Horacio; Rasley, Brian; Schnabel, William (2021-05)
      Seven hydro-meteorological stations in the National Petroleum Reserve Alaska were analyzed to look at precipitation, discharge, and temperature trends. These hydro-meteorological stations included: Fish Creek, Judy Creek, Ikpikpuk, Ublutuoch, Seabee, Prince, and Otuk. A linear regression was performed on a year-by-year basis to fill in data gaps in the temperature time series, for all six stations with temperature data. The Seasonal Mann-Kendall test and a Modified Seasonal Mann-Kendall test were performed to determine if a trend appeared present in the time series and, if so, how significant the trend was. The Sen's slope analysis was then utilized to determine the magnitude of the trend, if a trend was observed in both analyses. The temperature trends showed an increasing trend in the temperature data for four stations: Judy Creek, Ublutuoch, Fish Creek, and Ikpikpuk. No trend was shown in the remaining station, Otuk station. One station, Prince, was removed from analysis due to a high percentage of missing data. The Modified Seasonal Mann-Kendall tests showed a trend in four of the five stations, and a slight positive trend in one of the five stations. The precipitation data showed 'no trend' in the Seasonal Mann-Kendall analysis. The Modified Seasonal Mann-Kendall test showed a slight trend (Fish Creek), a moderate trend (Otuk), and no trend (Ikpikpuk) for the precipitation data. Using the seasonal Mann-Kendall analysis the discharge data showed no trend in five out of seven stations and two trends (Fish Creek and Seabee). The Modified Seasonal-Mann-Kendall analysis showed and a significant trend twice (Fish Creek and Seabee), a moderate trend three times (Ikpikpuk, Prince, Otuk), a slight trend once (Ublutuoch), and no trend one time (Judy Creek) in the discharge data.
    • The sound of 1001 indigenous drums: the catalytic cycle of Fire Eagle, Golden Eagle, Thunderbird

      Marsden, Davita Aphrodite-Lee; Topkok, Sean Asiqłuq; Smith, Graham Hingangaroa; John, Theresa; Leddy, Shannon (2021-05)
      I have witnessed Indigenous students experience marginalization, being ignored, being labelled, and earning developmental designations, all as a way to continue systemically oppressing them. Indigenous students traditionally did not sit in rows, they did not compete for the highest mark, an A+ or a B. Indigenous education and learning is a process, and no one fails. Systemic oppression continues in public education where Indigenous students are alienated, being pushed out, kicked out, or continuously transferred from school to school. After fasting for 1,000 days, I received a vision of how to move Indigenous education forward: I began making Indigenous drums; I taught singing to students, staff, and admin. Reinstatement of Indigenous culture such as drumming and singing increases self-esteem, self-identity, confidence, and self-determination for the learner and is a tool for healing intergenerational trauma. These cultural supports, therefore, become critical for the success of Indigenous students and they are helping Indigenous education and people move forward without fear. There is a hegemonic imbalance of power and we need a reallocation of government funds in public education. Indigenous students have the right to attend school and participate without penalty, punishment, or humiliation. Swept under the school "welcome mat" are all forms of racism in public education. Critical Indigenous theory considers unequal power relations as they affect urban Indigenous students. The imbalance creates marginalization and prejudices towards Indigenous students. This dissertation uses retrospective study on the students' Artwork Stories, a free expression that allows specific elements and past patterns to emerge and reveal that Indigenous drumming and singing correlates to specific values and emotions. The spirit of Indigenous iv drumming and singing gives the student a visual voice in research through the Artwork Story documents. The Gichi'ayaag (Elders) say the Medicine Wheel has many teachings, as many as there are grains of sand in this world. The Complex Medicine Wheel Model shapeshifts into the Medicine Wheel Colour Knowledge Chart analytical model, providing a research tool that analyzes students' Artwork Stories experience. The sound of the Indigenous drum will ripple around the world and continue its transformation one beat at a time. Our unceded territories are calling back languages and the spirits of the land to further Indigenous education. This drum's voice bridges those of the Ancestors, the women, and our spirits. When you hear the sound of an Indigenous drum in your school, you will know we bring change, a change that you cannot stop, nor would you want to. The analysis of Indigenous drumming and singing aligns with evidence-based approaches and the quantification of learning. There is an urgent need to Indigenize K-12 curriculum by incorporating Indigenous drumming and singing into their classrooms. Those who promote Indigenous pedagogy and culture have just begun to Indigenize the education of Indigenous peoples into mainstream public education. Now is the time when Indigenous education and culture are on the rise and can be recognized as paramount for Indigenous student success. This research will benefit all learners in public education.
    • Anfechtung

      Lyew, Daniel Emerson; Johnson, Sara; Reilly, Terry; Carr, Richard; Farmer, Daryl (2021-05)
      This thesis is a collection of poetry that explores the relationships between time, memory, identity, freedom, and meaning within the context of a shifting and unsteady world. The collection is organized along a trajectory not unlike that of Dante's Divine Comedy, moving through inner and outer landscapes of uncertainty and anxiety before emerging in more ambiguous, subtle spaces. Allusion is used to suggest the continuity and fragmentariness of a tradition (similar to T. S. Eliot's "The Waste Land"), reformation and response to a tradition (as in Nets by Jen Bevin), and the chancy contingencies of personal experience. Formally, the poems use a wide variety of strategies and forms including erasure and non-traditional lineation to suggest various states of being ranging from the hypnagogic and nightmarish to the nostalgic and wistful, and ultimately to something like hope. The poems also range from highly confessional modes to more abstract, imagistic modes to similarly suggest motion and change.
    • Environmental drivers of fish communities and food webs in Gulf of Alaska estuaries

      Lundstrom, Nina; Beaudreau, Anne; Mueter, Franz; Konar, Brenda (2021-05)
      The coastal Gulf of Alaska (GOA) is experiencing rapid, climate-driven ecological change. Climate forecasts predict increased temperatures and more precipitation as rainfall, but these changes will not have uniform effects across nearshore ecosystems. Estuarine habitats will be dynamically affected by changes in neighboring watersheds as glaciers melt and recede. Because estuaries provide critical habitat for many fishes, including some that support fisheries, it is important to understand how changing estuarine conditions may impact nearshore fish communities. The overall goal of this thesis was to investigate how environmental conditions, fish communities, and food webs vary across estuaries fed by watersheds with varying glacial coverage (0-60%). We conducted monthly beach seining and measured environmental conditions from April to September 2019 at ten estuary sites in two regions of the GOA, Lynn Canal in southeastern Alaska and Kachemak Bay in southcentral Alaska. The goal of Chapter One was to characterize differences in estuarine fish communities along the glacial gradient, between regions, and throughout the sampling season. We then focused on two abundant species in Lynn Canal, starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) and Pacific staghorn sculpin (Leptocottus armatus), and used multiple years of data (2014, 2016-2017, 2019) to determine environmental drivers of size structure for each species. Fish communities showed the greatest differences between regions and across months, and temperature and salinity were significant drivers of variation in species composition. Variation in mean length of Pacific staghorn sculpin was best explained by year and the interaction of site and month, whereas variation in mean length of starry flounder was best explained by temperature, salinity, and turbidity. The goal of Chapter Two was to provide foundational information on the diet of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) during the estuarine life stage and characterize variation in diets between years and regions. Juvenile coho salmon have a diverse diet of terrestrial and marine invertebrates and fishes, and they exhibited a shift to piscivory during this transitional period in nearshore habitats. Site differences accounted for most of the variability in diet, while temperature and salinity only accounted for a total of 12% of the variability in diet. Overall, we found that fish communities in GOA estuaries vary with environmental and habitat conditions, but that the glacial to non-glacial watershed gradient was less important in explaining variation in fish community structure than regional and interannual differences.
    • Sources and effects of strontium in waterfowl eggs

      Latty, Christopher J.; Hollmén, Tuula E.; Matz, Angela C.; Powell, Abby N.; Hobson, Keith A.; Adkison, Milo D. (2021-05)
      Strontium (Sr) may be a contaminant of concern for wild birds. Because of chemical similarities to calcium (Ca), Sr is readily incorporated into calcified tissues, such as eggshells. My objectives were to determine the potential drivers of both total and radio-Sr in the eggshells of waterfowl, and to assess the relationship between eggshell Sr and thickness. I collected eggs from sympatrically nesting waterfowl species in interior Alaska from 2011-2013. I measured total and radio-Sr in eggshells, environmental chemistry, and eggshell thickness. Local water chemistry explained much of the variation in eggshell Sr for canvasback (Aythya valisineria) and northern shoveler (Spatula clypeata), but not lesser scaup (Aythya affinis). Most of the remaining variation was associated with heterogeneity among eggs in the same nest (intra-clutch variance). General trends in eggshell Sr/Ca among species aligned with what would be expected had diet and/or endogenous reserve use affected eggshell chemistry. Results were similar for radio-Sr, with local water chemistry accounting for far less ⁹⁰Sr in the eggshells of lesser scaup, compared to the other species studied. At the site where water chemistry was stable, canvasback and northern shoveler eggshell thickness was not related to eggshell Sr, but lesser scaup eggshells with more Sr were thicker. At the site where water chemistry was variable, canvasback and northern shoveler eggshells with more Sr were thicker at low to intermediate concentrations, but this effect was moderated when the source of eggshell Sr appeared to be explained by the local environment. In contrast, lesser scaup eggshells with more Sr were consistently thicker, but only at higher concentrations. The different relationships between eggshell Sr and thickness across species, and interactions with apparent Sr sources, suggest the relationship between eggshell thickness and Sr is not a simple dose-dependence. My results show that for some species like lesser scaup, factors associated with the laying hen (e.g., diet or physiology) may have a larger impact on both eggshell total and radio-Sr, as well as how Sr interacts with eggshell quality, than the local environment.
    • Iliamna Lake ethnogeography: Yup'ik place names and sense of place

      Kugo, Yoko; Charles, Walkie; Ehrlander, Mary; Holton, Gary; Koskey, Michael; McCartney, Leslie (2021-05)
      This dissertation explores Iliamna Lake ethnogeography, the physical and mental understanding of the landscape, by researching Yup'ik place names and stories about these places from Iliamna Lake Yup'ik perspectives (Yupiit iingitgun). Many Yup'ik place names were forgotten after Euro-Americans arrived and introduced modern education in the early twentieth century. Some Iliamna Lake Yup'ik Elders remember Indigenous place names even though the subsistence resources in the places have declined or they no longer travel there due to environmental and cultural changes. Prompted by the declining population of Iliamna Lake Yup'ik speakers, along with their knowledge, the Iliamna Lake communities requested this study of Iliamna Lake Yup'ik place names and narratives about the places. Using two methods, oral history and a community-based participatory approach, the community participants and the author recorded 219 Yup'ik and over 100 contemporary place names during eight ethnographic field trips conducted from 2016 to 2019. This dissertation used two analytical methods--grounded theory and mindful inquiry--to categorize place names in themes that are relevant to Iliamna Lake community perspectives. This research revealed that place names and stories about these places illustrate community histories, lifeways, and cultural ethics and practices that are grounded in the people's intimate relationships with their homeland. Telling and retelling these stories enables the people to visualize their landscape, while affirming and reinforcing the knowledge and practices that have enabled the Yup'ik people to survive and thrive in the region for many generations. Ethnogeography addresses how these cultural landscapes intertwine with local histories and changes in land use from insider perspectives. Yup'ik names and stories related to these places act as mnemonic pegs or mental landmarks that assist the people in commemorating and continuing to navigate within their homelands. Maintaining their place names with accounts about these places supports Iliamna Lake residents in continuing to share their geographic knowledge, cultural practices, Yugcetun (Central Yup'ik language), and community histories, thereby enhancing community cohesiveness, which in turn promotes community and ecological well-being.
    • Taking a stand on not taking a stand: media bias in the online reporting of COVID-19

      Johnson, Kyle; Hum, Richard; Taylor, Karen; Timm, Kristin (2021-05)
      This thesis was written to examine the digital communication strategies of three major news organizations when reporting on COVID-19 in the U.S. for bias. The research looked at social media posts, online article counts and themes, main websites of each organization and audio/visual broadcast segments from all three organizations posted online. This research used an advocacy approach, examining the tension between entertainment and journalism ethics by holding news organizations to journalism standards to see how they compare. Results showed that NPR and Fox News produced more online articles than MSNBC and linked to their own articles on twitter more. The audiovisual content from MSNBC and Fox News did not follow the code of ethics created by the Society of Professional Journalists. All three organizations used biased methods for providing information to the public, during a time period where public knowledge is key to managing a pandemic.
    • Lithium Storage and Release from Lacustrine Sediments: Implications for Lithium Enrichment and Sustainability in Continental Brines

      Coffey, Daniel; Munk, Lee Ann; Ibarra, Daniel; Butler, Kristina; Boutt, David; Jenckes, Jordan (2021)
      Despite current and projected future reliance on lithium as a resource, deficiencies remain in genesis models of closed-basin Li brines. Subsurface geochemical interactions between water and bulk solid phases from lacustrine sediments, are shown here to be the most important process for brine genesis and sustainability of the Clayton Valley, NV brine deposit. A new subsurface basin model was developed and used to select Li-bearing solids to test the release mechanisms for Li. Ash (20-350 ppm Li) and bulk sediments (1000-1700 ppm Li) samples across depths in the basin represent the majority of the subsurface Li-bearing materials. Temperature dependent (25-95 oC) batch reaction experiments using low-salinity groundwater from the basin indicate a positive relationship between the amount of Li released and temperature. Four-step sequential extractions on a subset of bulk sediments indicate most Li is released from water and weak acid-soluble portions with approximately 30% of the total Li contained in the sediments released overall. We conceptualize that lithium is released from these samples via three mechanisms: 1) release of adsorbed Li; 2) cation exchange of Li and Mg and; 3) possible minor release from silicate structure at elevated temperatures. Based on these results and the abundance of Li-bearing sediments in the subsurface we estimate the mean Li mass in the basin materials to be between 24.4 to 58.0 Mt. This Li provides a continuous supply from water-rock interactions. This is now the largest known accumulation of Li in a basin-fill continental setting on a global scale.
    • Universal Design for Learning as a Method for an Inclusive Classroom: A Meta-Synthesis

      Ross, Carrie (University of Alaska Southeast, 2018)
      The movement for students with special education needs to have access to the general education curriculum, to be educated with nondisabled peers, and to learn in the least restrictive environment has been ongoing and continues to be an issue in education today. Although past and current education laws support and encourage the inclusion of students with special education needs, many states and school districts still struggle to move to inclusion models, reform the school system, and provide appropriate support and training to teachers on best practices for teaching in an inclusive setting. This meta-synthesis looks at one possible model as an effective method for implementing inclusion. The model being considered and analyzed is known as Universal Design for Learning (UDL).
    • Limited Evidence Based Practices in Special Education: What’s a Teacher to Do?: A Meta-Synthesis

      Capp, Robyn (University of Alaska Southeast, 2016)
      Since the enactment of No Child Left Behind, there has been a push for scientifically based methodologies in education. While the same holds true for special education, the progress is notably slower than in the general education field. Research in regards to Evidence Based Practices (EBPs) in special education is extremely limited. Furthermore, the individualization of special education and the variation in which each individual presents their disability require that educators not use one approach to meet the needs of all students. Given the limited availability, educators must familiarize themselves with the characteristics of EBPs to make informed instructional decisions. EBPs must be implemented with fidelity. Furthermore, they must monitor student progress and be responsive to each individual’s needs. It is clear that education is in the midst of a scientific based reform. The availability of research is limited, and additional research will need to be conducted in the future.
    • Addressing a complex resource conflict: humans, sea otters, and shellfish in Southeast Alaska

      Ibarra, Sonia Natalie; Eckert, Ginny L.; Monteith, Daniel; Pyare, Sanjay; Langdon, Stephen J.; VanBlaricom, Glenn (2021-05)
      Complex resource conflicts may benefit from the inclusion of social-ecological systems approaches that recognize the complex linkages between humans and their environment. Competition for shared shellfish resources by sea otters and humans in Southeast Alaska has caused food security concerns, cultural and economic losses, and uncertainty about the future of various fisheries, including rural subsistence-based fisheries. In rural Alaska Native communities, access to subsistence resources are critical to maintaining a way of life, with deeply rooted knowledge systems that are tied to the land, water, and natural resources. This dissertation documents Indigenous and local knowledge of Alaska Native customary and traditional food experts, sea otter hunters, and elders (hereafter harvest experts) to understand empirical observation and interpretations of restoring balance with sea otters. This work took place within the traditional territories of the Tlingit and Haida people of Southeast Alaska in four rural communities, Kake, Klawock, Craig, and Hydaburg. With Tribal leaders and harvest experts, my collaborators and I used a participatory framework that became a formal partnership to co-develop study goals, objectives, and methodology. Through a multiple evidence-based approach, I co-conducted semidirected and site visit interviews, structured questionnaires, mapping exercises, and participant observation in all four communities, and intertidal bivalve (shellfish) surveys in Hydaburg and Kake. Qualitative and quantitative approaches revealed local and Indigenous knowledge about sea otters caused changes to subsistence shellfish resources and harvesting patterns that included declines in availability and spatial extent of shellfish harvests, and shifts in shellfish harvest hotspots. Community adaptive strategies to observed shellfish declines include shifting harvest locations away from sea otter presence. Community management recommendations about restoring balance with sea otters include increasing sea otter hunting locally using spatially explicit techniques. Financial subsidies for sea otter hunters, creating local tanneries, legal changes to the Marine Mammal Protection Act, and market creation and development for sea otter handicrafts were noted as solutions to barriers of local implementation to management recommendations. Commercial and charter fisheries are other factors that have contributed to shellfish declines. Butter clam (Saxidomus gigantea) size and density declined with increased distance to community and increased sea otter activity near Hydaburg, demonstrating the influence of sea otters and human harvests on bivalve population dynamics. Application of these results about Indigenous knowledge, management, and governance systems to sea otter management in Alaska could create a more inclusive, equitable and community-driven management approach.
    • Atmospheric modeling of natural hazards

      Hirtl, Marcus; Stuefer, Martin; Webley, Peter; Simpson, William; Grell, Georg (2021-05)
      Airborne hazards either in gaseous form or particulate matter can originate from a variety of sources. The most common natural airborne hazards are ash and SO₂ released during volcanic eruptions, smoke emitted caused by wildfires and dust storms. Once released into the atmosphere they can have a significant impact on different parts of the environment e.g. air quality, soil and water, as well as air traffic and ground transportation networks. This latter field is an important aspect of everyday life that is affected during hazardous events. Aviation is one of the most critical ways of transport in this century. Even short interruptions in flight schedules can lead to major economic damages. Volcanic eruptions comprise one of the most important airborne hazards to aviation. These are considered rare as compared to severe weather, but with an extremely high impact. This dissertation focusses on dispersion modeling tools and how they can support emergency response during different phases of volcanic eruption events. The impact of the volcanic ash cloud on the prediction of meteorological parameters and furthermore the dispersion of the ash is demonstrated by applying the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model with on-line integrated chemical transport (WRF-Chem) to simulate the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption in Iceland. Comprehensive observational data sets have been collected to evaluate the model and to show the added value of integrating direct-feedback processes into the simulations. The case of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption showed the necessity to further develop the volcanic emission preprocessor of WRF-Chem which has been extended for flexible and complex ash and SO₂ source terms. Furthermore, the thesis describes how scientists could support operational centers to mitigate hazards during a large volcanic eruption event. The author of the dissertation coordinated a large exercise including experts across all Europe within a project funded by the European Union. The exercise aimed to develop and test new tools, models, and data to support real-time decision making in aviation flight planning during a volcanic crisis event. New state-of-the-art modeling applications were integrated into a flight planning software during a fictitious eruption of the Etna volcano in Italy with contributions from scientists, the military and the aviation community.
    • The all-night MFA feces incident (bark!) - a photographic novel

      Hindy, Gregory; Farmer, Daryl; Holt, Joseph; Heyne, Eric (2021-05)
      This is a hybrid work of writing, photography, memoir and novel, in which a dog, Pablo, narrates the life of his human, Gus. Gus, a barely fictional persona of the author, is an MFA student who cannot finish his meta-auto-fictional, dog-narrated thesis because he is a hapless perfectionist and now finds himself stressed out the night before a complete draft of his thesis is due, which also happens to be the night of the 2020 presidential election. Gus intends to stay up all night, but quickly falls asleep, so Pablo sits down and writes the 200 pages for him, a literally dog-narrated thesis. Beginning at 1:00 am and keeping track of time as he goes, Pablo is always moving ahead with the next thought in a fragmented, associative, and at times impulsive manner. Pablo thinks about Gus's struggle to write and the various "Incidents" in Gus's life, among other topics of interest to Gus (organized religion, climate change, irritable bowels, minimalism, falling in love, Trump etc.), while also going through Gus's emails, texts, books and photos. Pablo also finds plenty of time to cover some of his own interests (Pablo Ball, killing birds, etc.), philosophies, and opinions. This is part artistic manifesto, part comedy, part rant, part meta rant, and mostly a collage of "Incidents," voices and images that could be read in any order.
    • Assessing the long-term growth response and age estimation precision for Arctic whitefishes in a rapidly changing nearshore environment

      Gatt, Kyle P.; Sutton, Trent M.; von Biela, Vanessa R.; McPhee, Megan V. (2021-05)
      Accurate monitoring of population-level health and productivity is essential for assessing the status and availability of subsistence harvested species at the forefront of climate change. This study used otolith biochronology to assess the long-term growth response of Arctic Cisco Coregonus autumnalis during a period of rapid environmental change in the Beaufort Sea region and to identify drivers of growth. A biochronology spanning 22 years (1996-2018) revealed significant interannual variation, with faster growth rates in years with warmer (R² = 0.31) and more saline (R² = 0.47) waters during the ice-free summer feeding period (July-September). These results suggested that warming may benefit Arctic Cisco. This study also compared age estimates made using fin rays, scales, and otoliths of four subsistence whitefishes (Arctic Cisco, Least Cisco Coregonus sardinella, Broad Whitefish Coregonus nasus, and Humpback Whitefish Coregonus pidschian) from the Beaufort Sea to compare the aging precision of non-lethal structures (fin rays and scales) to otoliths. Fin rays and scales provided similar age estimates as otoliths until the age of sexual maturity and underestimated otolith age for mature individuals. Scales underestimated age more often and were more difficult to which to assign age than the other two structures. Among Arctic Cisco in Alaska, fin rays and scales provided similar age estimates as otoliths for all age and size classes examined because most individuals in the study area were immature fish. These results suggested that dorsal fin rays may be used to estimate age in Least Cisco <300 mm, Broad Whitefish <450 mm, and Humpback Whitefish <350 mm, and that otoliths should remain the primary aging structure for the largest whitefishes. Overall, this research complements existing monitoring by providing evidence of an Arctic subsistence species that may benefit in part from warming and highlights non-lethal alternatives for monitoring the age structure of juvenile whitefishes.
    • Holy American burnout! - essays

      Enfield, Sean; Farmer, Daryl; Johnson, Sara; Schell, Jennifer (2021-05)
      Neither students nor educators are ever just the body which occupies a classroom. Both bring their personal histories as well as the socio-cultural and political climates in which they live. The essays in this collection explore the author's development as both a student and as an educator, revolving often around themes of race and religion. At the core of this narratively linked collection of essays is the author's first-year teaching experience in which he worked as an 8th grade literature teacher at a private, quasi-religious school. Cultural and music criticism provide the bridge by which these personal essays broaden their scope into their larger socio-political landscape. It evokes sources as disparate as the disgraced Disney film, Song of the South; Igor Stravinsky's ballet, The Rite of Spring; and the Pulitzer-winning hip hop artist, Kendrick Lamar. These sources serve as the prism with which the author navigates his personal experiences with racism and teaching Muslim students during the mounting of the 45th presidents anti-Islamic, anti-immigrant campaign. All in all, these essays seek to illuminate the many ways learn, develop, and relate to each other in America, looking for new ways to navigate this broken system which so often dead ends in burnout.
    • It's complicated: immigrant parents in Alaska navigating the process of raising bilingual children

      Dosch, Katerina; Sickmann, Sabine; Marlow, Patrick; Martelle, Wendy (2021-05)
      This qualitative study investigates the process of raising bilingual children in Fairbanks, Alaska. The study was guided by an overarching question: Why do some children in bilingual families become bilingual speakers, whereas other children who also have the chance to become bilingual do not? From that, two main research questions have evolved. 1. What are the elements involved in raising bilingual children in Fairbanks, Alaska as reported by the parents? 2. What is the role of a family's place of residence on their children's bilingualism? Data were collected through a socio- demographic questionnaire, semi-structured in-depth interviews, and focus groups. Three rounds of interviews were conducted with each participating family - an initial interview, a follow up interview, and a focus group interview. Seven families participated in the study and only parents were interviewed. These families consisted of either first generation immigrant parents (sharing or not sharing the same native language) or parents in mixed marriages (immigrants married to native- born Americans). Over 19 hours of data were audio recorded, manually transcribed ad verbum, and analyzed. From the method of grounded theory data coding, groups of elements that are involved in the process of raising bilingual children and the development of children's heritage language (HL) emerged, namely: parental and children's HL related actions, factors influencing bilingualism, factors determining bilingualism, and place of residence. The findings suggest that the process of raising bilingual children is positively or negatively influenced and determined by a complex net of interconnected elements. Raising bilingual children, thus, rests on a combination of supportive and detrimental elements, which are in a constant struggle. It seems that the process of raising bilingual children can absorb a certain amount of detrimental elements without collapsing. Considering the elements involved in raising bilingual children, it is not only parents and their actions that play an important role in the process of raising bilingual children. While parents are the instigators of the process, children greatly influence parental actions connected to the transmission of the HL. The findings of this study suggest though, that children and their actions alone do not decide if the process fails or succeeds. Parents seem to be able to mitigate children's detrimental influences (if they exist) through their consistent use of the HL. On the other hand, some parents hinder their own efforts either through their fears, beliefs, or other personal limitations. Finally, based on the data, place of residence does not seem to play a significant role in the process. Some parents are able to raise bilingual children despite living in a place that poses challenges to bilingual families. These parents are able to overcome obstacles through their own efforts and consistency of the HL use.
    • Meteorological drivers of lightning in Alaska on seasonal and sub-seasonal timescales

      Chriest, Jonathan; Bhatt, Uma S.; Bieniek, Peter A.; Walsh, John E. (2021-05)
      Wildfire has long been a part of the Boreal forest ecosystem in Alaska and the increasing number of large fire seasons over the past 2 decades has had substantial economic and health impacts. Boreal wildfires are expected to continue to increase over the next century in part due to a projected increase in lightning. This motivates developing lightning outlooks to inform fire management decisions regarding the economic allocation of shared firefighting resources including but not limited to personnel and air tankers. The goal of this research is to identify key meteorological parameters associated with lightning processes on a stroke-by-stroke spatial scale and at hourly-to-sub-seasonal timescales. This is a first step towards developing robust lightning outlooks. In order to identify the key parameters, lightning data for the Alaska Lightning Detection Network was paired with hourly European Center Reanalysis Version 5 (ERA5) over the 2012-2019 study period. This data was analyzed on the scale of Alaska Fire Service Predictive Service Areas (PSAs) and three sub-seasons of the Alaska fire season. This strategy helped to identify regional and sub-seasonal variability and made the research operationally relevant. Key results from this research include the following. The majority of lightning occurs in the duff driven sub-season across all PSAs. Lightning, particularly in the Interior PSAs, follows a diurnal pattern with lightning on average beginning earlier in the day in the eastern portion of Alaska and later in the day in the western portion of Alaska. This distinctive pattern is not as well defined in the Coastal PSAs. Results also suggested that dry lightning may be more prevalent in portions of the western Interior than in other regions of Alaska. Lightning events were more common under specific atmospheric flow directions at 500 and 700 hPa, where these directions varied by PSA. Northeasterly and northwesterly flow aloft were most favorable for lightning in the Tanana Valley West PSA, while southerly flow aloft was more favorable for lightning in the North Slope and Upper Yukon PSAs. Finally, easterly flow was a more common pattern during lightning strokes in the Seward Peninsula and Kuskokwim Valley PSAs.
    • Blood falls, Taylor Glacier, Antarctica: subglacially-sourced outflow at the surface of a cold polar glacier as recorded by time-lapse photography, seismic data, and historical observations

      Carr, Chris G.; Pettit, Erin; Carmichael, Joshua; Truffer, Martin; Tape, Carl (2021-05)
      Blood Falls forms when iron-rich, hypersaline, subglacially-sourced brine flows from a crack in the surface of Taylor Glacier, Antarctica. If air temperatures are low enough, the brine freezes to form a fan-shaped icing deposit. In chapter two, historical observations (including photos, oral histories, written descriptions, and field sketches) are evaluated using a confidence assessment framework to compile a history of brine icing deposit presence or absence during summer field seasons between 1903-1904 and 1993-1994. Additionally, an alternative explanation for a small, localized advance of a portion of the terminus is proposed: rather than temperature-driven ice viscosity changes, rising lake level drove temporary, localized basal sliding which induced advance, thinning, and collapse of a part of the terminus previously grounded on a proglacial moraine. In chapter three, time-lapse imagery is used to document a 2014 wintertime brine release that occurred in the absence of surface melt. This suggests that meltwater-driven fracture propagation of surface crevasses downward into the glacier was not a likely factor in this brine release event, as has been previously proposed. Further, there is no evidence for an increase in Rayleigh-wave activity prior to or during the brine release that would be characteristic of shallow seismic sources. Together, this suggests that sufficient pressure is built in the subglacial system to trigger basal crevassing and fracture propagation upward to allow brine release at the surface. In chapter four, two different seismic detectors that use ratios of short-term to long-term seismic energy variance to identify seismic events are compared. The detectors use different statistical distributions to determine what constitutes a large enough ratio to trigger an event detection. Differences between what the two detectors identify as events rather than background noise are interpreted as environmental microseismicity with a distinct diurnal and seasonal occurrence. Minimum detectable event sizes over 3-day time windows are compared. Together, these studies provide context for the history of brine release events, wintertime brine release characteristics, and descriptions of the local seismic environment at Taylor Glacier.
    • Western Gwich'in classificatory verbs

      Bushey, Scott T.; Tuttle, Siri; Peter, Hishinlai'; Vajda, Edward (2021-05)
      One of the many challenges faced by learners and teachers of Gwich'in, an endangered Athabascan or Dene language of Alaska and Canada, is a lack of instructional material for classificatory verbs. These verbs classify states and actions, such as lie, carry, and fall, by perceived qualities, such as cloth-like and stick-like, that indicate how and with which nominal entities the state or action takes place. For students of Gwich'in and other Dene languages, such as Navajo and Koyukon, classificatory verbs are an important grammar objective when included in the curriculum. Recognition and production of classificatory verbs is a main objective for students in the second year of the UAF Gwich'in class. Classificatory verb words are also present in vocabulary learned from the first year, such as gishreiin'ąįį "it's sunny" and OBJ naltsuu "I'm wearing OBJ [upper-body garment]". In this thesis I present a documentary, descriptive study of classificatory verbs and their qualities in modern spoken Gwich'in. The first goal of the study is to document examples of Gwich'in classificatory verbs in conversational and narrative discourse, and the second is to describe their morphosemantic properties and behavior. The third goal is to accomplish these documentary and descriptive aims in a way that can be adapted readily to the needs of not only linguists, but also Gwich'in language learners and teachers. Informed by previous documentary and descriptive work on classificatory verbs in other Dene languages, I attempt to provide a similarly useful text for Gwich'in, reconciling several competing nomenclatures and illustrating the relationship between classificatory verb theme sets, such as "carry", and semantic classes of verb stems, such as "animate", in a broad range of modal and aspectual contexts. Although this thesis is intended primarily as a reference work for learners and teachers, it also provides a resource for linguists comparing Gwich'in classificatory verbs with those in related Dene languages. The classificatory verb data in this thesis is drawn from a body of Gwich'in class notes and assignments, well as transcribed Gwich'in oral literature and consultation with a native speaker of the language. Classroom instruction took place between 2018 and 2020 at the University of Alaska Fairbanks and emphasized spoken language production with communicative aims. In addition to work from the Gwich'in language classroom, limited native speaker consultation regarding classificatory verbs was also conducted in February 2020. The third data source for this study is the rich body of narrative discourse available in the form of transcribed oral literature. These works record Gwich'in traditional narrative knowledge, lore, and history across a broad range of topics, in which classificatory verbs may be readily encountered and examined. Having drawn from these three pools of data, this thesis describes the morphosemantic qualities of Gwich'in classificatory verbs while considering the available data on other Dene languages and considers actual and potential application of this data in the language classroom.